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  • Frozen Trail to Merica
    that have over 15 000 comparisons between the Lenape language and Old Norse Sherwin accumulated more than 40 000 Lenape words A very important result is that Sherwin s comparisons show that the Lenape syllables Len Lin Ren or Rin can only mean pure if they are found anywhere in any Lenape word Sherwin s comparisons can also decipher most other Lenape syllables So a researcher can look at better listen to the syllables in a Maalan Aarum stanza to determine if they pass the Drottkvaett format an oral format to let the listener know if what he hears is the same as what was said miles away and months ago Then a researcher can refer to Sherwin s comparisons to determine the meaning of each syllable The 1350 stanza maker clarified what Len meant In MA 3 7 he describes a Bishop who was immersed to be Len People who were Len lived by the ethics of Christ Lenape tribes with the word Len in their name lived the ethics of Christ The Carte shows that most of the people who lived north of the Great Lakes were either Len or Christinaux people Around the Great Lakes the Ojibwa which means Greatest preferred to stress Great instead of Les but they and the Albans called the sun Jesus also back to top The next stage of the Lenape migration south of Big Stone Lake is not well defined on the Carte The Maalan Aarum has stanzas that correspond to known circumstances ancient names left on maps and topographical features In MA 4 14 the stanza maker was standing in Sisselaki Buffalo land looking east to fish country toward the Great Lakes Near Big Stone Lake on the border between South Dakota and Minnesota there is a town called Sisseton The Sissel Sisse syllables appear to imply that the original meaning was Buffalo A stanza maker standing in Sisseton SD today would be able to make the same sketch and stanza The wording of MA 4 17 which is about ten dead men appears to be duplicate recording of the episode punched into the Kensington Rune Stone which is now on display in a museum in Alexandria MN The killing of ten men at once might have been a shocking episode for the Lenape Their ethics may have included the Ten Commandments which includes Do not kill humans The episode yields a firm calendar date 1362 for the MA 4 17 stanza So the date on the Kensington Rune Stone 1362 and the location from the Maalan Aarum near Sisseton SD are known references to an area on the route of the Lenape Epic The Maalan Aarum stanzas indicate that during the following generations the Lenape moved south to corn land The Big Sioux River starts close to Sisseton and flows relatively straight south into the corn county of South Dakota This may have been the route taken by the Lenape A string of Lenape names remain beside the Big

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  • Frozen Trail to Merica
    NY HAPGOOD Charles H 1966 Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings Chilton Co Philadelphia PA HAUGEN Einar 1942 Voyages to Vinland Alfred A Knopf New York NY HNAI STURTEVANT William C 1978 Handbook of North American Indians Smithsonian Institution Washington DC HOLAND Hjalmar R 1958 Explorations in America Before Columbus Twayne Publishers Inc NY HOLMES George 1962 The Later Middle Ages 1272 1485 Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd Edinburgh HORSFORD Eben Norton 1891 Norse Discovery of America Horsford Boston MA HUBBARD Brown Janet 1995 The Shawnee Chelsea House Pub NY HURT R Douglas 2002 The Indian Frontier 1763 1846 University of New Mexico Press Albuquerque NM HYDE George E 1962 Indians of the Woodlands from Prehistoric Times to 1725 University of Oklahoma Press Norman OK INGSTAD Helge 1966 Land Under the Pole Star St Martin s Press New York NY JRAD JESUITS Letters From Missions 1959 The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents St Martin s Press NY KENT Rockwell 1990 N by E University Press of New England Handover KEYS David 1999 Catastrophe Ballantine Books New York NY KOPPER Phillip 1986 The Smithsonian Book of North American Indians Smithsonian Books Washington DC LEE Thomas E 1968 Archaeological Discoveries Payne Bay Region Ungava 1966 University Lavel Quebec Canada 1971 Archaeological Investigations of a Longhouse Pamiok Island Ungava 1970 University Lavel Quebec Canada LEHANE Brendon 1981 The Northwest Passage Time Life Books Alexandria VI LITHGOW R A Douglas 1909 Native American Place Names of Massachusetts Applewood Books Bedford MA LLEWELLYN Karl N and Hoebel E Adamson 1941 The Cheyenne Way University of Oklahoma Press Norman OK MACKENZIE Sir Alexander 1966 Voyages from Montreal on the River St Lawrence Tuttle Rutland VT MAGNUSSON Magnus 2000 Scotland