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  • Frozen Trail to Merica
    they joined the Iroquois to fight the Sioux and then on to the east coast Oestreicher appatenty did not know the ancient Lenape history when he cited Ojibwa Shawnee Sioux and Iroquois loan words as evidence that Rafinesque used any available Indian word to make up a story 49 p 8 A more viable hypothesis for those same loan words is that they were learned by the Lenape during decades of interaction with the named tribes Thus the Maalan Aarum Walam Olum appears to be valid ancient history Reider T Sherwin wrote The Viking and the Red Man in eight voumes from 1940 through 1954 Sherwin who knew an Old Norse dialect focused on the Algonquin Language His eight volumes contain more than 15 000 comparisons between Algonquin words and Old Norse phrases Sherwin believed the Walam Olum was in the Old Norse language with the title morphed from Maalan Aarum meaning engraved years A reader familiar with Sherwin can observe that Oestricher used modern Lenape definitions to condemn Rafinesque s use of many words But Old Norse definitions for the same words are strong evidence that Rafinesque was trying to faithfully translate the confusing text he had Using Sherwin s comparisons of Algonquin Old Norse and English to translate the Maalan Aarum Walam Olum was conceived as an independent test of its validity Strong positive testimony was found in the first verse of Chapter 3 All the Maalan Aarum Walam Olum words could be found in Sherwin s Algonquin listing The associated Old Norse words sounded similar The English meaning was similar But in the first line an equivalent word for rushing waters was not there An intensive search of Sherwin s eight volumes looking for rushing waters in English finally paid off The companion Algonquin word was noted The equivalent Old Norse word was shown in a phrase with words in front and behind Those front and behind words sounded similar to the visible Maalan Aarum Walam Olum words Somewhere in over sixteen 16 generations of oral history the Maalan Aarum word for rushing water went missing The Maalan Aarum can be restored using Sherwin s comparisons Because the Maalan Aarum can be translated with a historic language the Walam Olum is a hisotric document Indian Loan words are testimony that the Maalan Aarum describes the history miagration of the Lenape Based on the evidence Rafinesque is not guilty of a forgery Paine 2006 back to top Further Comments Oestreicher would like you to believe in all the extensive primary literature about the Delaware during the last four centuries there is not a single reference to the Walam Olum By primary I assume he meant Indian writing But Oestreicher listed Brinton in the bibliography Brinton in his book The Lenâpé and their Legends cites two Indian writers On page 88 Brinton cites that in Moraviantown on Sept 26 1884 Gottrieb Tobias wrote in his language which said when translated to English And some of the Walam Olum I

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/MaalanAruumUnmasking.html (2016-04-26)
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  • Frozen Trail to Merica
    for tourists Gabrielsen lists twenty two Norse words with similar sounds and meanings for thirty six Algonquin words used by Bloomfield for examples When Old Norse dictionaries are used thirty four Norse words 94 appear to be equivalent to Algonquin words So the data do show there is something to note about the relationship between Norse and Algonquian languages But Bloomfield did not note it Because he did not note the relationship does not prove the evidence was not there The evidence is still there supporting a hypothesis that Bloomfield overlooked the relationship between the Algonquin and Old Norse languages On the following pages are Bloomfield s chosen Algonquin words really phrases They are compared to the equivalent primary Norse word The pronouns and adjectives that Bloomfield and others incorporated into the root Algonquin word have not been defined here for simplicity Why did Bloomfield not recognize that he was dealing with Algonquin phrases and that the core Algonquin syllables were really Norse words Edward Sapir From the forward of biography of Edward Sapir Edward Sapir was one of those rare men who are spoken of by their colleagues in terms of genius His talents were manifest in many fields in none more brilliantly and effective than in linguistics Sapir wrote at least 274 papers books or reviews Mandelbaum 1949 Bibliography The other major early 20th century American linguist who concerned himself with distant relationships between language families was Edward Sapir Again he has been shown to have had remarkable insight into which language families were related to one another Dr Richard Rhodes 2004 Edward Sapir had remarkable insight into which language families were related to one another At no time did he even vaguely consider any European language family to be even remotely related to any North American language family Sapir s forerunner Franz Boaz sent students out to document native languages and in the process look for possible connections between Old World and New World languages None panned out Dr Richard Rhodes 2004 Critique of Sapir Although Sapir was regarded as a linguistic genius and although he spent fifteen 15 years in Ottawa Canada his focus of study was on the tribes of the North American West Coast Comment Thus the Lenape Algonquin languages of Northeast America were not Sapir s focus of interest Given his lack of study on the topic he could not have made definitive judgement on the Lenape Algonquin Old Norse hypothesis He wrote four papers 1 4 about the West Coast Algonquin tribes He wrote two papers 0 7 on western plains Algonquins He wrote one paper 0 35 evaluating the Nordic race superiority To believe he would have indentified the relationship between Lenape Algonquin Old Norse without intensive study is an attempt to turn a genius into a god Because Sapir did not catch the relationship only proves that his focus was on other things One man Sherwin spent more than sixteen years of his life focused only on the hypothesis that

