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  • Links - NIKK
    about climate change and gender equality European Climate Change Programme The Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action NGOs Gender CC Climate Crisis WEDO Global Gender and Climate Alliance ENERGIA International Network on Gender and Sustainable Energy The Gender and Water Alliance Gender and Disaster Network Information about the global climate change negotations The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change The Kyoto Protocol Agenda 21 The Rio Declaration The Convention on Biological Diversity Cancun Adaptation Framework Beijing Platform for Action area K Women and the Environment Information about national activities around climate change and gender Denmark The Ministry for Gender Equality The Ministry of the Environment The Danish Climate Change Adaptation Portal Finland The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health issues relating to gender equality are placed within this ministry The Ministry for Foreign Affairs webpage about climate change and gender The Faroe Islands Ministry of the Interior The Environment Agency Greenland The Ministry for Family Culture Church and Gender Equality Greenland Climate Network American project that compiles information about the Greenlandic climate Iceland The Ministry of Welfare responsible for gender issues The Ministry for the Environment Norway The Ministry of Children Equality and Social Inclusion The Ministry of the

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/links/ (2016-02-09)
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  • Ny climate and gender - NIKK
    as flooding and drought are expected in the North These can affect women and men differently The effects of climate change are furthermore already being felt in communities in the Nordic region These societies such as the Sami and Inuits have close interrelationships between their economies cultures and nature Read more about the effects of climate change upon the Sami and Inuit societies here Women and men are the key to change In the Nordic region climate change requires that we reduce our emissions and that people change their lifestyles Both women and men are the key to change when it comes to reducing emissions and adapting to climate change On this webpage you can read about how climate change and gender are connected when it comes to Transport Energy Food Consumption The industrialized countries are responsible for most of the greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change For example one billion of the world s 6 billion inhabitants consumed 75 percent of all energy and account for the majority of all emissions from industry toxins and consumer goods according to a publication from 2007 4 The emission of greenhouse gases is blamed particularly on the burning of fossil fuels This burning is connected to the ways in which industrialized countries produce and consume and to the lifestyle that is characteristic of the industrialized countries A high level of consumption is an important part of economic development in industrialized countries and also a creator of identity for their populations Clothing furniture and cars are signs that proclaim who I am There has been very little attention on the different ways in which women and men consume and contribute to the emission of greenhouse gases but the information that is available indicates that women and men affect the environment through t heir consumption in different ways 5 Two sectors that play a substantive role in the production and consumption practices of industrialized countries are foodstuffs and the transportation sector exemplified by passenger transport Globally it is estimated that livestock production is responsible for up to 18 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions 6 At the same time we know that men s meat consumption surpasses that of women 7 Regarding the transportation sector it is estimated that it consumes approximately 19 percent of all global energy 8 Studies indicate that there are differences between men s and women s transportation patterns 9 However there is also evidence that women s consumption patterns are increasingly mirroring those of men s as women s income increases 10 Photo Colourbox 1 Johnsson Latham 2007 Hansson 2007 2 IPCC 2001 3 IUCN UNDP GGCA 2009 4 Johnsson Latham 2007 5 Oldrup Breengaard 2009 28 29 6 FAO 2006 7 Fagt et al 2006 8 IEA 2005 9 Co ordination for Gender Studies in Denmark 2007 10 Westlund 2009 16 Sources Bridge 2008 Gender and climate change mapping the linkages A scoping study on knowledge and gaps June 2008 Prepared for the UK Department for International

