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  • Pakistan To Acquire Chinese Battleships | Friends of Tibet (INDIA) News-Room Databank
    state of art ships would be flying Pakistani flag he told a meeting of Naval officials yesterday AP News Agency has reported He said Pakistan Navy actively perused the proposal to acquire F 22 Frigates from China as the government here has approved to carry out negotiations Admiral Karimullah however did not disclose the number of ships Pakistan would be acquiring Its is not known yet announced here whether the

    Original URL path: http://friendsoftibet.org/databank/chinadefence/chinad4.html (2016-04-25)
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  • Pak-Saudi-China: Nuke Nexus | Friends of Tibet (INDIA) News-Room Databank
    clear example of it is the while until 1995 China was a net exporter of oil in 2001 it imported over 60 million tones of black gold The closeness between Islamabad and Riyadh has been phenomenal and cuts across party affiliations or the political set up in Pakistan It is not without significance that the first foreign tour of General Parvez Musharraf who ousted Prime Minister Nawaz Shariff in a bloodless coup on October 12 1999 was to Saudi Arabia Moreover Mr Shariff himself his younger brother and their families are living in Saudi Arabia after a secret deal between General Musharaff and Mr Shariff in which Riyadh had played a key role During Mr Nawaz Shariff s aborted prime ministerial tenure Saudi Arabia had been funding Pakistan s nuclear and missile programme purchases from China It is significant to note in this context that the North Korean missile red missile painted green by Pakistan trade off for transfer of Pakistani nuclear arsenal know how in the late 90s took place at a time when the Pakistani economy was in shambles It is understood that Saudi Arabia bailed Pakistan out from this financial crisis which some in diplomatic circles take

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  • Pak Navy To Acquire Chinese Destroyers | Friends of Tibet (INDIA) News-Room Databank
    acquire Naval ships and destroyers from China to further strengthen its naval fleet Chief of Pakistan Naval Staff Admiral Shahid Karimullah said on November 4 2002 Admiral Shahid Karimullah said approval had been accorded to carry out negotiations with China

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  • China To Set Up New Nuclear Power Plant For Pak | Friends of Tibet (INDIA) News-Room Databank
    setting up a power plant in the remote eastern Punjab town of Chashma which would be the country s third A longtime ally China is a leading supplier of weapons and defence technology to Pakistan Pakistan s second power plant was built in Chashma 225 kilometres southwest of Islamabad in the 1990s with Chinese assistance The nation s first nuclear power plant was set up in Karachi in the 1970s

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  • China Snaps US For RFA | Friends of Tibet (INDIA) News-Room Databank
    Radio Free Asia news broadcasts to China saying the United States has trampled upon the universally accepted norms governing international relations The real motive behind the setting up of this radio program is to interfere in the internal affairs of China and other Asian countries and create confusion through the news media Wu said at a weekly news briefing China which rigidly controls its own media industry already jams broadcasts of the government run Voice of America arguing that ordinary Chinese people are uninterested in such programs a western diplomat explained The US side should withdraw its plan Wu stated Radio Free Asia with an annual cost of 22 million would broadcast news information and US foreign policy statements to Tibet and the communist countries of Asia China North Korea Burma Laos and Vietnam Wu also claimed no prior knowledge of a Chinese shipment of chemicals that could possibly be used for weapons to a Saudi Arabian port and blamed a US company for organizing the shipment US officials have reportedly confirmed that it would violate international agreements against exporting ingredients for chemical and biological weapons The exact contents of the shipment is unknown But Wu said an initial investigation

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  • Hillary On Everest Renaming | Friends of Tibet (INDIA) Data-Base
    continued to refer to it as Everest China wanted the name changed in time to mark the 50th anniversary of the first ascent by Sir Edmund and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay on May 29 1953 Sir Edmund said in Auckland today he had heard the suggestion that the name be changed but different countries had their own name for Everest I don t think it is terribly important which particular name you give to a mountain because I was brought up in the old style it will always be Everest to me In 1955 two years after Everest was conquered Sherpa Tenzing who was born in Nepal called his autobiography Man of Everest and constantly referred to the mountain as Everest He said it had always been his dream to climb Everest which my people call Chomolungma and the climb with Sir Edmund was his seventh attempt Sir Edmund said the sherpa community which spent more time on the mountain and made their living from it called it Mt Everest Sir Edmund said he would be very surprised if the Chinese succeeded in changing the name It wouldn t worry me at all The rest of the world is accustomed to

