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  • Frozen Trail to Merica
    Ice Age This servant of God was Bishop of the country which the books call Thile but which Northmen call Iceland It must be said that this is an appropriate name for the Island as there is plenty of ice both on land and on sea On the sea there is sea ice which fills up the northern harbors in great quantity and on the high mountains of the country there are permanently frozen glaciers The Saga of Bishop Gudmundur cira 1350 Translated from Sigurdsson et al Biskupa Saga I II 1858 78 2 5 In 1360 an Icelandic Bishop Oddsson wrote The inhabitants of Greenland of their own free will have abandoned the true faith and joined themselves with the folk of America In 1364 the author of the Inventio Fortunatae wrote of nearly 4000 people who entered the indrawing seas beyond Greenland who never returned About 1350 on the shores of James Bay Ca a stanza maker who spoke old Norse created an oral stanza confirming to the Drottkvaett format He created simple pictographs to cue the future teacher which stanza to say when 3 17 On the wonderful slippery water On the stone hard water all went

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/ (2016-04-26)
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  • Frozen Trail to Merica
    of the Greenland people who sailed to America is history found in no other book Long Houses on Ungava Bay The longhouses on Ungava Bay are solid evidence that the people described by the Maalan Aarum came to America The plot of the Frozen Trail to Merica books was based on the evidence found in these longhouses Thomas E Lee researched the longhouses on Pamiok Island He concluded Five of the twelve Longhouses on Ungava Bay can be matched in the Old Norse settlements in size construction shape partitions vestibules ember pits and in the trash heaps Lee 1970 Lee thought that there were three phases of occupation of the longhouses A very brief Norse phase followed by a Dorset phase Then later he thought the Thule Eskimos occupied the site During Lee s investigation someone found a Norse ax and moved it away from the research area When Lee found out about the ax the artifact was out of context and could not be dated Lee also found skeletons in stone lined graves Some of the skulls appeared to be Norse skulls view video of the evidence Viking Visitors to North America by Tony Ianzelo by Anthony Kent National Film Board of Canada A decade later Patrick Plummet led another archaeological expedition to the Ungava long houses Plummet was obviously better financed by the Canadian Government His research team used helicopters and other high technological support including Carbon Dating Plummet s timeline from the carbon dating indicated that Lee s Norse phase happened during 0 500 AD The people might have been a northern European culture which was used to construction using large stones The Danish culture which left large stone construction in England might be a candidate for the first occupation The Dorset Phase was probably the Dorset culture a culture that developed in America Lee s Thule phase was probably the Greenlander Lenape migration of about 1350 There is still an intellectual debate about the Thule The accepted hypothesis is that Thule developed in the center of Canada and migrated to Davis Strait where they intermarried with a few Norse The alternate hypothesis is that the Thule developed from Dorset intermarriage with Norse people and migrated to central Canada The first hypothesis fits into the Eurocentric paradigm only natives were in America when Europe invaded The evidence favors the second hypothesis Lee could identify European skulls but he might not have been able to tell the difference between a Norse and a Thule site based on stone artifacts alone Lee had not expected to find any metal objects Never the less an ancient Norse ax was found The ax may have been found in context but Plummet who was then a member of Lee s team apparently moved the ax When Lee found out about the ax it was out of context A professional feud between Lee and Plummet apparently began In 1982 Plummet gave a description of the longhouses around Ungava Bay and sums up excavation

