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  • Men's and Women's Carbon Footprints - a tool for development - NIKK
    created In the Living Planet Report the World Wildlife Fund WWF reports regularly on the development of humanity s and different nations environmental footprints and shows the simultaneous effects on biological diversity 5 Cities and their environmental footprint Much of our total environmental footprint including carbon dioxide is derived from activities related to cities Humanity is becoming increasingly urban and this comes with some of the greatest challenges we face in terms of sustainability We in the North are conducting our lives as if we had at least three whole planets to dispose of while people in the South can t even fill their most basic needs What kind of infrastructure and technological solutions do we need in order to ensure a good quality of life for everyone without depleting the ecosystem and biological diversity What could be the sustainable urban lifestyle of the future With large problems come large opportunities Mapping out ways to reduce climate change in Finland Finland s national chapter of the World Wildlife Fund WWF Finland has mapped out measures with which Finnish people can most effectively reduce climate change The project has focused on housing transport and food offering three different ways to ease climate change Finland s climate impact is one of the highest in the world in relation to its population twice that of Sweden and ten times that of India Among individual consumers housing food and transportation are the biggest sources of carbon dioxide emissions Household consumption patterns vary from limited to reasonable to downright wasteful The project has focused on average Finnish households and consumers The survey is only available in Finnish The average carbon footprint of an individual Finnish consumer is approximately 10 tons of CO2 equivalents annually The footprint consists of 30 from housing 20 from transport and 18 from food and the remaining 32 come from other household functions The most significant of these are health care school social services restaurants and hotels interior decorating and home care The carbon footprint was calculated using information from the ENVIMAT project model and mappings by Kotakorpi et al 2008 6 7 The above mapping of the measures used by average Finns to reduce climate change has not been analysed from a gender perspective FAZER In Finland the Fazer Group has committed to reducing its carbon footprint Around one third of the strain on the environment comes from food production preparation restaurant services and shopping trips About one quarter of the world s total climate impact also comes from food Apart from housing and transportation food is one of the largest daily factors affecting the environment When we talk about the carbon footprint of food we have to examine the entire life cycle including the different stages of food production and the environmental effect of each of them The final carbon footprint is the sum total of the different parts and stages of the entire production cycle Every participant in the value chain has to take greater responsibility for their actions Consumers need to know how the carbon footprint of the food they eat is created and to understand the role of each stage in the life cycle of food in terms of the total size of the footprint Determining the carbon footprint of an individual food item is not a simple task Growth conditions in the beginning of the life cycle and the long production chains of raw goods make it difficult to obtain information and to ensure that the information is comprehensive But studying the delivery chain from a carbon footprint perspective yields a lot of valuable information and offers new possibilities for improving practices The climate impact of food comprises about 20 percent of an individual s total daily climate impact We know that greens vegetables and other raw foods have a small carbon footprint while that of fruit is somewhere in the middle The lowest footprint is measured in the hundreds of grams the medium footprint in kilograms and the largest footprint in something like 10 kilograms for every one kilogram of raw product For animal products the climate impact ranges from medium to high Through its Lean project the Finnish company Fazer has reduced production waste in its bakeries by 35 percent Fazer s Bread and Coffee Bread division and its Chocolate and Confectionery division have signed onto an energy efficiency agreement with the Confederation of Finnish Industries The agreement s aim is to make energy use more efficient by 9 percent by the end of 2016 Bread with a carbon footprint label As the first baked goods producer in Finland Fazer has introduced carbon labelling on its bread products to inform customers about the environmental impact of the company s activities and to guide consumers and customers in choosing products and services responsibly Fazer s Ruispuikula rye bread is one of Finland s most popular breads and was selected precisely for that reason as the first bread to receive the carbon footprint label the Carbon Flower Consumers today want their products and services to be produced in an environmentally responsible way and they are interested in the environmental impact of those products and services They also want to know how they can influence their own carbon footprint through their food choices If a consumer decides to discard unused bread slices he or she may be responsible for up to 20 percent of the total carbon footprint of bread when accounting for the product s entire life cycle Bio waste that sits rotting in the waste bin creates methane which is an even more harmful greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide The estimated carbon footprint of Fazer s Puikula whole grain rye bread covers all emissions from the energy consumed by the bakery The commonly used method used also by Fazer is to calculate the carbon dioxide equivalents CO2e through a life cycle assessment LCA The life cycle assessment adheres to basic ISO principles for life cycle models Ruispuikula a carbon footprint of 110 grams CO2e