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/background/Climate+change+is+not+gender+neutral+as+women+and+men+affect%2C+and+are+affected+by+it%2C+differently.+W.9UFRrWWk.ips (2016-02-09)
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  • The South alone is not affected. Climate change also impacts upon the North, and especially the Arctic region. Women's and men's lives are affected differently. - NIKK
    wars by 50 2 During conflicts the risks are different depending on gender men and boys are at risk for being kidnapped to fight as soldiers whereas women face an increased risk of violence in the home or of rape 3 The impacts of climate change are also felt in societies in the North especially in places where industry and commerce are closely linked to climate conditions such as the Sámi in northern Scandinavia Malin Jennings has studied how these changes have affected the relationship between Inuit women and men in Greenland where people rely on hunting and fishing for their livelihood As a result of the warming climate hunting has suffered and so has family income The roles of men and women are in flux and this brings about societal challenges But the North must also reduce its emissions and make lifestyle changes Studies show that men eat more meat in relative terms than women Women use more disposable water bottles than men and of all households single women throw out the greatest amount of food Women and men also travel differently Men are more likely to drive cars whereas women to a greater degree use public transport Men prefer technological solutions to conserving household energy while women are more likely to change their own behaviour in order to save energy Natural catastrophes affect women and men differently The frequency of natural catastrophes is expected to rise as a result of climate change 4 Natural catastrophes do not have the same impact on everyone according to a report 5 the risk of dying in a natural catastrophe is 14 times greater for women and children compared to men For example in the flooding in Bangladesh in 1999 women made up 90 percent of the deceased 6 The reason was that warnings only reached people in public places in other words men Women according to social custom were at home Many women also died because cultural restrictions prevented them from leaving their homes without being accompanied by a male relative 7 In addition most women did not know how to swim 8 Conversely when Hurricane Mitch hit La Masica Honduras in 1998 not one person died Catastrophic preparedness organizations had taught people there both women and men how to respond to the situation The training had included a gender perspective and women were also in charge of the warning system 9 The North too has over recent years experienced a number of extreme weather events whose mortality statistics differ by gender During the 2003 heat waves in Europe for example relatively more women died than men The differences are connected to culture power relations division of labour income and economic resources as well as biology 10 Women have a key role in creating sustainable lifestyles When we talk about the gender aspects of climate change it is important to note that women are not solely victims On the contrary both women and men have useful skills that should be utilized

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/background/The+South+alone+is+not+affected.+Climate+change+also+impacts+upon+the+North%2C+and+especially+the+Arct.9UFRrWXl.ips (2016-02-09)
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  • Fotspår. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur aliquet ultrices lacus vitae rhoncus. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus. - NIKK
    active role in daily consumption as they are often responsible for family shopping From this perspective women represent the largest global consumer group This does not however necessarily mean that they themselves are using everything that they purchase 4 What is often referred to as women s consumption is really more representative of family consumption All in all men s consumption is more energy intensive and harmful to the environment than women s Thus women s ecological footprint is smaller than men s in both rich and poor countries 5 Read more about the relationship between gender and consumption here The gendered aspects of household energy use The consumption of energy is greatest in industrialized nations and emerging economies Studies of men s and women s overall consumption reveal differences for example in the case of food and transport On average men eat greater quantities of meat than women and they also travel more than women Research has shown that when converting consumption into energy use higher consumption translates to higher energy use Studies from different European countries reveal differences in how women and men use energy But it is difficult to draw general conclusions about women s role in energy consumption because the differences are not only connected to gender but also to age marital status and employment 6 It has been shown that Energy use is higher in two person two income households compared to those with only a single income This can be explained by a higher income enabling people to have a greater number of household appliances but also by a need to perform household work more effectively Older women use less energy compared to younger women The reasons include lifestyle changes for example doing less cooking and being thriftier Research also shows differences in how