Atlantic Press MAGNUSSON Magnus and PALSSON Herman 1966 The Vinland Sagas The Norse Discovery of America New York University Press MALAURIE Jean 1982 The Last Kings of Thule E P Dutton Inc NY MASON Theodore K 1982 Two Against the Ice Amundsen and Ellsworth Dodd Mead Company NY MCCUTCHEN David 1993 The Red Record The Wallam Olum the Oldest Native North American History Pavley Publishing Group Inc Garden City Park NY MCKINLAY William Laird 1976 Karluk St Martin s Press NY MEDICINE Manitonquat 1994 The Children of the Morning Light Macmillian Publishing Co MOWAT Farley 1952 People of the Deer Little Brown and Co Boston MA 1965 Westviking the Ancient Norse in Greenland and North America Little Brown and Co Boston 1980 The World of Farley Mowat Atlantic Press 1989 Tundra Gibbs Smith Books Pub 1998 2000 The Wayfarers Steerforth Press CO Vermont 2001 High Latitudes An Arctic Journey Steerforth Press CO Vermont NEWMAN Peter C 1989 Empire of the Bay Viking Studio Madison Press Books OESTREICHER David M 1994 Unmasking the Walam Olum Bulletin of The Archaeological Society of New Jersey No 49 50 The Archaeological Society of New Jersey South Orange New Jersey OLESON Tryggvi J 1964 Early Voyages and Northern Approaches 1000 1632 McClelland and Stewart Ltd O MEARA Walter 1960 The Savage Country

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  • Frozen Trail to Merica
    ability Some of the historical events actually occurred as written Conjectural prose adds the unknown details of several events Most characters are fictional but under the same circumstances the actions of people would have been similar Maps are included to provide a scale of the panorama of places The factual fiction end notes contain relevant information to the story Frozen Trail to Merica Talerman 2007 Frozen Trail to Merica Tallerman

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  • Frozen Trail to Merica
    Mowat 1965 back to top Introduction of Christianity to Greenland The Greenlander and Eric sagas say that Leif Eriksson was the man who introduced Christianity to Greenland But Magnus Magnusson reported that Jon Johannesson of Iceland proved conclusively that Leif did not introduce Christianity to Greenland as the sagas report King Olaf s historians do not credit him with a Christian Greenland even though the sagas said that Leif made the introduction during King Olaf s reign Magnusson 1966 In Norway and in Iceland there is recorded evidence of a violent imposition of Christianity from the leading men of the country onto the common people A similar process probably happened in Greenland Historical Diet Despite the many sketches of Greenland people having livestock the diet of most Greenland farmhouses was over ninety percent fish seal and walrus They ate two percent of their diet as caribou The other eight percent came from the domestic livestock The more powerful landowners who also owned the biggest boats ate forty percent of their diet from fish seal and walrus Caribou was forty percent of their diet The powerful landowners may have received the larger share of the caribou as payment for shipping space on their boats Ingstad wrote about the milk products on a Greenland farm Ingstad 1966 Malaurie wrote in detail about processing seal by Eskimos Malaurie 1982 Clothing The clothing of Norse Greenland has been determined by examining the clothes of those Norse people buried The surprising revelations were that the people buried were wearing European style clothing even if much clothing appeared to be homemade with poorer cloth The fashion trend continued up to the 1400s From these revelations of the graves came conclusions that the Norse people did not adapt to their environment Norse descendants in South Dakota and Minnesota wear thermopacks parkas bibbed overalls and gloves inside heavy mittens But when archaeologists open their graves in the next century they are sure to find those Norse descendents buried in light weight suits white shirts dress shoes and frilly dresses of the latest fashion Hypothesis The clothes of the dead do not reveal the clothing worn in cold working conditions The Norse who walked away from Greenland would have been wearing cold weather clothes Neighbors of the Norse in Greenland The conclusions about Norse Greenlander s relations with their neighbors drawn from archaeology evidence is mixed There is little archaeology evidence to indicate sustained fighting There is more evidence of Norse artifacts in Eskimo sites The debate about the origin of the Inuit is typical An accepted hypothesis is that the Inuit culture rose in Northern Canada and spread eastward The primary evidence is the quality of the artifacts left behind The more skillfully crafted