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  • Ocean Front Page
    the ocean s ecosystems will be destroyed unless we drastically change the way we are impacting the marine environment It s not too late scientists say Marine sanctuaries like the Gulf of the Farallones Marine Sanctuary are hailed as important steps in the right direction Another important change is to choose sustainable seafood and avoid most farmed fish Four years in the making the report included the research of a dozen scientists from four countries When humans get into trouble they are quick to change their ways said lead author Boris Worm of Canada s Dalhousie University in the New York Times We still have rhinos and tigers and elephants because we saw a clear trend that was going down and we changed it We have to do the same in the oceans Gratitude to the ocean Complementing the distress signal issued by the Science report the Thank You Ocean campaign kicked off in California this month raising awareness of the many ways in which the ocean benefits our state and the need to protect our marine resources Thank You Ocean billboards 10 in San Francisco Oakland and San Jose TV spots bus shelter ads mugs and other venues detail

    Original URL path: http://www.farallones.org/e_newsletter/2006-11/OceanFrontPage.htm (2016-02-13)
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  • JoinKrillClub
    of our marine environment Krill an essential species This vital new group is named after the shrimp like marine invertebrates that provide an essential food source for whales sharks seals and several seabird species that feed almost exclusively on krill Krill s scientific name is Euphausiids The name krill comes from the Norwegian word krill meaning young fry of fish The news has been full of the crisis our marine

    Original URL path: http://www.farallones.org/e_newsletter/2006-11/JoinKrillClub.htm (2016-02-13)
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  • Seafood
    holiday season table from Tom Worthington of Monterey Fish Dungeness Crab season starts 11 15 Steelhead salmon from the Quinault Indians may be delayed by recent weather California swordfish pregnant women and children should watch the mercury Squid Sardines Ling cod and black cod Mackerel Oysters clams and mussels farmed is OK shellfish actually clean the water they live in Atlantic cod and haddock from the hook and line fishermen

    Original URL path: http://www.farallones.org/e_newsletter/2006-11/Seafood.htm (2016-02-13)
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  • Krill
    individuals but paradoxically welcoming bigger predators to a feast Other defense mechanisms include the krill s ability to instantly molt in which they leave behind their floating exoskeletons as a decoy to confuse predators Often times large groupings of krill can be located by observing the behavior of more easily visible animals such as seabirds and whales Flocks of diving pelicans or gulls help fishing boats locate salmon feeding on krill below the ocean surface Even though it makes them more vulnerable to predators the krill that inhabit the waters off the California coast spend most daylight hours in the warmer waters near the surface It is unknown why they do this since it puts them in such danger Some researchers believe the krill are involuntarily driven to surface waters by overpowering ocean currents Other researchers believe they swarm to the surface to take advantage of better feeding opportunities and because reproductive rates are higher in warmer waters Seabirds and filter feeders like the humpback whale exploit this strange behavior of the krill A single humpback whale may eat up to a ton of krill in a single day The most common commercial uses of krill include aquaculture and aquarium feed but they are harvested for other reasons such as human consumption pharmaceutical uses and bait for sport fishing In Japan krill used for human food is known as okiami Usually it is only the tail meat that is sold and it is used in soups seafood salads and in restaurant entrees Their taste is described as salty and stronger than shrimp In health food stores krill oil is marketed as a nutritional supplement and is believed to be beneficial for joints and the immune system In Antarctic waters the annual catch of krill tops out at around 100 000

    Original URL path: http://www.farallones.org/e_newsletter/2006-04/Krill.htm (2016-02-13)
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  • DishonSeafood
    the market Time of year Fish need time to rest and regenerate Alaskan halibut for example is fished between March 15 and November 15 The break gives the fish time to spawn and allows stock to be reassessed in order to set fishing limits for the next year Where the fish is from Local fish tastes best Plus eating local allows you to connect with where your food comes from SS I ve heard a lot about wild versus farmed fish Can you explain why wild is better TW Not all farmed fish is bad but it is one indicator of sustainability Closed systems catfish trout tilapia are a clean form of fish farming and that fish is considered sustainable However most farming at sea typically salmon is done poorly It takes 3 pounds of wild caught fish to raise 1 pound of farmed fish Nonindigenous species are often raised where they don t belong which brings up problems with parasites and creating unnatural ecosystems that are out of whack Fish are often bred for one characteristic which is problematic like other forms of genetic engineering Like any densely populated small city fish farms have problems with waste which sinks to the bottom of the ocean and disease which can also spread outside the fish farm With many kinds of farmed fish you re not paying the true environmental costs It s why farmed salmon is so much cheaper and why you shouldn t buy it It s kind of like the Superfund sites that we must pay to clean up years after they were created The best guidance is to ask questions when you buy your fish If there s no one to ask try to buy wild whenever possible SS When I go shopping for fish how do