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/Artifacts.html (2016-04-26)
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  • Frozen Trail to Merica
    many American samples of Lenape DNA have been thrown away because their DNA markers showed DNA Y chromosomes from those 17 northern European nations The answer to that question is harder to quantify but the evidence that the pre selection process occurred is shown by the illustration below The web site Y Haplo groups in the World male Haplo group DNA data illustrates that the Eurocentric paradigm causes distortion in DNA evidence Pieces of the illustrations have been clipped and rearranged to show the problem caused by the Eurocentric Paradigm Part of the paradigm is the belief that no European came to America before 1500 AD The distortion is shown by the DNA for Greenland and Iceland Note That Iceland and Norway appear to have similar Y chromosomes as expected from history Before the Little Ice Age Greenland and Iceland had similar DNA because the Greenland culture was similar to Iceland Evidence from Greenland graves showed that the people in Greenland were buried in clothes only slightly behind the fashions of Norway But the DNA for Greenland is shown in the Y Haplo groups of the world as distinctly different than the DNA for Iceland Over half of the male DNA in Iceland is Haplo groups is R1A R1B Greenland still has 58 6 of the males with European DNA mostly R1A and R1B The European DNA is not shown on Greenland In the Y Haplo group presentation The American DNA may be distorted because the DNA scientists with Eurocentric paradigms believed that they should remove all samples showing European contamination But thousands of Lenape migrated from Greenland to America in 1350 Over half of the men would have had European DNA That European DNA might be found in over half of all Lenape speaking Americans Tevis Thompson a male descendant of Powhatten has European DNA So Powhatten had European DNA The English men of Jamestown were dealing with cousins The cousins had walked throughout America long before the Englishmen had sailed across the Atlantic back to top Wallace s newest and most surprising discovery is a set of genetic markers found only in the Objiwa and other tribes living near the Great Lakes the markers are not found in any other native Americans or in Asia We just don t know how it got there Wallace says but it is clearly related to the European population The simple answer would be the DNA arrived with the European colonists but the strain is different enough from the existing European lineage that it must have left the Old World long before Columbus US News and World Report Jan 20 2001 pp 37 40 Comment Wallace measured long before Columbus in milliniums not cecnturies The best estimate of the origin of the genetic markers to date is 18 000 years before present But the European genetic markers have not yet been found for sure in North America skeletons who died before 700 years ago Thus the genetic markers may be biological evidence

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/Biological.html (2016-04-26)
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  • Frozen Trail to Merica
    on the voyage may have wanted to believe that the strange Americans were pagan That belief made beheading the Americans which they did an action without remorse The military commanders may have reported their beliefs to Queen Elizabeth along with the advice that the English should take the land away from the ignorant pagans If White had painted the Americans so they appeared to be Catholics his paintings might caused even greater harm to them But he painted the Americans to look like religious people He might have hoped his Queen would avoid the tragic mistake of thinking that the Americans were ignorant pagans Queen Elizabeth may have understood After she read Harriot s report with White s paintings included no official English voyage returned to America during her reign Even Walter Raleigh who had originally received the Virginia Charter from her was asked to sail to Spanish South America King james I may have known about the presence of Christians in America He put into his charters a clause that said the English colonies could not settle on Christian lands Ivor Noel Hune describes in The Virginia Adventure how heavily armored men waged a war 1610 1613 to secure the English foothold in the Chesapeake Bay Those brutal men apparently chose to ignore King James clause Hume records that the armored men stood with awe in front of a temple Then they burned the temple and marched on to burn the next village and the next etc So at least a few of the brutal English men knew the Lenape were not pagans John Smith in 1628 copied Thomas Herriot verbatim but apparently Smith a military man did not reflect on Harriot s words Annotated pages from the text of Captain John Smith Writings with Other Narratives of Roanoke Jamestown and the First English Settlement of America by Capt John Smith and edited by James Horn This section is taken from the Second Voyage to Virginia by Arthur Barlowe which may have been copied from Thomas Hariot MYTHS Frode Omdahl found a book by Lewis Spence Lewis Spence was a Scotsman studying Native American Ethnography Omdahl quotes from a 1989 reprint of Lewis Spence s The Myths of the North American Indians 1914 About th eLenape aka Algonquin myths Spence writes Chapter III Algonquian Myths and Legends The Algonquin Indians have perhaps a more extensive mythology than the majority of Indian peoples and as they have been known to civilization for several centuries their myths have the advantage of having been thoroughly examined This tale is surprisingly reminiscent of the Scandinavian myth of Balder who would only die if struck by a sprig of mistletoe by his brother Hodur Scandinavian Analogies But although Maslum was slain he subsequently appears in Algonquian myths as Lox or Loki the chief of the wolves a mischievous and restless spirit In his account of the Algonquian mythology Charles Godfrey Leland appears to think that the entire system has been sophisticated by Norse mythology