artifacts were made in Canada The cruder versions were made in Northern Greenland Thus the Inuit may have come from Canada and crowded the Norse But other authors have suggested that the Norse lived among the Eskimos They made cruder tools because they had been used to iron tools and were adapting to bone and stone The Norse descendents improved their handicraft as they spread west through the Arctic until their descendents in Canada produced more skillfully made artifacts Thus the Inuit may have originated from Norse and Exkimo people on their way to Canada back to top the Northern Settlement c 1340 SANDNES was Bishopric during early 1100 s The Northern Norse Settlement had 4 kirke churches 90 houses c1000 people Recent archaeology has uncovered An arrowhead that possibley came from America A lumo of authorite coal that possibly came from Rhode Island Weavings with buffalo and brown hair which also possibly came from America Intact houses were abandoned but no skeletons discovered the Southern Settlement c 1340 GARDAR was the Bishopric Tjodhilstat Foss were king s farms The Southern Norse Settlement had 14 kirke churches a monastery a nunnery and about 3000 people living in 207 houses Bishops resided in Greenland from 1112 to 1406 There where gaps Some Greenland Bishops never did go to Greenland Erik Island lies at the mouth of Eriksfjord where Erik the Red lived Hrein Island lies at the mouth of Hrein Fjord Hrein Fjord morphed into Einarsfjord Comment The Bishopric Gardar and the main shipping harbor were in Hrein Fjord After Erik the Red s time the political religious and economic power may have transferred to the people in Hrein Fjord Instead of calling themselves Greenlanders most of the populace would have said that they Hrein aa byy back to top Davis Strait Davis Strait lies north of the Atlantic Ocean between Greenland on the East and Baffin Islands on the West Davis Strait also lies above the continental shelf South of the strait the ocean floor plunges to the deepest depths of the Atlantic When the tide is rising large volumes of water moving slowly in the East Greenland Current of th Atlantic ocean are jammed into the smaller flatter volume of Davis Strait The water flow in South Davis Strait moves fater than over the depths of the ocean The momentum of the flow pushes the icebergs north into Davis Strait Ice is also calved from Baffin island the west Greenland glaciers and from Lancaster Jones and Smith Sounds This ice moves south through Davis Strait to collide with the East Greenland icebergs floating north The icebergs swirl in a massive counter clockwise eddy in Davis Strait When weather and ice permits the jumbled ice peels off and movs south along the Labrador coast Thus the shores of west Greenland are usually ice free while the east Labrador coast a thousand miles to the south is encased in a jumbled mass of ice lasting into the summer Ungava Penninsula and Ungava Bay Shallow Ungava Bay lies to the south of Hudson Strait The northeast shore of Ungava Peninsula near the Hudson Strait has several open water marvels because of the interaction of a shallow bottom and strong tides Ungava means hatching of streams in Old Norse The Peninsula is nearly devoid of trees but grows lichen that is food for the caribou But even if the peninsula appears barren there are some interesting structures located on the terrain The structures include the stone beacons Thor s hammer remains of an European village at Payne s Lake and the low walls at Pamiok and other places on the eastern shore Payne s Lake Payne Lake in the center of Ungava Peninsula has a set of twelve rectangular foundations with indications of stone floors one foundation for a larger building and evidence of a dam and a causeway for wheeled carts Lee 1968 Comment Payne Lake sounds as if it were an English name However the lake outline on a map looks like a frying pan upside down Panne is an Old Norse word meaning pan Thus the original name of Payne Lake has even odds that it was named by Norse after the pan shape as being named for an Englishman who walked through Leif s River Enterline proposed that Leif Eriksson landed at the River of Leaves Enterline s location corresponds to the descriptions found in Graenlendinga s Saga The latitude of the mouth of the river matches the sunrise sunset times described in the saga as does the existence of a large tidal surge Also the saga tells of an island north of the mouth of the river Barry Fell searched diligently from Labrador to Massachusetts for islands north of river mouths He reluctantly concluded there were none But Gyrfalcon Island lies north of the River of Leaves From the River of Leaves the travel directions of the subsequent saga trips