    Original URL path: http://friendsoftibet.org/databank/chinahistory/chinah4.html (2016-04-25)
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  • Blood In The Snows (Reply to Wang Lixiong) | Friends of Tibet (INDIA) Data-Base
    memorandum to the Central Committee was written four years before the Cultural Revolution There is no need to resort to the kind of cheap psychological analysis Wang adduces to explain why Tibetans turned against the sacred symbols of their religion during the Cultural Revolution The real reasons are far more straightforward One of these lay in the Party s need to restrict the inter factional struggle in an area which as we have seen was highly sensitive militarily As soon as things looked like getting out of hand the Central Committee issued an order that in these zones the struggle should not be formulated as a fight between the two lines Such conflict was thus essentially confined to the towns especially Lhasa The result was that in most rural areas of Tibet the ferocity of the Cultural Revolution was shifted away from the battle between the two factions and directed instead towards an attack on tradition under the call to smash The Four Olds In this effort no stone was left unturned The Red Guards may not have entered far into the countryside but CCP rule penetrated every crevice of the vast Himalayan landscape The Party s hegemony was so deeply entrenched at this time that even the way a peasant slept was said to indicate ideological orientation someone who lay with their head towards the west was accused of turning away from Chairman Mao since he was the Sun that rises in the East One of the crimes of which the Panchen Rinpoche was accused during his trial by Red Guards in Beijing was of having anti Party and reactionary dreams The Red Guards here it should be noted were not Tibetans but Chinese students The Cultural Revolution was exported from China to the High Plateau by the Communist Party much as opium was forced upon China by British gunboats and eagerly consumed by the Chinese Do we condemn the starving coolie for resorting to narcotics to escape the pains of his empty stomach or do we censure the drug pushing masters of a foreign empire who despite endless pleas and petitions directed the expeditions There is no doubt that individual Tibetans committed despicable acts in the course of the Cultural Revolution and many of them today hold senior posts in the regional Communist Party In fact such deeds are now viewed as a badge of party loyalty Wang fails to mention the fact that in China in the 1980s the CCP purged three categories of people who had committed crimes during the Cultural Revolution but that in Tibet despite repeated appeals by leaders such as the Panchen Rinpoche no such purge took place Hu Yaobang noted in his speech at the Tibet Work Forum in 1984 that he had received written submissions from both traditional leaders and CCP members urging the Party to expel such people instead he promoted them saying they could be reformed The real reason was that the Communist Party could not find anyone else they could trust to run Tibet so dutifully The stark contrast between the policy implemented in the TAR and that applied to the rest of China highlights the classic colonial tactic often observed in Western imperial practice whereby the hegemonic power seeks to cultivate loyal and servile natives to guard its interests China rules Tibet differently from China because there it faces the problems of being a colonial power Colonial Attitudes of the Chinese Intelligentsia How Wang asks was it possible for supposedly devout Tibetan Buddhists to destroy their temples and smash their holy statues The answer he urges upon us is that the Cultural Revolution was a liberating experience for the Tibetan peasantry who now forcefully asserted that they would rather be men in this life than souls in the next a fine phrase but utterly meaningless since it ignores the fact that such choices were made by people with bayonets at their back Wang is indeed quite unable to explain the actions of these newly liberated men once the bayonet was removed and as Wang himself attests the peasants rushed to rebuild the temples and monasteries and reinstate the Buddha s statue among the ruins Complaining that the Tibetans reaction to the liberalization of the eighties is hard to understand he offers some convoluted remarks about how the native now needed to atone for his sins Given Wang s current stature among the Chinese intelligentsia such propositions raise a much more serious and pervasive issue It seems that asking some Chinese intellectuals be they Communist Party officials liberal democrats or dissident writers to think about Tibet in an objective and reasonable manner is like asking an ant to lift an elephant it is beyond their capabilities and vision Their perception is impaired by racial prejudice and their imagination clouded by the convictions and certainties of all colonial masters Wang s essay exhibits the same arrogance of reasoning and contempt for the native mind into which he purports to have delved deep and to have felt the heartbeat of a simpleton His Tibetans are governed by demonic gods and live in a permanent state of fear in awe of terrifying spirits a state Wang ascribes to the Himalayan ecology Encountering alone this savage expanse of earth and sky inevitably produced a feeling of being overwhelmed by such preponderance a terrifying sense of isolation and helplessness repeated down the generations Fear provoked awe and awe gave rise to the totem of deities and monsters Fear formed the core of the Tibetans spiritual world 3 This approach will be familiar to anyone who has studied the implantation of Western colonialism in Asia and Africa or read the works of early Christian missionaries on the religions and cultures of the peoples they subjugated The strategic positioning of the natives as living in fear and awe of the gods drains the people of agency It is a device used by colonizers to strip their subjects of their humanity and of the ability to

