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  • News - NIKK
    gender equality question Climate change has consequences for poverty and gender equality in the whole world Finland s Minister of Foreign Affairs Erkki Tuomioja brought up the issue at the Nordic Climate Festival held in Espoo Finland in late August of 2011 Read more about Climate change is a gender equality question Use the gender perspective in climate work How is climate work made more effective by incorporating gender aspects

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/news/ (2016-02-09)
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  • Background - NIKK
    on gender is still managing the website Any questions can be directed to nikk nikk gu se NIKK logo pms png Published 24 09 14 Climate change is not gender neutral as women and men affect and are affected by it differently We can enhance climate change work by including a gender perspective Read more about Climate change is not gender neutral as women and men affect and are affected by it differently We can enhance climate change work by including a gender perspective The South alone is not affected Climate change also impacts upon the North and especially the Arctic region Women s and men s lives are affected differently Read more about The South alone is not affected Climate change also impacts upon the North and especially the Arctic region Women s and men s lives are affected differently In the Nordic region we need a reduction of emissions a change in lifestyles and adaptation One can note gender differences in consumption energy use and attitudes towards the climate Read more about In the Nordic region we need a reduction of emissions a change in lifestyles and adaptation One can note gender differences in consumption energy use and

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/background/ (2016-02-09)
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  • Transport - NIKK
    give themselves ecological action space in how they view environmental questions and deal with everyday life If there is an expectation that women are interested in environmental issues this too can have consequences for their action space Taken together all of these factors result in differences in women s and men s patterns of travel In order to target investments most efficiently and create a sustainable system of transport it is necessary to know about the differences that exist Studies and research point to the following differences in women s and men s use of transportation 4 Modes of transportation Men use cars more often than women and women use more public transportation than men Women are more likely than men to be in the passenger seat Men have greater access to cars Of those without a driving permit 70 percent are women Travel distances Men generally travel for longer distances than women which can be partly explained by their greater access to cars Another explanation for the difference is that people in higher labour market positions travel longer distances Travel patterns A typical trip for a man is between home and work Women are more likely to make trips with multiple stops for example home preschool work shop preschool home and to drive children to school and free time activities Men take more business trips than women Timing of travel Men are most likely to travel during rush hour and for longer distances Women are more likely to travel outside the busiest times of day and to make more trips in the near vicinity Access to a car Men have greater economic might and are more likely to have a driving permit and therefore also have better opportunities for driving The situation appears to be changing as more women enter the labour market younger women are more likely to have a driving permit and a car than older women Attitudes The relationship of women and men to cars and the environment is different Women are more focused on functionality men on engine capacity and performance Men s potential to drive more is higher than women s while women are more willing to use other modes of transportation in order to reduce their own car use Factors beyond gender As can be seen from the above gender alone does not determine travel patterns Living in an urban area age and labour market position all contribute to transportation habits The group responsible for the most travel are those aged 25 54 an age group that includes a high proportion of wage earners People with higher education travel the longest distances while those with only basic education travel the shortest distances 5 Both men and women who live in rural areas drive more than those living in urban areas High income earners drive more frequently than low income earners 6 The question is whether declining gender differences will enhance other differences for example those connected to class age and ethnicity 7 Is

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/transport/ (2016-02-09)
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  • Energy - NIKK
    about the study here Direct energy consumption by households Direct energy use is central when looking at households including the energy needed for food preparation heating lighting and numerous household appliances Many appliances such as refrigerators freezers and dryers are associated with tasks often carried out by women In spite of improvements in energy efficiency such appliances still account for a substantial portion of a household s electricity consumption in 2005 in the EU 15 countries larger appliances used up about half of household electricity while smaller appliances like televisions and computers consumed 35 percent and lighting 20 percent of total household electricity 7 Up to now there have been no studies to systematically analyze household consumption from a gender perspective 8 Studies from different European countries do reveal differences in how women and men use energy But it is difficult to draw general conclusions about women s role in energy consumption because the differences are not only connected to gender but also to age marital status and employment 9 It has been shown that Energy use is higher in two person two income households compared to those with only a single income This can be explained by a higher income enabling people to have a greater number of household appliances but also by a need to perform household work more effectively Older women use less energy compared to younger women The reasons include lifestyle changes for example doing less cooking and being thriftier Men and women conserve energy differently Household energy use goes to the root of every task that is performed at home The patterns behind women s and men s direct household energy use are complex but the fact that women often have primary responsibility for the household and according to studies make in excess of 80 percent of all household purchasing decisions 10 means that women are frequently in a key position when it comes to energy efficiency in things like food preparation and laundry 11 Research also shows differences in how women and men respond to energy conservation campaigns Men primarily take charge of technical improvements like insulation while women are more willing to make changes in their everyday behaviour for example in how they do laundry or perform other household tasks traditionally handled by women 12 Studies have also found women to be more receptive to energy conservation and to prefer renewable energy sources to a greater extent than men But more recent studies suggest that men are more knowledgeable about technologies for renewable energy and harbour more positive attitudes toward them compared to women Women seem to view fossil energy sources more positively but are more likely to be opposed to nuclear energy than men 13 How to use information about gender and energy Information about the gender aspect of energy use can be used for example in shaping civic information When campaigns for energy efficiency and reductions are being designed information about fuel efficient driving could be directed primarily at men since