follow existing coasts closely The only discrepancy between Enterline s location and the location described in the saga is the phrase never any frost all winter There would have been frost at the River of Leaves even in the warmest year But no one else has resolved that issue either Enterline 1972 Later scribes of the saga may have misunderstood a statement made in reference to the open water marvels and changed no water freezing to no frost Enterline s location is the most probable choice for Leif Eriksson s landing Grossvann An important word in the Sagas is Hope Also spelled Hoop or Hop Hope means tidal lake where a river runs into a lake before the water spills into the ocean Melville Lake emptying into Grosswater Bay best meets the requirements of Erik s Saga description of Hope a river into a lake and the lake into the sea Magnusson 1966 The Vikings probably called the approach to their Hope Grossvann Gross means large in both Norse and English Norse vann means English water English mapmakers would have accepted Gross and changed vann to water without giving much thought as to why the Norse word vann had been used by the local people Carlson sketched a map found on the Spirit Pound Stone 1 The map is similar to the east coast of Labrador from Newfoundland to Grosswater Bay The runes on the stone say in runes Vinland Hoop Take two days Carlson 1998 Norse ships would have taken two days to sail that distance Whoever carved the stone knew Norse runes Vinland Hoop Hope the sailing time and enough details to draw the islands in Grosswater Bay Thus two independent determinations of Hope imply strongly that Hope was in Grosswater vann Bay back to top Indrawing Seas There is universal agreement among historians that the Indrawing Seas referred to Hudson Strait The tidal surge in Hudson Strait can rise thirty eight feet or higher The current in Hudson Strait can move faster than men can row Early explorers wrote about whirlpools and the roaring of the tides Adam De Bremen wrote of an episode where the crew of Harald the Hardrada s boat rowed hard to escape the Indrawing Seas De Bremen 1070 Norse King Harald the Hardrada During that era 985 1066 the people committed to the Vikings called themselves Norse and their land Norvege The King of Norvege Harald the Hardrada used a court farm at Foss anytime he was traveling in Greenland Then in 1064 using local pilots the Viking fleet tried to follow the route of the Norse hunters westward from Greenland In 1070 Adam De Bremen wrote part of the story that enterprising Northmen s Prince Harold sic who explored the extent of the Northern Ocean with his ship but was scarcely able by retreating to escape in safety from the gulf s enormous abyss where before his eyes the vanishing bounds of earth were hidden in gloom Open Water Marvels and Ungava Bay The open water marvels are called polynya in modern Arctic books Polynyas are areas that remain ice free or nearly so throughout the winter Mowat 1998 2000 Today satellite photographs clearly show the open water marvels in Ungava Bay Comment The primary conditions for some polynyas appear to be a high tidal surge a narrowing of the main flow channel and a shallow sea floor before the water reaches shore The open water marvels shown on this drawing of Ungava Bay were derived from Fig 7 of The Frozen Echo by Seaver 1996 Fig 7 is a view of Davis Strait from a satellite photograph by ESSA VIII in February 1995 Fig 7 was xeroxed directly from The Frozen Echo book The Xerox was then scanned into PhotoShop and cropped to show only Ungava Bay The open water marvel detail was scaled to match the map above and aligned using Akpatok Island at the base point Finally the outlines of the open water marvels as shown by the satellite were drawn onto the map Hudson Bay Hudson Bay is usually frozen six months of the year From December to June the ice enables walking journeys from west Ungava Peninsula shores to the west and east coasts of James Bay A similar journey by boat in the summer would be plagued by swarms of mosquitos and flies For twenty seven years during the Little Ice Age Hudson Bay would have had open water for only two months in the summer For a few years Hudson Bay might have been frozen year around No known open water marvels exist in Hudson Bay The tidal surge is more sedate than on the east coast of Ungava Peninsula James Bay Jesuit Albanel was one of the first Frenchman to reach James Bay His description of James Bay is summarized below JRAD 1953 The southern sump of James Bay is the body of water farthest south in Hudson Bay The western side of James Bay is swampy Although the ebb and flow of the tide occurs at the south end of James Bay the area can be described as land