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/Cultural.html (2016-04-26)
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  • Frozen Trail to Merica
    Discussion from the National Parks Travelers site Myron Paine On December 7th 2009 Leni Lenape means Pure abiding with Pure Reiter T Sherwin The Viking and the Red Man Vol 1 p 168 The Pure means pure as in being a Christian The Lenape ancestors had been Christians for 350 years before they walked across frozen Davis Strait to become the Lenape the Mahigan and the Shawnee See www frozentrail org Click on DOWNLOADS iTEMS 7 or 8 The migration of the Leni Lenape is recorded in the oldest True American History reply Bob Janiskee On December 8th 2009 Thanks for the feedback Myron The map and related information at that website you ve referenced are very interesting As to the meaning of the term Lenni Lenape well I m just going to step out of the picture and let others decide the mater I just don t know for sure There are around three dozen separate languages in the Algonquian language family and I find every single one of them confusing Sources I ve consulted carry interpretations of Lenni Lenape variously spelled Leni Lenape ranging from true people to pure people to real men to pure men to original men I suspect that if I had chosen to use the term pure people in my article I would have caught flak from people championing other translations Again thank you for your comment and the additional information You ve convinced me that the story of the Leni Lenape migration is something I should know more about reply Myron Paine On December 10th 2009 Bob I was confused about the Leni Lenape name in the beginning The true real and original people labels came from our Euramerican ancestors who had difficulty describing a pure person Especially because our ancestors brain washed each other into believing the natives had no religion My Shawnee and Leni Lenape authorities insist they behave more like Christians than Euramericans do Then I found Reider T Sherwin He took word lists from 25 Algonquin speaking tribes and combined them In the Viking and the Red Man Vol 1 Page 158 159 he lists all those names you and I found He shows that the Norse aa bye turned into ape In America and abide in English So the end of the name definitely means abide with Norse and Algonquin syntax is different than English so the Len leads the ape The letters R and L are formed in the mouth by almost the same mechanics So R and L are often interchanged by people living in different times and spaces There is the Powhatten Renape Museum and the Lenape High School both in New Jersey Whether the word is Renape or Lenape the ancestors were Leni Lenape and Sherwin recorded that they called their fore fathers Noosh Norsk pg 130 Len means pure because Len morphed from Hrein in Old Norse Ren and rein still means pure in modern Norwegian Before the Little Ice Age a Catholic Bishop built the cathedral in Greenland He named the fjord and the island at the mouth of the fjord Hrein I encourage you to honor the Leni Lenape who have endured so much of EurAmericans actions caused by misunderstanding Please use the true definition the pure abiding with the pure I will send you the two pages from Sherwin defining the Leni Lenape and the pages defining the Noosh fore fathers reply Bob Janiskee On December 10th 2009 Fascinating stuff Myron I ll be sure to keep that info and your recommended translation in mind when writing about the Leni Lenape reply aubinc On December 10th 2009 For your information to all there is no R in most native languages exept for word borrowed from languages spoken in Europe Claude Aubin Wabanaki also Bemdynick back to top reply on goebel On December 11th 2009 Hmmm For as long as I can remember Lennie Lenape was a word described to mean Original People I dont know who put this meaning forth but It seemed to make sense as they were considered the Grandfather of several other Algonquin Nations I suppose off shoots who moved further away in search of food and hunting territory To suggest pure People perhaps is in line with original people To suggest pure means Christian raises some questions Were pagans then considered not pure Did the early vikings who inhabited America follow the christian religion at all Were they not only pretty much abandoned in Greenland by everybody including the church In the course of several hundred years would they not lose any Christian teachings they once had and as they blended and had contact with other natives here and go with more natural beliefs which focused on their survival Just questions not neccessarily meant to differ on any opinion or propositions Yours in the search of truth and history Ron Gunn Goebel reply Cathy Chadwick On December 12th 2009 Thank you for your comment Mr Paine but Leni Lenape does not mean pure abiding with pure It means Ordinary People While there are many Lenape Christians today historically we were never Christians We pre date Christianity by 13 000 years Many Lenape their descendants do not support the Bering Strait theory believing our Creation Stories that we have always been here in the east The link you site is erroneously skewed to support their own theories If you would like correct research regarding my People I recommend the late Dr Herb Kraft Dr David M Oeistreicher We are aware there are many published and Internet sites with incorrect information I and others have been working for many years regarding this but if one refuses to correct their mis information there is not much we can do I am Lenape of Six Nations Reserve Ohswekan Ontario Canada a Lenape Historian Consultant Artist Educator Storyteller I have attended this wonderful exhibit am happily acquainted with Dr Oestriecher I was honored to recently be able to welcome Lenape descendants