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/?module=Articles&action=Article.publicOpen&id=389 (2016-02-09)
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  • Gender Mainstreaming - NIKK
    giving visibility to both women and men It can entail producing statistics and other information divided by gender and describing or analyzing the conditions that affect women and men on the basis of such information Gender mainstreaming also involves calling into question prevailing values and attitudes concerning women and men femininity and masculinity Gender mainstreaming involves calling attention to and committing to key gender equality objectives In other words gender mainstreaming can entail conducting various analyses and measures during different stages of the mainstreaming process Gender mainstreaming provides an answer to the question of how we ought to work from a gender equality perspective during a process Factual documents visions strategies programmes and action plans are one aspect of the process of change including activities like mapping investigations studies follow up and evaluation as well as the strategic impact of the results The strategic work differs in level degree and depth depending on whether the mainstreaming is done by an organization or within a project or initiative It typically produces different measures and prioritizations A strategy is not intended to try to manage and do everything but to identify the parts that are most relevant to the activity project and its results Test Start by posing two questions Question 1 Is the activity project directed at people s lives and everyday reality If the answer is Yes the activity project may have consequences for equality between women and men Question 2 Is the activity directed at areas in which there are significant differences between women and men If the answer is Yes the activity most likely has consequences for equality between women and men Checklist for analysis planning and follow up in gender mainstreaming Analyzing the problems It is necessary to analyze problems and needs from a gender equality perspective in order to create a foundation from which to carry out gender mainstreaming Relevant questions before and during the process include Is there access to relevant statistics divided by gender If not is it important to create them during analysis or planning It is essential to ensure through data and statistics that gender mainstreaming is conducted on the basis of facts instead of assumptions Is there relevant knowledge of the target groups in terms of gender equality within the activity or project If not is it important to generate it in connection with analysis or planning How will the gender equality analyses be carried out By whom Is there a person with this kind of experience in the organization among your partners etc Or will an outside expert be needed Common problems risks The focus is only on the quantitative i e the number of women and men with no qualitative analyses being done Gender mainstreaming becomes an issue for only one gender instead of both The gender mainstreaming results in carrying out only a single activity Responsibility and coordination go together in gender mainstreaming If work is not progressing it is usually because no one has assumed responsibility for

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/?module=Articles&action=Article.publicOpen&id=390 (2016-02-09)
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  • Nordic Summit 2009 - NIKK
    in May 2008 to initiate a project about climate change and gender This led to a Nordic Summit conference about the theme in Copenhagen in February 2009 During the conference Nordic climate actors discussed the relationship between climate change and gender equality The conference participants created a Nordic declaration with 15 practical recommendations These suggestions were compiled in a Nordic Summit Declaration The Declaration and a short film about the

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/recommendations/nordic_summit_2009/ (2016-02-09)
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  • All the recommendations - NIKK
    a conspicuous percentage of development aid is earmarked for gender responsive projects in the context of climate change 6 EQUAL ACCESS FOR WOMEN AND MEN Ensure equal access to sustainable technology for both women and men 7 USER DRIVEN INNOVATION Development of sustainable technology research and innovation will incorporate the perspectives of both women and men in terms of needs and use For example Second generation bio fuels from agricultural crop by products creating local income and attractive jobs for women Local development of cleaner technologies for cooking to reduce deforestation and local air pollution 8 WOMEN AS ROLEMODELS AND CHANGE AGENTS Both women and men will be utilized in the implementation of sustainable technologies But we have to acknowledge their different opportunities in terms of innovation processes and use 9 NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR BOTH MEN AND WOMEN Technology innovation and design must incorporate a climate change gender and gender equality perspective We must utilize women s and men s different opportunities knowledge and compe tence in technological development and implementation 10 CARBON COST MATRIX To internalize considerations regarding CO2 impact and gender equality in the metrics used for organizational decision making especially on cost Examples Car acquisitions in municipalities Apply total cost of ownership criterion in stead of simple list price to reflect that electric vehicles at least for now are more costly to buy but much cheaper to drive per mile kilometer As a supporting benefit electric vehicles appeal more to women than men and facilitate increased flexibility for women in the labor market 11 PUBLIC FRONTRUNNER The public sectors of industrialized countries must show the way in CO2 reductions 12 WOMEN AND MEN S CARBON FOOTPRINT A TOOL FOR DEVELOPMENT Create a specific knowledge base on the relationships between 1 Consumption patterns 2 Gender 3 Emission of

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/recommendations/all_the_recommendations/ (2016-02-09)
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  • Nordic Summit report - NIKK
    News Background Transport Energy Consumption Food What s being done Recommendations Links You are here Frontpage Recommendations Nordic Summit report Nordic Summit report The Nordic Summit report Gender and Climate Change Nordic Summit 2009 All the recommendations Nordic Summit report