locked water Rivers retain fresh water at their mouths and fresh water extends for a long distance into the bay The sea water recedes a great distance at low tide Albanel estimated the distance to be over forty miles In the vast area where the water left all that could be seen was mud and rocks with most of the surface clear of water At low tides the rivers flowing out over the mud and becoming lost in the mud could not float canoes Comment The open water effect is created by different circumstances than a surging tidal flow The climate at south James Bay is 10 to 15 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than Hudson Bay Warm weather systems sweeping off the plains of North America pass over southern James Bay Streams running under the snow add warmer water to the south tip of the bay Wild animals birds and plants leave a residue of manure feathers leaves and shattered vegetation on the ice which catch the sun s warmth The cumulative effect of these factors is to slow the freezing and speed the thawing of the water at the south tip of James Bay Blonds Charles Earl Funk wrote a foreword to Sherwin s The Viking and the Red Men on February 1940 He wrote the tribe of white Indians some with fair hair and gray eyes said to be still inhabiting the west shore of James Bay and speaking a Cree dialect has also been advanced as such an indication of Norse settlement Sherwin 1940 Saglok Saglok is found on modern maps An Indian word with an Old Norse translation along a coast where maps show English names for most other places is an interesting oddity Saglok is a combined word from Norse Sagn meaning tradition knowledge and lokke meaning decoy false The name could mean false knowledge The Viking men had been carried away from Leif s huts because the outgoing Indrawing Sea floated Torfinn Karlsevne s ships onto the Labrador coast The place was at the correct latitude The Vikings could determine latitude to within thirty miles Leif s description of Leif s River appeared to match Struamsfjord but Leif s huts were not there So three years later the defeated disparing departing Vikings may have labeled the location as false knowledge back to top Merica Merica may have derived from Marrike Marrike is a combination of Marr meaning Sea and Rike meaning land Ocean Lands was a name for the lands in the oceans west of Greenland Stromsted 1973 Comment Ptolemy s map of the world made in the second century shows a Serica on the north coast of China A 15 th century map prepared by Bartholomew Columbus shows Serica as the northern area of the Mondo Novo above the portion labeled Asia Chistopher Columbus may have been a crew member on Johannes Skolp s ship that sailed into Davis Strait in 1476 There is no way to determine if Columbus heard Merica and thus thought he was near Serica or if his brother simply copied Serica along with other names from the second century map While a change from M to S is rare these two sounds do occur in front of the mouth The transformation is possible Merica spoken by the local people may have sounded like Serica to Columbus ear that was striving to hear names from Asia Norumvege Nor is the name of an ancient king The story of King Nor is in the Orkney Saga King Nor came from east Russia Finland and conquered the land along the Norwegian coast This land was later known as Norvege meaning Nor s way Later on the country was split up into many small states until Harald Luva collected the states again in c970 and made Norway one state Norumvege is equivalent to Norvege Um om means of so the original name may have meant of Norvege Norumvege was a real place for the Jesuits in Arcadia They mentioned the name many times as a place in the neighborhood and used the location of Norumvege as a basis for directions The location was across the bay from Port Royal Nova Scotia The center of Norumvege was somewhere between St John s River and the Kennebec River The few Norse ships that sailed west after 1263 did not stop at Greenland Using a latitude device and sun compass for navigation they sailed on the East Greenland Current westward into the Labrador Current Then they coasted south past Newfoundland and Nova Scotia until they could swing north into the ice free ports of Norumvege Returning from Norumvege was relatively easy Ships caught a wind across the Labrador Current to the Gulf Stream Then even if a decent wind never came again the ships had a free but maybe slow ride home Akomen The people in the Walam Olum were going to a land called Akomen Brinton 1885 The Native American Place Names in Massachusetts has these listings Accomac early place name of Plymouth means land on the other side or beyond the water Accomemeck of which Massassoit was sachem Douglas Lithgow 1909 2001 Accomemeck may have been derived from Haakon

