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  • Tibet Under China | Friends of Tibet (INDIA) Data-Base
    During the police crackdown automatic weapons were fired even into some homes Estimates of deaths varied from 80 to 400 The official Chinese figure was only 11 According to Tang Da xian a Chinese journalist who was in Lhasa at the time some four hundred Tibetans were massacred several thousand were injured and three thousand were imprisoned Events in Lhasa March 2nd 10th 1989 Tang Daxian London TIN 15 June 1990 At midnight on 7 March 1989 martial law was formally imposed in Lhasa About a year later on 1 May 1990 China announced the lifting of martial law 1990 However as pointed out by the first Australian Human Rights Delegation to China which was permitted to visit Tibet in July 1991 Though martial law had indeed been lifted on 1 May 1990 it continues to exist in all but name Amnesty International AI in its 1991 report also confirmed this adding the police and security forces retained extensive powers of arbitrary arrest and detention without trial In the run up to China s celebration of the 40th anniversary of its annexation of Tibet 146 criminals were arrested on 10 April 1991 and this was followed by more arrests announced at public sentencing rallies On the day of the celebration the whole of Lhasa was put under curfew In a sudden clampdown starting in February 1992 groups of ten Chinese personnel raided Tibetan houses in Lhasa and arrested anyone found in possession of anything deemed subversive these included photographs and tapes or books containing speeches or teachings of the Dalai Lama Over 200 were arrested Despite all measures of repression demonstrations continued throughout Tibet after 1987 Available reports confirm that between 27 September 1987 and end of 1992 there had been more than 150 demonstrations of various sizes throughout Tibet Violation of human rights of concern to Amnesty International in Tibet include the imprisonment of prisoners of conscience and of other political prisoners after unfair trials torture and ill treatment of detainees the use of the death penalty and extra judicial executions Constitutional and legal provisions in Tibet restrict the exercise of basic freedoms and lack human rights safeguards consistent with international standards People s Republic of China Amnesty International s Concerns in Tibet AI London January 1992 ASA 17 02 92 summary page All such manifestations i e demonstrations and political dissent of dissatisfaction with Chinese rule whether peacefully conducted or otherwise are viewed by the authorities as constituting illegal separatist activity and those who have led or participated in them have been punished with escalating force and severity Merciless repression remains in Tibet the order of the day Merciless Repression Human Rights in Tibet Asia Watch Washington DC Human rights violation in Tibet is all pervasive Available evidences suggest that China violates with impunity every norm of civilised conduct as laid down in international law books many of which it has undertaken to observe by affirmative acts of ratification such as the UN Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment Convention Against Torture and customary laws of nations such as the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights UDHR Arbitrary arrests Incommunicado Detentions Disappearances and Summary Executions Evidences of arbitrary arrests and incommunicado detention often resulting in disappearances and summary executions are cited in the 1990 report of AI which pointed out that over 1 000 people including prisoners of conscience were arrested after martial law was imposed in Lhasa in March and that some of them were summarily executed It also pointed out that evidences of persistent human rights violations in Tibet continued to come to light in 1989 including reports of numerous arbitrary arrests long term detention without charge or trial and torture Under Chinese rule in Tibet there is no question of informing prisoners of the grounds for their arrest and their right to legal remedies Arrest warrants are rarely issued or produced Grounds for arrest and imprisonment seem to be found in any kind of activity Tibetans have been arrested for speaking with foreigners or singing patriotic songs or putting up wall posters or possessing copies of an autobiography of the Dalai Lama or some video or audio cassette on him or for preparing a list of casualties during Chinese crackdown on demonstrations or for plotting and advising friends to wear the traditional Tibetan costume on Chinese national day Incommunicado detention is almost routine Often it is left to the device of the relatives of the arrested person to locate him or her Defying the Dragon China and Human Rights in Tibet LAWASIA and TIN London March 1991 p 33 A person taken into custody is declared arrested only after a period ranging from several days to months or even years During the period of the initial detention there is no question of informing the family since he is legally not arrested Torture In Tibet torture is the only known and expected method of interrogating prisoners China s signing of the Convention Against Torture on 12 December 1986 and its supposed coming into force at the end of 1988 did not alter the trend Methods and instruments of torture and ill treatment have been described by a number of former prisoners who had been subjected to them These include indiscriminate beating with anything available on hand such as electric batons kicking punching hitting with rifle butt stick and even iron bar In prison cruel and degrading methods of torture for the purpose of extracting confessions have been reported These include setting of guard dogs on prisoners use of electric batons especially on women prisoners in extremely perverted and degrading manners inflicting cigarette burns administration of electric shock etc One recent refugee from eastern Tibet who was a member of the Chinese Public Security Bureau described thirty three methods of torture of prisoners New methods of torture are being constantly devised and this has been acknowledged in at least one internal party document in Tibet To Control Others First Control Yourself