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/Historical.html (2016-04-26)
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  • Frozen Trail to Merica
    accents changed depending of the voices of the people that intermarried with the Lenape along a 4 000 mile migration route As the Lenape migrated more than 25 tribes evolved from the main Lenape group Each tribe developed its own accents and used new borrowed words from the neighbors Some meanings for the same sounds deviated from the original Lenape About 1650 the French began to study the Algonquin tribe near Montreal Then the Europeans and EurAmericans used the word Algonquin to label most the language of most Lenape tribes and several sea people s languages Although the language of the sea people s descendants in America is called Algonquin their language did derive from Lenape speaking people In this web site languages will be labeled as follows Lenape Lenape language and the language for the 25 or more tribes that evolved from Lenape including Old Norse Algonquin the other Algonquin languages and where necessary for accurate quotations of authors who did not know about the Lenape history The word Algonquin was used in this web site until about 2010 Older web site text will not be changed Old Norse the modern precise definitions of Lenape Linguistic Evidence For Lenape aka Algonquin and the Old Norse Language Roger Williams in his book Key to the Indian Language 1644 had no trouble believing the Algonquins were speaking Norse he wrote There are two kinds of Old Norse One is called Gamle Norsk Old Norse the still older language is called Ur Norsk Primitive Norse By marking the various words used by several tribes it should be possible to determine when each Norse settlement was made in America I am in hopes it may be possible to do this at some future date as it would give an idea how long the

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/Linguistic.html (2016-04-26)
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  • Frozen Trail to Merica
    Ice Age This servant of God was Bishop of the country which the books call Thile but which Northmen call Iceland It must be said that this is an appropriate name for the Island as there is plenty of ice both on land and on sea On the sea there is sea ice which fills up the northern harbors in great quantity and on the high mountains of the country there are permanently frozen glaciers The Saga of Bishop Gudmundur cira 1350 Translated from Sigurdsson et al Biskupa Saga I II 1858 78 2 5 In 1360 an Icelandic Bishop Oddsson wrote The inhabitants of Greenland of their own free will have abandoned the true faith and joined themselves with the folk of America In 1364 the author of the Inventio Fortunatae wrote of nearly 4000 people who entered the indrawing seas beyond Greenland who never returned About 1350 on the shores of James Bay Ca a stanza maker who spoke old Norse created an oral stanza confirming to the Drottkvaett format He created simple pictographs to cue the future teacher which stanza to say when 3 17 On the wonderful slippery water On the stone hard water all went

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/index.html (2016-04-26)
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  • Frozen Trail to Merica
    the mild weather the many deer and also foxes HUNTERS GO EVERYWHERE 3 4 The poor lonely but tough men became hunters and left those living in strong houses 3 5 Separated from home like breasts on the same body the hunters became tougher extremely good and they reached for the sky 3 6 The hunters camped in the north east south and west CHRIST TRUMPS ODIN 3 7 The man who ruled in that old northern land that they all left was baptized to be pure 3 8 The discouraged people were worried about worn out land they had to abandon The priest said We decent people should go somewhere else 3 9 The common people in the east stole away the brothers abandoned all with great discouragement and again discouragement 3 10 In a short while the weeping weak dirty needy people from the burnt land saved themselves and rested on the other side EXPLORING AKOMEN Land of Haakon s men where Men People 3 11 After moving down from the snowy land and discreetly leaving the cousins separated through out all the land 3 12 Where there was little pack ice in heaped ice with a lot of snow drifts the white geese ruled and the white bear ruled 3 13 Floating up the streams in their canoes our fathers were rich They were in the light when they were at these Islands THE DECISION 3 14 Head Beaver and Big Bird said Let us go to Akomen 3 15 All say they will go along All who are free to go 3 16 Those of the north agreed Those of the east agreed Over the waters Over the frozen sea They went to enjoy it THE MIGRATION 3 17 On the wonderful slippery water On the

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