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  • Frozen Trail to Merica
    that have over 15 000 comparisons between the Lenape language and Old Norse Sherwin accumulated more than 40 000 Lenape words A very important result is that Sherwin s comparisons show that the Lenape syllables Len Lin Ren or Rin can only mean pure if they are found anywhere in any Lenape word Sherwin s comparisons can also decipher most other Lenape syllables So a researcher can look at better listen to the syllables in a Maalan Aarum stanza to determine if they pass the Drottkvaett format an oral format to let the listener know if what he hears is the same as what was said miles away and months ago Then a researcher can refer to Sherwin s comparisons to determine the meaning of each syllable The 1350 stanza maker clarified what Len meant In MA 3 7 he describes a Bishop who was immersed to be Len People who were Len lived by the ethics of Christ Lenape tribes with the word Len in their name lived the ethics of Christ The Carte shows that most of the people who lived north of the Great Lakes were either Len or Christinaux people Around the Great Lakes the Ojibwa which means Greatest preferred to stress Great instead of Les but they and the Albans called the sun Jesus also back to top The next stage of the Lenape migration south of Big Stone Lake is not well defined on the Carte The Maalan Aarum has stanzas that correspond to known circumstances ancient names left on maps and topographical features In MA 4 14 the stanza maker was standing in Sisselaki Buffalo land looking east to fish country toward the Great Lakes Near Big Stone Lake on the border between South Dakota and Minnesota there is a town called Sisseton The Sissel Sisse syllables appear to imply that the original meaning was Buffalo A stanza maker standing in Sisseton SD today would be able to make the same sketch and stanza The wording of MA 4 17 which is about ten dead men appears to be duplicate recording of the episode punched into the Kensington Rune Stone which is now on display in a museum in Alexandria MN The killing of ten men at once might have been a shocking episode for the Lenape Their ethics may have included the Ten Commandments which includes Do not kill humans The episode yields a firm calendar date 1362 for the MA 4 17 stanza So the date on the Kensington Rune Stone 1362 and the location from the Maalan Aarum near Sisseton SD are known references to an area on the route of the Lenape Epic The Maalan Aarum stanzas indicate that during the following generations the Lenape moved south to corn land The Big Sioux River starts close to Sisseton and flows relatively straight south into the corn county of South Dakota This may have been the route taken by the Lenape A string of Lenape names remain beside the Big

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  • Frozen Trail to Merica
    a concern for English investors in the Hudson s Bay Company In the late 17th century many of the Christians in England believed that English explorers should behave better than the Spanish Catholics The Spanish in America had committed numerous atrocities including the massacre of French at Fort Caroline in 1565 Most English charters had a phrase prohibiting settlement in Christian areas The King of England tried to enforce that doctrine because the devout Christians in England expected English colonies in America should avoid areas where Christians or Catholics were already living That situation may have been one of the reasons that the Hudson s Bay Company advocated that the proper name for the bay was Hudson Bay The name Bai D Hudson does appear on the 1720 Carte du Canada But the French map makers kept the original the Mer Christiane label along with Deani s name and the 1619 date That data was moved into the Arctic north of Baffin Island The French spelling of Christiane is still on the 1720 Carte du Canada but in a location where most modern map viewers judge the label as absurd in an impossible location If French knew how to spell Christiane why did they not use Christiane below Hudson Bay on the map The map makers may not have used Christiane on the land south of Hudson Bay for similar reasons The Hudson Bay traders may have heard the word Kilistino from most of the local people The traders may have concluded that Kilistino was the word from which the first French explorers came up with Christiane But the Hudson Bay officials may have believed for geo political reasons that Kilistino did not mean Christiane To the Hudson Bay traders the proper label for the people in the region may have been Kilistino Is Christinaux just an