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/energy/ (2016-02-09)
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  • Consumption - NIKK
    on family consumption habits which found no significant differences between the consumption of women and men even as the study s participants when interviewed sometimes reported experiencing great differences 9 Children are becoming consumers earlier and earlier Consumption is not just for adults A Norwegian study indicates that children are becoming consumers at an increasingly early age and that they are reproducing consumption patterns Measured in money boys consume more than girls and even among children there are gendered differences in what is consumed Girls consumption is more targeted to clothing and makeup whereas boys spend more in all other areas including computers technology and sports 10 A Danish study focusing on 10 12 year olds found similar results According to the Danish study boys attitudes toward advertising and consumption were more negative than those of girls 11 Sustainable consumption Since the Brundtland Report from 1987 and the 1992 Rio Earth Summit sustainable consumption has received greater attention in international politics 12 At the Oslo Symposium on Sustainable Consumption sustainable production and consumption were defined as the use of goods and services that respond to basic needs and bring a better quality of life while minimising the use of natural resources toxic materials and emissions of waste and pollutants over the life cycle so as not to jeopardise the needs of future generations 13 Since then there has been more focus on production and consumption but no systematic information on the connection between gender sustainable consumption and climate 14 Studies indicate that gender is a significant factor in sustainable consumption in that women are more inclined to purchase ecological foods recycle more than men and care more about efficient energy use compared to men 15 Women are also more likely to weigh ethical considerations such as child labour and certified fair markings when making consumer choices This is true also in the Nordic countries which rank higher than most Western European nations in the making of ethical consumer choices 16 Statistics from Sweden indicate that even women in the poorest sections of society single mothers are buying fair trade products 17 When it comes to consumption and gender it is important to keep in mind that neither women nor men constitute a homogenous group Consumption is the product of interplay between gender and other factors like attitudes and lifestyle This must be taken into account if we are to avoid prescribing certain patterns to women and others to men and thereby strengthening existing gender stereotypes 20 Changing the system degrowth and emissions quotas Critics claim that sustainable consumption does not suffice when trying to address climate change An alternative that has received growing attention is so called degrowth a reaction against the growth based economic system 18 Another alternative brought forth is individual emissions rights The idea is that by assigning people individual carbon dioxide emission quotas we could limit total emissions since those who want to exceed their emissions quota could buy more from those who are not using

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/consumption/ (2016-02-09)
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  • Food - NIKK
    cultured milk products Thus both women and men have an important though somewhat different role in relation to animal agriculture resulting in somewhat different CO2 emissions and thus also somewhat different environmental consequences 6 Another thing that studies show is that women and men view food differently when shopping 7 According to research women are generally more cost conscious than men They are also more likely to read the description of ingredients and avail themselves of the information contained therein A Norwegian study found that a majority of women wished that the lists could be made more comprehensive and would include all ingredients 38 percent of women 21 percent of men while slightly more men 44 percent vs 40 percent of women wished that the words used would be simpler and the lists shorter In other words there are differences in women s and men s food awareness which in turn affects the way they view sustainable consumption 8 Sustainable food In recent years the demand for sustainable food items has increased A Danish consumer survey 9 showed that women were more likely than men to think that all people share responsibility for ensuring that the goods that are produced are sustainable Women in particular 81 percent of those questioned wished that food and basic necessities bore climate markings 67 percent of men agreed This and other studies suggest that there are differences in what and how women and men consume resulting in different environmental emissions But more studies focusing on the environment are needed to be able to evaluate these differences and their consequences for climate change 10 On the other hand a Finnish study found that when it comes to throwing out food women in single households top the list In multiple person households the amount of food that is thrown away also depends on who is buying the food when women bought it more food was discarded than when a man alone or a man together with a woman had done the shopping 11 Why are the eating habits of men and women different The reasons behind gender based differences in eating habits are complex and there are many explanations for why women and men value different aspects in food when shopping 12 In western societies most people have a wide variety of options to choose from when buying food and their dietary habits and preferences are connected to their identities and what they are signalling to other people about it This also applies to gender identity to put it a bit stereotypically for example one may a picture how a real man would order a large steak while a real woman would choose a salad Eating habits also depend on the stage of life one finds oneself in and access to economic and cultural capital A Norwegian study for example suggests that for men class and meat consumption are closely correlated Women s meat consumption on the other hand is not influenced by differences in socio

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/food/ (2016-02-09)
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  • What's being done? - NIKK
    on governmental level Here you will find an overview of the activities on a governmental level Work on municipal level Here you will find an overview of the activities of Nordic municipalities Companies Here we present companies that have contributed towards enhancing the understanding of the relationship between gender and climate change Their work and good example can serve as an inspiration NGOs Here we present NGOs that have worked towards improving gender equality and sustainable development Here other organisations can also find examples and inspiration for their own activities The Nordic co operation around gender and climate change On the gender equality co operation section Finland has chosen to focus upon gender equality and climate change within its presidency in the Nordic Council of Ministers 2011 Nordic cooperation around this theme began in 2008 when the Nordic gender equality ministers initiated the Gender and Climate Change project Read more Climate savvy companies show good practice On this webpage we highlight a number of companies that have worked on the relationship between gender and climate change You can read about Audur Capital the Nordic Investment Bank and Ecoloove Read more Green NGOs set the agenda You can also read about

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/whats_being_done+/ (2016-02-09)
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  • Recommendations - NIKK
    s potential to create innovations remains underutilized An emphasis on gender creates new products which include both men s and women s needs increases gender equality within technology and research and contributes to economic growth Read more Men s and Women s Carbon Footprints a tool for development Women and men have different carbon footprints How does this affect the work against climate change Read more Gender Mainstreaming Gender mainstreaming

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/recommendations/ (2016-02-09)
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