    Original URL path: http://www.farallones.org/e_newsletter/2006-10/DishonSeafood.htm (2016-02-13)
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  • OceanBlast
    raffle for a whale watching trip to the Farallon Islands The sustainable seafood offerings were a gastronomic wonder Philip Dedlow from Chez Panisse served Caldo verde de mariscos Veracruz style fish soup featuring local lingcod with hoja santa tomatoes and lime Charles Phan from Slanted Door created a rice vermicelli dish with seared Alaskan halibut dill and green onions From Farallon Restaurant Heather Ames and Parke dished up locally caught grilled calamari with white beans lemon and basil Judy Rodgers from Zuni Cafe served Pan Bagnât a traditional Provençal meal in a bun country bread stuffed with local Pacific albacore in olive oil peppers tomatoes cucumbers basil capers olives and hard cooked egg then brushed with salt water to mimic the ocean Hog Island Oyster Co shucked hundreds of fresh local oysters Monterey Fish Market and Ports Seafood generously donated the fish for these wonderful dishes so that all event proceeds benefited the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association Read our interview with Tom Worthington of Monterey Fish in this issue Everything tasted great paired with wines donated by New Zealand Wines and beer from many local breweries The kids from the Prescott Circus and ZunZun entertained to the delight of kids young and old What did people learn at OceanFest They learned among other things the difference between farm raised and wild salmon that water quality in our ocean is determined by our actions on land what it looks like inside of a deep ocean ROV and that you can compost oyster shells People attending OceanFest also learned about the valuable work for the environment being done by our environmental fair participants and about FMSA s environmental education programs and efforts on Bay Area beaches to protect marine life OceanFest gave people the opportunity to join FMSA If you missed your

    Original URL path: http://www.farallones.org/e_newsletter/2006-10/OceanBlast.htm (2016-02-13)
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  • DeadZone
    to the sea floor where microbes decompose them consuming oxygen in the process These dead zones are occurring in many areas along the coasts of major continents and they are spreading over larger areas of the sea floor Because very few organisms can tolerate the lack of oxygen in these areas they can destroy the habitat in which numerous organisms make their home The cause of anoxic bottom waters is fairly simple the organic matter produced by phytoplankton at the surface of the ocean in the euphotic zone sinks to the bottom the benthic zone where it is subject to breakdown by the action of bacteria a process known as bacterial respiration The problem is while phytoplankton use carbon dioxide and produce oxygen during photosynthesis bacteria use oxygen and give off carbon dioxide during respiration The oxygen used by bacteria is the oxygen dissolved in the water and that s the same oxygen that all of the other oxygen respiring animals on the bottom crabs clams shrimp and a host of mud loving creatures and swimming in the water zooplankton fish require for life to continue The first dead zones where pollution fed algae remove oxygen from the water were found in northern latitudes like the Chesapeake Bay on the U S East Coast and the Scandinavian fjords Today the best known is in the Gulf of Mexico where fertilizers and other algae multiplying nutrients are dumped by the Mississippi River Others have been appearing off South America Ghana China Japan Australia New Zealand Portugal and Britain Growing global populations mainly concentrated along coastlines and the resulting increase in untreated sewage are endangering human health and wildlife as well as livelihoods from fisheries to tourism according to the State of the Marine Environment report The report is compiled from a

    Original URL path: http://www.farallones.org/e_newsletter/2006-10/DeadZone.htm (2016-02-13)
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  • Surf Scoter
    Alaska and Canada and their nests are well concealed in boreal forests and tundra typically in inaccessible vegetation near shallow lakes During breeding season drakes male ducks viciously peck at rivals and there is a great deal of splashing in the water Aggressive battles culminate with a skidding stop near a prospective mate The dominant male will then defend his mate until the eggs are laid Females lay 6 9 eggs and incubate for 29 days After the ducklings hatch it takes them 55 days till they can fly Often mothers abandon their young before they can fly and return to the coastal waters to molt Diet During the summer surf scoters feed on freshwater invertebrates and insects such as beetles flies roundworms spiders and leeches In the winter when they return to ocean waters they prey on mussels clams herring eggs and sand crabs Sand crabs an intermediate host for a parasitic spiny headed worm make up part of a surf scoter s diet says Amy Dean FMSA Manager of Education Programs Surf scoters that forage on sand crabs can become infected with these parasites and can die In fact in 1995 1000 4000 surf scoters died due to an unusually high load of these parasites We are currently working with high school students to monitor the parasites in the sand crabs We hope to learn more about the patterns of parasite abundance in the crabs and the potential risk of infection to surf scoters This project is part of a larger coast wide long term monitoring project for students Migration Surf Scoters are quiet non vocal ducks only gurgling and croaking during mating season so you won t be hearing them in California They are often hard to distinguish from other scoters although they have slower wing beats

    Original URL path: http://www.farallones.org/e_newsletter/2006-10/SurfScoter.htm (2016-02-13)
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