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  • Blood In The Snows (Reply to Wang Lixiong) (cont'd) | Friends of Tibet (INDIA) Data-Base
    outweigh any earthly gains 5 Wang s colonial assumptions forestall any serious empirical investigation of Tibetan social reality The peasantry were certainly badly treated and the system of land distribution unjust yet because of Tibet s vast size and scant population there were not thousands of peasants without land or a right to livelihood nor were they plagued by economic uncertainties about their future In this sense they were better off than vast layers of the urban and rural poor in pre revolutionary China who proved more open to the CCP s promises of reform The Tibetan peasantry lived in isolated sparsely populated areas traditional society consisted of village and nomadic communities with few political tensions between the various groups Down to the middle of the twentieth century Tibet had an essentially pre modern economy based on agricultural self sufficiency The vast majority of peasant families produced their own food and clothing and there was little trade or market development Before the 1950s it was almost unheard of for tsampa barley flour the staple diet to be bought and sold in the market Even in a city like Lhasa families relied on relatives from the countryside to supply their basic needs This is not to paint a picture of happy smiling peasants their life was full of hardship In addition to economic inequalities the social system was sharply delineated between commoners and aristocracy with the former totally excluded from state affairs and burdened with heavy taxation by aristocratic and monastic landlords There was much resentment resulting in petitions to the Lhasa government from individual families The reasons why this never led to open socio economic rebellion are complex as are the causes of the failure of working class revolt in the industrialized West But economic grievances alone are rarely sufficient to spark an uprising a sense of injustice can be perceived on different levels and the development of class consciousness is many sided involving cultural social and economic factors Politics of Reincarnation The question of how the Tibetans belief system has impinged upon their social and political attitudes is indeed a vital one but demands far subtler treatment than Wang is able to provide Certainly a belief in karma and reincarnation would have a discernible influence both on people s everyday behaviour and in their response to larger issues Reincarnation is based on the idea that the beneficial effects of working hard and doing good deeds in this life will accumulate in the next one This does not have to imply passivity on the contrary it can inspire one to play an active role in order to alter one s position The implication of Wang s argument is that the Tibetans beliefs paralysed any capacity for social change this is far from true While not experiencing upheavals on the scale witnessed in some parts of the world during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries Tibetan society has undergone a continuous process of change and redefinition clearly visible in the religious reformation that took place There were also many political conflicts involving mass mobilizations often very violent on the basis of regional or sectarian interests Assassinations of Dalai Lamas were common only three lived to maturity others died in mysterious circumstances sometimes on the verge of assuming political power Far from being a paralysing factor the belief of retribution in their future lives did not even stay the Tibetans hands in murdering their highest religious authorities The Rebellion of 1959 is further proof should it be needed that the Tibetans have no natural aversion to violence or resistance But the uprising was carried out in the name of nationalism and in defence of cultural autonomy rather than as defiance of economic conditions In fact the rhetoric of modernity had most appeal for the young aristocrats and sons of wealthy merchants who had travelled outside the country and had the opportunity to witness changes abroad As in most parts of the non Western world the call for reform was primarily generated by external influences and supported by the new urban intelligentsia In 1943 when a group of radical Tibetans met in Lhasa to found the first Tibetan Communist Party they were all children of wealthy merchant or aristocratic families The bulwark of a reactionary religious community with mass peasant support meant there was very little chance of internal reform Earlier attempts such as the thirteenth Dalai Lama s invitation to English educationalists to run newly established schools in the 1930s had been similarly thwarted The students were all children of Tibetan aristocrats but the institutions were eventually closed down as a result of opposition from the monasteries who mobilized the masses through such slogans as In the Holy City of Lhasa there is an unholy school The religious community the Gelugpa Monastery in particular viewed any reform as a threat to its hegemony Once the Communists took over there was even less chance of reforms succeeding without coercion However liberal the early measures of the CCP may have been they were seen by the vast majority of Tibetan people as colonial impositions While in some respects the peasantry might have welcomed land reform or the abolition of feudal labour service the Party s anti religious policies antagonized them The positive effects of the early reforms were also undermined by the indiscriminate assault of the Anti Rebellion Campaign in which thousands of ordinary people accused of involvement in the 1959 Rebellion were sent to labour camps The question of reform in such a traditional society is a complex one but it is impossible to abstract it from the national element in the relationship between China and Tibet As long as criticisms of backward Tibetan practices were seen as coming from an alien source the response would naturally be a defensive one As Lu Xun said If a man slaps his own face he will not feel insulted whereas if someone else slaps him he will be angry Wang depicts the traditional society of Tibet

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