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  • Food - NIKK
    of cultured milk products Thus both women and men have an important though somewhat different role in relation to animal agriculture resulting in somewhat different CO2 emissions and thus also somewhat different environmental consequences 6 Another thing that studies show is that women and men view food differently when shopping 7 According to research women are generally more cost conscious than men They are also more likely to read the description of ingredients and avail themselves of the information contained therein A Norwegian study found that a majority of women wished that the lists could be made more comprehensive and would include all ingredients 38 percent of women 21 percent of men while slightly more men 44 percent vs 40 percent of women wished that the words used would be simpler and the lists shorter In other words there are differences in women s and men s food awareness which in turn affects the way they view sustainable consumption 8 Sustainable food In recent years the demand for sustainable food items has increased A Danish consumer survey 9 showed that women were more likely than men to think that all people share responsibility for ensuring that the goods that are produced are sustainable Women in particular 81 percent of those questioned wished that food and basic necessities bore climate markings 67 percent of men agreed This and other studies suggest that there are differences in what and how women and men consume resulting in different environmental emissions But more studies focusing on the environment are needed to be able to evaluate these differences and their consequences for climate change 10 On the other hand a Finnish study found that when it comes to throwing out food women in single households top the list In multiple person households the amount of food that is thrown away also depends on who is buying the food when women bought it more food was discarded than when a man alone or a man together with a woman had done the shopping 11 Why are the eating habits of men and women different The reasons behind gender based differences in eating habits are complex and there are many explanations for why women and men value different aspects in food when shopping 12 In western societies most people have a wide variety of options to choose from when buying food and their dietary habits and preferences are connected to their identities and what they are signalling to other people about it This also applies to gender identity to put it a bit stereotypically for example one may a picture how a real man would order a large steak while a real woman would choose a salad Eating habits also depend on the stage of life one finds oneself in and access to economic and cultural capital A Norwegian study for example suggests that for men class and meat consumption are closely correlated Women s meat consumption on the other hand is not influenced by differences in

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/?module=Articles&action=Article.publicOpen&id=362 (2016-02-09)
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  • Test - NIKK
    on family consumption habits which found no significant differences between the consumption of women and men even as the study s participants when interviewed sometimes reported experiencing great differences 9 Children are becoming consumers earlier and earlier Consumption is not just for adults A Norwegian study indicates that children are becoming consumers at an increasingly early age and that they are reproducing consumption patterns Measured in money boys consume more than girls and even among children there are gendered differences in what is consumed Girls consumption is more targeted to clothing and makeup whereas boys spend more in all other areas including computers technology and sports 10 A Danish study focusing on 10 12 year olds found similar results According to the Danish study boys attitudes toward advertising and consumption were more negative than those of girls 11 Sustainable consumption Since the Brundtland Report from 1987 and the 1992 Rio Earth Summit sustainable consumption has received greater attention in international politics 12 At the Oslo Symposium on Sustainable Consumption sustainable production and consumption were defined as the use of goods and services that respond to basic needs and bring a better quality of life while minimising the use of natural resources toxic materials and emissions of waste and pollutants over the life cycle so as not to jeopardise the needs of future generations 13 Since then there has been more focus on production and consumption but no systematic information on the connection between gender sustainable consumption and climate 14 Studies indicate that gender is a significant factor in sustainable consumption in that women are more inclined to purchase ecological foods recycle more than men and care more about efficient energy use compared to men 15 Women are also more likely to weigh ethical considerations such as child labour and certified fair markings when making consumer choices This is true also in the Nordic countries which rank higher than most Western European nations in the making of ethical consumer choices 16 Statistics from Sweden indicate that even women in the poorest sections of society single mothers are buying fair trade products 17 When it comes to consumption and gender it is important to keep in mind that neither women nor men constitute a homogenous group Consumption is the product of interplay between gender and other factors like attitudes and lifestyle This must be taken into account if we are to avoid prescribing certain patterns to women and others to men and thereby strengthening existing gender stereotypes 20 Changing the system degrowth and emissions quotas Critics claim that sustainable consumption does not suffice when trying to address climate change An alternative that has received growing attention is so called degrowth a reaction against the growth based economic system 18 Another alternative brought forth is individual emissions rights The idea is that by assigning people individual carbon dioxide emission quotas we could limit total emissions since those who want to exceed their emissions quota could buy more from those who are not using