    Original URL path: http://friendsoftibet.org/databank/chinahistory/chinah2.html (2016-04-25)
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  • Tibet and China: Brothers or Neighbours | Friends of Tibet (INDIA) Data-Base
    regards the suffering and human rights struggle of the Tibetan people with sympathy and support Although some are sceptical or hold different degrees of opposition this does not obscure our general support for the Tibetans struggle against tyranny As Chinese democracy dissidents we have to stand at the forefront of an era First of all we have to tell people that the urgent task at hand is to put our efforts into ending the dictatorship of the Chinese Communists reform China s social system realize democracy freedom human rights and the rule of law Only under such preconditions can the people have the opportunity to decide what kind of society and political system they want In recent years Chinese democracy dissidents have been very concerned about the Tibetan question From many discussions and observations they have concluded three principles First is the principle of democracy which means the Tibetan people have the right to decide their own fate and way of life The right to self determinations is affirmed other nationalities cannot decide for them Second is the principle of peace which means opposition to the use of violence as a solution to the question of separation The army should absolutely not be used to massacre unarmed people Third is the principle of transition If at present there exists a great chasm on the question of separation which cannot be solved then there can be long term negotiations First allow Tibet to realize a high level of self autonomy After 5 to 10 years under the conditions of harmony and mutual respect then engage in further discussion for solutions After everyone has experienced over a long period understanding and befriending one another and received mutual benefits then the separatism question will no longer be so important If such conditions exist for a long time and the people of Tibet still want independence and feel that being neighbours is better than brothers and sisters they can also through a plebiscite determine their own future China s future democratic government must respect Tibet s choice Overseas Chinese democracy dissidents are fond of the following saying Without a democratic China there can be no separation Once China is democratic there is no need for independence This saying naturally has its own rationale but I feel whether necessary or not only the Tibetans have the right to determine their own fate For so many years in the past this world was much more divided than now and many years into the future may be there will be a commonwealth a global village The unification or separation that we pursue today is only a ripple in the river of history The highest principle which we pursue should be what is the welfare and true will of the people and their freedom of choice I once said a marriage stems from mutual consent only mutual willingness is sufficient Divorce happens when only one side insists on its own And a marriage without the freedom of divorce

    Original URL path: http://friendsoftibet.org/databank/chinahistory/chinah1.html (2016-04-25)
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  • How To Be Censored By China Online (AP | NY | December 3, 2002) | Friends of Tibet (INDIA) Data-Base
    equality were all blocked as were eight of the top 10 results using democracy China and dissident China Seven of the top 10 were blocked using Taiwan alone and revolution China has been trying to combat independence movements in Tibet and considers Taiwan its territory Democracy and human rights have also been politically sensitive topics for the communist government The country often blocks an entire Web site even if only parts of the site contain sensitive information Edelman said For instance it blocks several sites for leading US universities including Columbia University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Edelman noted that the blocked university sites host campus pro democracy groups One MIT also hosts scrambling software that makes e mail unreadable to censors According to a test Tuesday using Berkman s tools The Associated Press also found that Berkman s site was inaccessible in China though Harvard s site was reachable Edelman said the Berkman site had been available before the censorship report was posted Edelman said the center launched the research because few specifics were available about Internet censorship in China though China is widely known to control its residents access People often ask us and ask others what

    Original URL path: http://friendsoftibet.org/databank/chinageneral/chinag25.html (2016-04-25)
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  • Ominous Omens For Hong Kong | Friends of Tibet (INDIA) Data-Base
    newsrooms to censor themselves on a range of topics from aggressively covering some local tycoons to weighing in on sensitive issues involving China It is not that anyone says you can t do something said one senior reporter It is that the rules are well known We control ourselves It is a matter of business said another reporter Everyone is drooling after the China market and the wealthy owners of our newspapers are no different They don t want to offend The tone was set in 2000 when China s leader Jiang Zemin blew up at a Hong Kong reporter at a news conference I m addressing you as an elder I m not a reporter But I have seen too much and it s necessary to tell you In reporting if there are errors you must be responsible The same year Wang Fengchao a mainland official in Hong Kong said the Hong Kong media should not be allowed to report on Taiwanese or Tibetan independence even though Beijing has no constitutional right to interfere in Hong Kong s policies Willy Lam the South China Morning Post s respected China editor was dismissed many suspect for his long standing reportage on inside moves among China s leaders In 2001 Jasper Becker the paper s seasoned Beijing correspondent was also fired The new regulations that threaten to codify timidity are rooted in Article 23 of the Basic Law the mini constitution that governs Hong Kong Drawn up by the National People s Congress in Beijing 10 months after the Tiananmen Square uprising Article 23 calls for special penalties for crimes against the state The Hong Kong authorities were left to come up with precise language and postponed doing so immediately after the 1997 handover it would have been too much for

    Original URL path: http://friendsoftibet.org/databank/chinageneral/chinag26.html (2016-04-25)
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