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/recommendations/nordic_summit_report/ (2016-02-09)
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  • Somewhat simply put, it can be said that the in... - NIKK
    cities while women remain behind to take care of the household and the children Reductions in income and food security can also cause significant stress for men and boys as a result of society s expectation that men provide for families and households In certain regions extreme droughts have increased civil wars by 50 2 During conflicts the risks are different depending on gender men and boys are at risk for being kidnapped to fight as soldiers whereas women face an increased risk of violence in the home or of rape 3 The impacts of climate change are also felt in societies in the North especially in places where industry and commerce are closely linked to climate conditions such as the Sámi in northern Scandinavia Malin Jennings has studied how these changes have affected the relationship between Inuit women and men in Greenland where people rely on hunting and fishing for their livelihood As a result of the warming climate hunting has suffered and so has family income The roles of men and women are in flux and this brings about societal challenges But the North must also reduce its emissions and make lifestyle changes Studies show that men eat more meat in relative terms than women Women use more disposable water bottles than men and of all households single women throw out the greatest amount of food Women and men also travel differently Men are more likely to drive cars whereas women to a greater degree use public transport Men prefer technological solutions to conserving household energy while women are more likely to change their own behaviour in order to save energy Natural catastrophes affect women and men differently The frequency of natural catastrophes is expected to rise as a result of climate change 4 Natural catastrophes do not have the same impact on everyone according to a report 5 the risk of dying in a natural catastrophe is 14 times greater for women and children compared to men For example in the flooding in Bangladesh in 1999 women made up 90 percent of the deceased 6 The reason was that warnings only reached people in public places in other words men Women according to social custom were at home Many women also died because cultural restrictions prevented them from leaving their homes without being accompanied by a male relative 7 In addition most women did not know how to swim 8 Conversely when Hurricane Mitch hit La Masica Honduras in 1998 not one person died Catastrophic preparedness organizations had taught people there both women and men how to respond to the situation The training had included a gender perspective and women were also in charge of the warning system 9 The North too has over recent years experienced a number of extreme weather events whose mortality statistics differ by gender During the 2003 heat waves in Europe for example relatively more women died than men The differences are connected to culture power relations division of labour income and

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/?module=Articles&action=Article.publicOpen&id=460 (2016-02-09)
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  • Samerna... - NIKK
    more difficult for the reindeer herd to reach food and move around from one area to another According to Rauna Kuokkanen livestock husbandry is often seen as a masculine activity In reality also women contribute substantially to reindeer herding and they are often responsible for maintaining the traditional verdde system which is based on economic and social relationships between individuals and families 1 Researcher Solveig Joks has pointed out that reindeer herding is often linked solely to a traditionally masculine work the production of meat instead of realizing that it is an important part of Sámi culture and household economics where women s role is significant Challenges like these have led many women to give up reindeer herding 2 In Greenland a warmer climate breeds poverty and social problems Malin Jennings has interviewed and followed up with 24 hunters and their families in Thule Qaannaaq and the northern most village in the world Siorapaluk The men in the families have hunted for walrus whale seal polar bears and birds while women have managed the animals prepared food from the meat and sewed clothing out of the skin The changing warmer climate has made hunting more difficult Successful hunting requires long periods of ice According to Jennings we may have already seen the last generation of full time hunters in Greenland Inuit hunters social standing has also sunk from the top to the bottom The consequences of this include poverty identity problems and various social challenges Many people have switched to a different line of work and moved to bigger villages where the lines for housing can be long Families are increasingly dependent on women s jobs When women go to work they have less time to maintain their skills in traditional tasks As they no longer sew their own clothing

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/?module=Articles&action=Article.publicOpen&id=394 (2016-02-09)
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  • Energy - NIKK
    about the study here Direct energy consumption by households Direct energy use is central when looking at households including the energy needed for food preparation heating lighting and numerous household appliances Many appliances such as refrigerators freezers and dryers are associated with tasks often carried out by women In spite of improvements in energy efficiency such appliances still account for a substantial portion of a household s electricity consumption in 2005 in the EU 15 countries larger appliances used up about half of household electricity while smaller appliances like televisions and computers consumed 35 percent and lighting 20 percent of total household electricity 7 Up to now there have been no studies to systematically analyze household consumption from a gender perspective 8 Studies from different European countries do reveal differences in how women and men use energy But it is difficult to draw general conclusions about women s role in energy consumption because the differences are not only connected to gender but also to age marital status and employment 9 It has been shown that Energy use is higher in two person two income households compared to those with only a single income This can be explained by a higher income enabling people to have a greater number of household appliances but also by a need to perform household work more effectively Older women use less energy compared to younger women The reasons include lifestyle changes for example doing less cooking and being thriftier Men and women conserve energy differently Household energy use goes to the root of every task that is performed at home The patterns behind women s and men s direct household energy use are complex but the fact that women often have primary responsibility for the household and according to studies make in excess of 80 percent of all household purchasing decisions 10 means that women are frequently in a key position when it comes to energy efficiency in things like food preparation and laundry 11 Research also shows differences in how women and men respond to energy conservation campaigns Men primarily take charge of technical improvements like insulation while women are more willing to make changes in their everyday behaviour for example in how they do laundry or perform other household tasks traditionally handled by women 12 Studies have also found women to be more receptive to energy conservation and to prefer renewable energy sources to a greater extent than men But more recent studies suggest that men are more knowledgeable about technologies for renewable energy and harbour more positive attitudes toward them compared to women Women seem to view fossil energy sources more positively but are more likely to be opposed to nuclear energy than men 13 How to use information about gender and energy Information about the gender aspect of energy use can be used for example in shaping civic information When campaigns for energy efficiency and reductions are being designed information about fuel efficient driving could be directed primarily at men since

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/?module=Articles&action=Article.publicOpen&id=351 (2016-02-09)
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