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/?module=Articles&action=Article.publicOpen&id=343 (2016-02-09)
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  • Best practices - NIKK
    do not have to heat your flat for months on end or where there is no warm running water in the home Fadumo Ibrahim came to Denmark 19 years ago as a refugee from Somalia According to Ibrahim many of the immigrant families in Vollsmose come from communities where everyday life is a matter of survival and thus there is not necessarily the same degree of knowledge regarding climate issues or energy use The environment ambassadors attend a course in ways to render households more environmentally friendly and thus also cheaper through everyday choices They are also given education in spreading their knowledge to other families within the housing area The environment ambassadors have helped many families to decrease their utility bills by giving practical tips such as turning off the tap in the bathroom while brushing your teeth or switching off the standby button on the TV The project has been successful Many families who previously had high bills due to their energy consumption have made small adjustments in their lives saved energy and thus also their bank accounts The majority of ambassadors are women However originally the project aimed to attract both men and women but only women turned up The risk was that the project would strengthen women s roles and responsibilities within the household even though men also need to learn about energy saving But according to project manager Mette Leisner the project has instead had a big impact on the women in Vollsmose They now have new roles both within the community and their family Project coordinator Fadumo Ibrahim notes When we started the project five years ago we saw that many women here did not have a good experience of everyday life They continually suffered social failures many of them lacked an education and

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/energy/best_practices/ (2016-02-09)
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  • Fascinating figures - NIKK
    32 000 MJ The gender differences stem largely from the fact that the average single man spends more on vehicles and fuel than the average single woman In Norway the difference between women and men was substantially smaller with single men using only 6 percent more energy than single women 6 The explanation for this is that energy consumption goes hand in hand with earnings That no statistically significant difference was found between women s and men s consumption inNorwayrepresents a textbook example of that very phenomenon according to Carlsson Kanyama who was involved in the study 7 In Sweden too income and energy use are well correlated The wealthiest one fifth of the men who earn four times as much as the lowest earning men are also responsible for twice the energy consumption This pattern is repeated among women 8 Attitudes towards energy conservation Households are responsible for 26 percent of total energy use according to 2001 figures and of the energy used by households heating accounts for 70 percent within the EU 9 Studies show that women use more energy in the home 10 According to Swedish research women shower more often than men for example 41 percent of women showered every day whereas the figure for men was only 28 percent Besides women took longer showers than men thereby consuming more energy in the process 11 Another study conducted in Sweden that asked women and men what they could imagine doing to reduce carbon dioxide emissions showed that women were consistently more willing to change their own behaviour 67 percent of women reported that they could imagine driving less compared to 46 percent of men who responded similarly With regard to meat eating 49 percent of women and 23 percent of men could imagine eating less meat When asked about willingness to reduce electricity consumption at home 81 percent of women were willing to do so compared to 74 percent of men Among women 66 percent were positively inclined to reducing indoor temperatures compared to 57 percent among men Seventy three percent of women were willing to wash laundry at 40 instead of 60 degrees compared to 63 percent of men 12 Men make the most energy decisions Overall men dominate the decision making processes concerning climate policy to an exceptional degree This is true also in the sector of energy not least in the petroleum sector 13 When it comes to who is sitting in the boardrooms of energy companies a Swedish investigation reveals that 72 percent of the board members were men On the other hand there were substantial differences between the companies themselves the boards of 52 energy companies were made up exclusively of men whereas at 11 companies women s board representation exceeded 40 percent The explanation for why some boards of directors had a more equal gender distribution seemed to have to do with company size 14 Research shows that men are clearly over represented in the companies listed on the Swedish

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/energy/fascinating_figures/ (2016-02-09)
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  • Best practices - NIKK
    that people make can be both healthy and economic and at the same time benefit the climate This is according to the Martha Organization which offers practical advice for contributing to a collective climate effort In environmental matters the Marthas feel strongly that every individual must contribute somehow Most Marthas are women Read more about The Martha Organization in Finland Klädoteket At the Klädoteket you can be both environment friendly

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/consumption/best_practices/ (2016-02-09)
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  • Fascinating figures - NIKK
    spend more money on alcohol SEK 360 and tobacco SEK 620 compared to women who on average spend SEK 160 on alcohol and SEK 380 on tobacco 6 This also carries with it consequences for health On the other hand women buy more consumer goods and hygiene products SEK 820 than men SEK 190 Women also spend more on clothing and shoes SEK 4 720 compared to men SEK 3 010 7 as shown in the table below Expenditures in SEK capita 2004 Type Men Women Men s consumption in relation to women s Meals outside the home 2010 1370 3 2 Alcohol 360 160 2 5 1 Tobacco products 620 380 2 1 Consumer goods 190 820 1 4 incl hygiene products 40 800 1 20 Clothes and shoes 3010 4720 2 3 Health care 1470 2450 2 3 Transport 1350 740 3 2 of which car repairs and maintenance 670 380 2 1 Leisure time activities 2800 2650 1 1 of which sport 1350 970 3 2 books magazines TV licence 430 690 2 3 Other studies reveal similar differences between consumption patterns among men and women One study that included Sweden and Norway focused on single households converting their consumption to energy use The study showed that men consumed more when it came to transportation eating out and alcohol and tobacco Women s consumption was greater in the areas of food hygiene and household items Men s energy intensity mega joules per SEK based on their consumption was also greater than that of women in all income categories All in all single Swedish men with no children used 22 percent more energy than women in the same situation In Norway single men used 8 percent more energy than women 9 At the same time however research shows that the patterns of consumption among women and men are becoming more similar for example it is above all younger men who are spending more money on personal hygiene than before 8 Women boycott more Research indicates that people in Nordic countries are more likely than people elsewhere in Western Europe to use the market as an arena for making political choices boycotting particular products and choosing to buy more ecological and certified products political consumerism According to research women are more likely than men to make such choices in all Nordic countries 10 In one study where respondents were asked whether they had engaged in making such choices in the last 12 months the results showed that about half responded affirmatively and that among them the proportion of women was 15 30 percent higher than that of men Political consumerism was most common in Sweden where 67 percent of women and 54 percent of men responded to the question in the affirmative Of people in the Nordic countries Norwegians were the least likely to make politically driven choices in their consumption 44 percent of women and 34 percent of men reported having done so The gender difference was greatest