alternate European spelling of Kilistino It appears that the map makers thought so Does Christinaux mean Christians Some of the French in America may have advocated that Kilist may have meant Christ as in Christiane But the map makers in France probably thought that there were no Christiane in America before Columbus That concept was written into the European history books before 1700 So perhaps they chose the compromise solution They put Christinaux on the map as a variation of Kilistino The English colonists who wanted to believe there were no Christiane in America before Columbus may have explained that Christinaux was just a variation of Kilistino They might have insisted that Kilistino did not mean Christiane So four centuries have passed Now almost everyone including most Christinaux and Cree believe that Christinaux does not mean Christians Is that belief correct Recently an American Indian friend wrote that Christinaux is a corrupted French word for the Cree word Kiristino But the Kiristino meaning could not be found in the modern Cree dictionaries Still Kilistino is the word shown on the map The Lenape had difficulty with r Speech patterns learned from childhood made

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  • Frozen Trail to Merica
    Hyde used the Maalan Aarum Walam Olum and other oral hisgtories to describe the ancient Lenape migration from Canada through Michigan into Ohio where they joined the Iroquois to fight the Sioux and then on to the east coast Oestreicher appatenty did not know the ancient Lenape history when he cited Ojibwa Shawnee Sioux and Iroquois loan words as evidence that Rafinesque used any available Indian word to make up a story 49 p 8 A more viable hypothesis for those same loan words is that they were learned by the Lenape during decades of interaction with the named tribes Thus the Maalan Aarum Walam Olum appears to be valid ancient history Reider T Sherwin wrote The Viking and the Red Man in eight voumes from 1940 through 1954 Sherwin who knew an Old Norse dialect focused on the Algonquin Language His eight volumes contain more than 15 000 comparisons between Algonquin words and Old Norse phrases Sherwin believed the Walam Olum was in the Old Norse language with the title morphed from Maalan Aarum meaning engraved years A reader familiar with Sherwin can observe that Oestricher used modern Lenape definitions to condemn Rafinesque s use of many words But Old Norse definitions for the same words are strong evidence that Rafinesque was trying to faithfully translate the confusing text he had Using Sherwin s comparisons of Algonquin Old Norse and English to translate the Maalan Aarum Walam Olum was conceived as an independent test of its validity Strong positive testimony was found in the first verse of Chapter 3 All the Maalan Aarum Walam Olum words could be found in Sherwin s Algonquin listing The associated Old Norse words sounded similar The English meaning was similar But in the first line an equivalent word for rushing waters was not there An intensive search of Sherwin s eight volumes looking for rushing waters in English finally paid off The companion Algonquin word was noted The equivalent Old Norse word was shown in a phrase with words in front and behind Those front and behind words sounded similar to the visible Maalan Aarum Walam Olum words Somewhere in over sixteen 16 generations of oral history the Maalan Aarum word for rushing water went missing The Maalan Aarum can be restored using Sherwin s comparisons Because the Maalan Aarum can be translated with a historic language the Walam Olum is a hisotric document Indian Loan words are testimony that the Maalan Aarum describes the history miagration of the Lenape Based on the evidence Rafinesque is not guilty of a forgery Paine 2006 back to top Further Comments Oestreicher would like you to believe in all the extensive primary literature about the Delaware during the last four centuries there is not a single reference to the Walam Olum By primary I assume he meant Indian writing But Oestreicher listed Brinton in the bibliography Brinton in his book The Lenâpé and their Legends cites two Indian writers On page 88 Brinton cites that in

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  • Frozen Trail to Merica
    Christians More than a century later Bishop Gnuppson went to East Man s Land James Bay to teach Bible to Norse people The Bishop s made pictographs and verses for the Creation and Flood When the Little Ice Age came over two centuries later the best source of food was in America at the open water marvels Four Thousand Norse from Greenland walked across the ice to America In Evergreen

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