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/AgainstLinguistic.html (2016-04-26)
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  • Untitled Document
    be wrong word 7 Recorded sounds tulape wini Wini is a prefix V 1 p 240 8 Algonquin words tou a ppu v 3 p 127 Old Norse dau fr by Correct Algonquin Norse words Norse English deserted solitude Original English missing 9 Recorded sounds wini p s ak wiken Wini is a prefix V 1 p 240 Algonquin words win pas ak wiken v 1 p 240 150 237 Old Norse van bas a thak vikja Norse English under thick roof stronghold 10 Original English in hollow houses living Recorded sounds woli wikgun Algonquin words woalau wiquom v 1 p 237 243 Old Norse ho la veik inn Norse English hollow to return to 11 Original English together 12 Recorded sounds witt a n k k sound could have been ek I Algonquin words wit aw emin k v 1 p 241 242 Old Norse vidh aa vina k Norse English I stay with friend Original English there Recorded sounds talli Algonquin words talli v 1 p195 Old Norse thar ii Norse English there in back to top Notes 1 Maalan Aarum Walam Olum words are spaced out to match Old Norse syllables 2 The Old Norse a may have been retained by memory while it fell from common Algonquin use 3 The order of the MA WO English phrases was changed to match the MA WO words 4 The k sound is often dropped in Algonquin 5 I stay with friend appears to be an idiom for together 6 Sherwin gives many examples to show that lenn came from hrein 7 Rafinesque may have guessed tul meant Turtle from the Algonquin word Tulpe meaning sea turtle 8 Many Algonquin words show wini as a prefix So wini was added to next word 9 May have been an honest omission but may have been left out because under thick roof stronghold was not a believable statement to Rafinesque 10 If this phrase had been written in English comparison to Norse housing in Greenland may have occurred sooner 11 Veik in Old Norse is often associated with home and with returning to home 12 The two together words spelled differently but meaning the same thing appear to be evidence that the Lenape Historian and the Moravian recorder of the sounds had verbal communication difficulties back to top 3 2 They lived where it snowed They lived where it stormed They lived where it was always winter 3 3 While still in their cold land They remembered longingly the mild weather the many deer and also foxes HUNTERS GO EVERYWHERE 3 4 The poor lonely but tough men became hunters and left those living in strong houses 3 5 Separated from home like breasts on the same body the hunters became tougher extremely good and they reached for the sky 3 6 The hunters camped in the north east south and west CHRIST TRUMPS ODIN 3 7 The man who ruled in that old northern land that they all left was