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/consumption/fascinating_figures/ (2016-02-09)
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  • Shopping Queen - NIKK
    time the criticism of the burgeoning and hedonistic consumer culture particularly among women can be seen as a statement against objectionable luxuriousness and vanity Extravagance and frivolity do not fit the profile of a protestant and economically minded Scandinavian Shopping thus becomes a form of consumption which appears the easiest to criticise whereas buying a car is not considered shopping in the same way buying clothes shoes makeup decorative objects and other consumer goods This is the kind of consumption mainly done by women The shopping woman is characterised as the irresponsible egocentric vain and conspicuous consumer as a modern Marie Antoinette From an environmental viewpoint it is not however as condemnable to buy a handbag for 60 000 SEK which started the so called handbag debate in Swedish media in the spring of 2007 as buying a car for the same amount of money is It is on the other hand seen as morally condemnable And the immorality of women tends to be more upsetting than that of men Alternative hedonism When it comes to solutions for the problems of both men s and women s over consumption in our wealthy countries Kate Soper wants to challenge the whole consumerist lifestyle and the financial logic behind it It is not only the environment that pays the price for our uncontrolled consumption we do so ourselves too Soper thinks that today s Western societies are characterised by an increasingly troubled relationship to unchecked consumption She is discerning a growing dissatisfaction stemming from the unwatned by products of a consumerist lifestyle There is media coverage every day of this new climate of disenchantment with its concerns over the stress pollution ill health childhood obesity car congestion noise excessive waste and the loss of the art of living says Soper The impacts

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/consumption/shopping_queen/ (2016-02-09)
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  • The SHARP research program analyzed the role of households in environmental policy - NIKK
    regard were observed between households with cars versus those without Households also express a high level of awareness regarding the problem of air pollution that ensures from the use of private cars People experience air pollution as a serious threat at the global level as a somewhat less serious threat at the national and local level municipality and further as something less of a threat at the personal level The findings also demonstrated that the higher the respondents level of general environmental awareness the more serious their assessment of the risk associated with private car use According to the results women younger people and the more highly educated tend to view the threat as more serious compared to men older people and those with less education Vis à vis viewing air pollution as a local and personal threat differences emerged between households with cars versus those without Three out of four car less households agreed completely or somewhat that private car use represents a local and personal danger whereas only a little over half of car owning hoseholds shared this view Household consumption of transport housing and foreign travel focus on gender The study also looked at women s and men s attitudes towards a number of issues within environmental policy The findings for household consumption of transport housing and foreign travel indicate that households with a female decisionmaker tend to spend less on automotive transportation This coincides well with other research showing women s use of private cars for leisure activities to be less common than among men whereas women and men are equally likely to drive to work or day care for example Further for some years the results suggest that the presence of a female has a positive impact on housing associated consumption and the proportion of money spent on foreign travel The latter correlation applies to the later study years e g 2003 supporting findings from market research which has found that women are often the decisionmakers when families make travel plans including packaged vacations According to the study household negotiations are about on the one hand negotiating among family members about who does what and on the other hand about the members of a household deciding which activities are relevant or effective Because individuals in the same household may differ in terms of goals and interests research has tended to focus on household members rather than households as actors Household negotiations can manifest both explicitly and implicitly including for example gender based division of labour The social dimension of sustainable development focuses on who acts how including the implications of gender The study could not show either men or women as a group to be more environmentally conscious than the other or to have a greater level of environmental engagement whereas it did find gender specific household activities with environmental relevance While women show more interest than men in purchasing ecologically produced foods particularly with the health of their children in mind men express greater

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/consumption/the_sharp_research_program_analyzed_the_role_of_households_in_environmental_policy/ (2016-02-09)
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