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/background/In+the+Nordic+region+we+need+a+reduction+of+emissions%2C+a+change+in+lifestyles+and+adaptation.+One+ca.9UFRnI5Y.ips (2016-02-09)
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  • President of Finland, Tarja Halonen: Gender equality must be incorporated into all matters connected to climate change. - NIKK
    for future generations we need to ensure gender equality and the participation of women in all decision making We must also make sure that all human resources are put into use for the development of our societies Climate change has a particularly severe impact on the world s poorest people 70 percent of whom are women In developing countries women often bear primary responsibility for farming food production water acquisition and household energy When it rains less and the soil suffers crops yield less and their quality declines There is less food and people are forced to walk further to get water All of this adds to women s workload and weakens their living conditions Women are often responsible for the everyday choices made in households and therefore have a key role in the development of green economies They are powerful agents whose knowledge skills and innovative ideas support the efforts to combat climate change Gender equality must be incorporated into all matters connected to climate change Women s participation is not only a question of human rights the commitment of both women and men benefits entire families and communities as well as creates more effective solutions that serve a greater proportion of the population As Co Chair of the UN High Level Panel of Global Sustainability established by UN Secretary General Ban Ki moon I have together with President Jacob Zuma of South Africa underlined the importance of sustainable growth that reduces poverty and increases equality Among other issues the Panel has worked to promote good governance and women s empowerment The Panel s final report will be submitted to Secretary General Ban Ki moon by early 2012 The fact that half of the members of our Panel are women will certainly be reflected in our recommendations Cooperation at

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/background/President+of+Finland%2C+Tarja+Halonen%3A+Gender+equality+must+be+incorporated+into+all+matters+connected.9UFRrYYk.ips (2016-02-09)
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  • NIKK
    give themselves ecological action space in how they view environmental questions and deal with everyday life If there is an expectation that women are interested in environmental issues this too can have consequences for their action space Taken together all of these factors result in differences in women s and men s patterns of travel In order to target investments most efficiently and create a sustainable system of transport it is necessary to know about the differences that exist Studies and research point to the following differences in women s and men s use of transportation 4 Modes of transportation Men use cars more often than women and women use more public transportation than men Women are more likely than men to be in the passenger seat Men have greater access to cars Of those without a driving permit 70 percent are women Travel distances Men generally travel for longer distances than women which can be partly explained by their greater access to cars Another explanation for the difference is that people in higher labour market positions travel longer distances Travel patterns A typical trip for a man is between home and work Women are more likely to make trips with multiple stops for example home preschool work shop preschool home and to drive children to school and free time activities Men take more business trips than women Timing of travel Men are most likely to travel during rush hour and for longer distances Women are more likely to travel outside the busiest times of day and to make more trips in the near vicinity Access to a car Men have greater economic might and are more likely to have a driving permit and therefore also have better opportunities for driving The situation appears to be changing as more women enter the labour market younger women are more likely to have a driving permit and a car than older women Attitudes The relationship of women and men to cars and the environment is different Women are more focused on functionality men on engine capacity and performance Men s potential to drive more is higher than women s while women are more willing to use other modes of transportation in order to reduce their own car use Factors beyond gender As can be seen from the above gender alone does not determine travel patterns Living in an urban area age and labour market position all contribute to transportation habits The group responsible for the most travel are those aged 25 54 an age group that includes a high proportion of wage earners People with higher education travel the longest distances while those with only basic education travel the shortest distances 5 Both men and women who live in rural areas drive more than those living in urban areas High income earners drive more frequently than low income earners 6 The question is whether declining gender differences will enhance other differences for example those connected to class age and ethnicity 7 Is