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/Verse31.html (2016-04-26)
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  • Untitled Document
    152 Old Norse fenna Norse English cover with snow Original English where they abode Recorded sounds ak pinep Algonquin words at a pinet u v 4 p 17 147 5 Old Norse endr aa bua t jaa Morphed sounds 3 Norse English remain in a different place did Homeland 4 Original English it storms Recorded sounds ksha kan Algonquin words kscha chan v 4 p 63 Old Norse geysa gan gr Norse English big wind Original English where they abode Recorded sounds ak pinep Algonquin words at a pinet u v 4 p 17 147 5 Old Norse endr aa bua t jaa Morphed sounds 3 Norse English remain in a different place did Homeland 4 Original English it is cold Recorded sounds thu pin Same as topan 6 Algonquin words akoo ppoon v 6 p 5 meaning winter 1 Old Norse yggr buuen dhr Norse English dreadful encamping 2 Original English where they abode Recorded sounds ak pinep Algonquin words at a pinet u v 4 p 17 147 5 Old Norse endr aa bua t jaa Morphed sounds 3 Norse English remain in a different place did Homeland 4 back to top Notes 1 The double oo s indicate a long o The r may have morphed into oo 2 Dreadful encampment was an idiom to describe winter Freezing may have been one word the Recorder understood when the Historian was trying to communicate winter 3 This phrase illustrates the changes of sounds through time distance and speakers An original d became a t which became a k when recorded in another language The b became a P through time The original t survived through time and became a p when recorded The a and n sounds are created in a similar way in a similar location in the mouth The a and n sounds appear to have interchanged through time and distance but the Historian and the Recorder were able to communicate them correctly 4 Those who remain in a different place is a phrase meaning the homeland 5 The ep syllable is not definite but etu comes closest 6 The repeat of the Algonquin word for two different meanings indicates that the recorder may not have been familiar with the Algonquin word for winter The recorder may have recorded the same sounds differently as the Historian tried to describe winter again again and again back to top 3 3 While still in their cold land They remembered longingly the mild weather the many deer and also foxes HUNTERS GO EVERYWHERE 3 4 The poor lonely but tough men became hunters and left those living in strong houses 3 5 Separated from home like breasts on the same body the hunters became tougher extremely good and they reached for the sky 3 6 The hunters camped in the north east south and west CHRIST TRUMPS ODIN 3 7 The man who ruled in that old northern land that they all left was baptized to be pure 3

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/Verse32.html (2016-04-26)
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  • Untitled Document
    esteem Original English of mild cool lands Recorded sounds tihilli keli k 3 Algonquin words toh koi aki v 4 p 143 v 1 p 8 Old Norse thyoekkr akr Norse English of cloudy lands Original English with many deer Recorded sounds mes hautan g Algonquin words mis hartoo v 1 p 101 v 6 p 31 Old Norse mest hiartra Icelandic 4 Norse English most deer hart Original English and Recorded sounds g sili Algonquin words oegoo v 1 p 131 Old Norse og 5 Norse English also Original English buffaloes Recorded sounds ewak Algonquin words hockus v 1 p 61 Old Norse hoko Norse English foxes 6 back to top Notes 1 Either the MA word is badly corrupted or the Algonquin word is not correct but only the la syllable is really questionable 2 Sherwin wrote Etoka tykkjaa is used very much like our colloquial expression I reckon Any hunter or fisherman s tale would be incomplete without it Another meaning of tykkjaa is esteem 3 The MA illi indicates the Historian had memorized a word closer to Old Norse The two MA words must be combined be similar to an Algonquin word 4 The modern Norwegian name for deer is hjortedyr The similarity of the words for deer is another strong piece of evidence that the Maalan Aarum was created by people speaking Norse 5 The modern Norwegian word for also is ogsà This is another piece of evidence that the Maalan Aarum was first spoken by Old Norse people The Recorder hung the g sound on the end of the deer word Many English words do end in g Sherwin showed that the g is not a part of the deer word enabling a better translation 6 The Algonquin word means to slink Algonquins named animals by their actions The fox slinks though the forest and plains The Cree and Algonquin tribe had words similar to ewak for fox Somewhere in the memory process the mental image of the fox an Arctic and forest animal was replaced by a vision of the buffalo which was usually named in common use by two long words not associated with slinking But the original word for fox the slinker was passed from one Historian s memory to another Historian s memory as the word was in the beginning back to top HUNTERS GO EVERYWHERE 3 4 The poor lonely but tough men became hunters and left those living in strong houses 3 5 Separated from home like breasts on the same body the hunters became tougher extremely good and they reached for the sky 3 6 The hunters camped in the north east south and west CHRIST TRUMPS ODIN 3 7 The man who ruled in that old northern land that they all left was baptized to be pure 3 8 The discouraged people were worried about worn out land they had to abandon The priest said We decent people should go somewhere else 3 9 The common

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/Verse33.html (2016-04-26)
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  • Untitled Document
    wikhichik Algonquin words wikiwak v 1 p 238 Old Norse viigi ak Norse English from stronghold land Original English they separated Recorded sounds pokwi hil Algonquin words poqui hilleu V 4 p 115 Old Norse braaka vera Norse English they be breaking Notes 1 Once again it appears that the ending a morphed into an n over space and time 2 The Norse word ending is unexpected Sherwin may have had good reasons to leave out the reflexive sin which seems to be used by Algonquins and the MA creators But the Algonquin and MA creators may have been using a word where sin had already merged into rdasin and then the rda was dropped for ease of pronunciations Dropping syllables from the middle of a long word was a common Norse trait 3 The Algonquin Old Norse words give an opposite meaning from the original English version Hardened lean and alone might better describe young men who leave home than strong and rich A variation of the Algonquin word for hardened can mean strong 4 The Maalan AarumEnglish order of hunter and house builder is reversed This reversal is indicative of a Historian Recorder and Editor who may not have known what each memorized MA words meant The Historian may have memorized the meaning of the verse Somewhere in the memory process the order of hunter and house builder became reversed back to top 3 5 Separated from home like breasts on the same body the hunters became tougher extremely good and they reached for the sky 3 6 The hunters camped in the north east south and west CHRIST TRUMPS ODIN 3 7 The man who ruled in that old northern land that they all left was baptized to be pure 3 8 The discouraged people were worried

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/Verse34.html (2016-04-26)
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  • wo34
    The text is in a picture Click on text and print picture or Download WO34 pdf Algon Norse 3 3 Maalan aarum 3 4 HOME Algon Norse 3 5

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/nations/wo34.html (2016-04-26)
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  • Untitled Document
    1 p 45 v 5 p 25 Old Norse eiga sterkr Norse English he had violent strength 5 Original English no recorded words Recorded sounds del sinewo Algonquin words poh dulheu shinau v 6 p 102 v 7 p 18 Old Norse dair sin aa 6 Norse English breast separate like back to top Notes 1 Howe a translator wrote Eiow possessive He has it Sherwin wrote Old Norse eiga is pronounced very much like the English aya 2 See Chintanes sin in Walam Olum Chap 3 verse 4 3 Sit is the Old Norse reflexive pronoun used to indicate the person who receives the benefits The correct use of the reflexive pronouns sin sit and sik through out the Maalan Aarum is very strong evidence the original creators were speaking Old Norse 4 The Old Norse owrd allr compared to the surrounding eluwi words and the syllables eluwi in the Algonquin phrase implies that the Old Norse phrase eiga fraegi sit may have started as He was good and then became an idiom meaning he was extremely good The latter meaning may have been in use when the Maalan Aarumwas created Even today in some Indian communities of Oklahoma the highest praise in English rarely given to a white face is You done good Sherwin who may have not have known the idiom may have attempted to choose literal Old Norse words to fit the meaning of idiom and selected allr 5 The original English and the Old Norse English differ on this verse Maybe the Historian knew the correct concept of violent strength but had difficulty explaining it to the Recorder Perhaps both knew the word as an idiom for hunters Hunters are often violently strong 6 This Maalan Aarum word seems out of place with the description of the hunters in the rest of the verse An early Memorizer or the Historian may have added this word as an afterthought because he may have been concerned that the concept of separating had not stressed enough in translation of the previous verse Dair an Icelandic word meant breast Dulheu came from the Lenape tribes who may have migrated from Greenland Pohsinau an east coast Algonquin word meant breast and also divided like breasts Sherwin proposed that pohsinau morphed from Old Norse bresta but the transition is difficult to believe in this case Poh more likely morphed from the original Icelandic dair which may have also morphed into the modern Norwegian parre which may be an earlier word for the English pair Dair sin aa which might have been an idiom meaning divided like my breasts they went away The idiom may be closer to the original meaning of the Walam Olum word The Historian is likely to have known the idiom but the Recorder may have learned only the literal meaning breasts for Dair and could not understand the Historian s hand gestures for separate like breasts Either way if the Recorder wrote down breasts or separate like

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/Verse35.html (2016-04-26)
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