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/transport/Transport.9UFRjU5I.ips (2016-02-09)
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  • Energy - NIKK
    about the study here Direct energy consumption by households Direct energy use is central when looking at households including the energy needed for food preparation heating lighting and numerous household appliances Many appliances such as refrigerators freezers and dryers are associated with tasks often carried out by women In spite of improvements in energy efficiency such appliances still account for a substantial portion of a household s electricity consumption in 2005 in the EU 15 countries larger appliances used up about half of household electricity while smaller appliances like televisions and computers consumed 35 percent and lighting 20 percent of total household electricity 7 Up to now there have been no studies to systematically analyze household consumption from a gender perspective 8 Studies from different European countries do reveal differences in how women and men use energy But it is difficult to draw general conclusions about women s role in energy consumption because the differences are not only connected to gender but also to age marital status and employment 9 It has been shown that Energy use is higher in two person two income households compared to those with only a single income This can be explained by a higher income enabling people to have a greater number of household appliances but also by a need to perform household work more effectively Older women use less energy compared to younger women The reasons include lifestyle changes for example doing less cooking and being thriftier Men and women conserve energy differently Household energy use goes to the root of every task that is performed at home The patterns behind women s and men s direct household energy use are complex but the fact that women often have primary responsibility for the household and according to studies make in excess of 80 percent of all household purchasing decisions 10 means that women are frequently in a key position when it comes to energy efficiency in things like food preparation and laundry 11 Research also shows differences in how women and men respond to energy conservation campaigns Men primarily take charge of technical improvements like insulation while women are more willing to make changes in their everyday behaviour for example in how they do laundry or perform other household tasks traditionally handled by women 12 Studies have also found women to be more receptive to energy conservation and to prefer renewable energy sources to a greater extent than men But more recent studies suggest that men are more knowledgeable about technologies for renewable energy and harbour more positive attitudes toward them compared to women Women seem to view fossil energy sources more positively but are more likely to be opposed to nuclear energy than men 13 How to use information about gender and energy Information about the gender aspect of energy use can be used for example in shaping civic information When campaigns for energy efficiency and reductions are being designed information about fuel efficient driving could be directed primarily at men since

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/energy/Energy.9UFRnQXn.ips (2016-02-09)
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  • Test - NIKK
    on family consumption habits which found no significant differences between the consumption of women and men even as the study s participants when interviewed sometimes reported experiencing great differences 9 Children are becoming consumers earlier and earlier Consumption is not just for adults A Norwegian study indicates that children are becoming consumers at an increasingly early age and that they are reproducing consumption patterns Measured in money boys consume more than girls and even among children there are gendered differences in what is consumed Girls consumption is more targeted to clothing and makeup whereas boys spend more in all other areas including computers technology and sports 10 A Danish study focusing on 10 12 year olds found similar results According to the Danish study boys attitudes toward advertising and consumption were more negative than those of girls 11 Sustainable consumption Since the Brundtland Report from 1987 and the 1992 Rio Earth Summit sustainable consumption has received greater attention in international politics 12 At the Oslo Symposium on Sustainable Consumption sustainable production and consumption were defined as the use of goods and services that respond to basic needs and bring a better quality of life while minimising the use of natural resources toxic materials and emissions of waste and pollutants over the life cycle so as not to jeopardise the needs of future generations 13 Since then there has been more focus on production and consumption but no systematic information on the connection between gender sustainable consumption and climate 14 Studies indicate that gender is a significant factor in sustainable consumption in that women are more inclined to purchase ecological foods recycle more than men and care more about efficient energy use compared to men 15 Women are also more likely to weigh ethical considerations such as child labour and certified fair markings when making consumer choices This is true also in the Nordic countries which rank higher than most Western European nations in the making of ethical consumer choices 16 Statistics from Sweden indicate that even women in the poorest sections of society single mothers are buying fair trade products 17 When it comes to consumption and gender it is important to keep in mind that neither women nor men constitute a homogenous group Consumption is the product of interplay between gender and other factors like attitudes and lifestyle This must be taken into account if we are to avoid prescribing certain patterns to women and others to men and thereby strengthening existing gender stereotypes 20 Changing the system degrowth and emissions quotas Critics claim that sustainable consumption does not suffice when trying to address climate change An alternative that has received growing attention is so called degrowth a reaction against the growth based economic system 18 Another alternative brought forth is individual emissions rights The idea is that by assigning people individual carbon dioxide emission quotas we could limit total emissions since those who want to exceed their emissions quota could buy more from those who are not using

    Original URL path: http://www.equalclimate.org/en/consumption/Consumption.9UFRnOZr.ips (2016-02-09)
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