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    Norse English freezing Original English at the east Recorded sounds wapaniwi Algonquin words wapaneu v 5 p 151 easterly Old Norse verpandi 2 Norse English growing pale Original English at the south Recorded sounds shawaniwi Algonquin words schawaneu v 6 p 115 southerly Old Norse sefandi 2 Norse English tempering Original English at the west Recorded sounds wunkeniwi Algonquin words wunnonkquae v 1 p 242 in the evening Old Norse Unnan kveld 2 Norse English before night Original English the hunters Recorded sounds elowichik Algonquin words ei ow chekee v 1 p 45 v 5 p 25 Old Norse eiga sterkr Norse English he had violent strength Original English showed themselves Recorded sounds apakachik Algonquin words abuhquosik v 8 p 9 Old Norse Byrgja sik Norse English covers himself 3 back to top Notes 1 The Recorder or the Editor must have moved the English phrase to the beginning of this verse to make it sound better to an English reader The Historian would have known where the hunter word was 2 The Old Ancient Norse words for Northerly easterly southerly and westerly appear to be ancient concepts They indicate traits of the directions The Algonquins apparently understood the words as directions not as the original concepts Thus the morphing of the Old Ancient Norse words into Algonquin directions may have happened about 2000 1500 years ago 3 Cover himself is an idiom for camping The verse may be Northerly Easterly Southerly Westerly the hunters covered themselves camped back to top CHRIST TRUMPS ODIN 3 7 The man who ruled in that old northern land that they all left was baptized to be pure 3 8 The discouraged people were worried about worn out land they had to abandon The priest said We decent people should go somewhere else 3

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/Verse36.html (2016-04-26)
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  • Untitled Document
    Sherwin s eight volumes of the Viking and the Red Man Original English In that ancient county Recorded sounds lumow aki Algonquin words wulamo aki v 6 p 56 v 1 p 8 Old Norse framan akr Norse English earlier ground land Original English In that northern country Recorded sounds lowan aki Algonquin words lowan aki v 6 p 56 v 1 p 8 Old Norse raa andi akr Norse English freezing ground Original English In that turtle country Recorded sounds tul pen aki Algonquin words tou a ppu aki v 3 p 127 v 1 p 8 Old Norse dau fr by akr Norse English deserted solitude ground Original English The best of the Lenapi Recorded sounds el ow aki Algonquin words ei ow aki v 1 p 45 p 8 Old Norse eiga aki Norse English he had the ground land Original English were Turtle men Recorded sounds tu la piwi Algonquin words tauoh pewi v 3 p 127 Old Norse duufa buui 1 Norse English who is immersed in water Original English no recorded sounds 2 Recorded sounds linapiwi Algonquin words linapiwi v 1 p 169 Old Norse Hreina buui Norse English to be pure back to top Notes 1 This phrase to immerse in water may have been difficult for the Recorder to understand so the Historian may have tried to convey the meaning by gestures such as plunging a hand into water If something similar to immerse in water was originally recorded Rafinesque s focus on turtles may have been strengthened So he may have replaced the phrase with turtle men 2 Why was this phrase omitted in the WO English translation One reason might be that the Recorder and Rafinesque apparently did not know linapiwi had a meaning other than the name of the Lenape tribe General Comments Rafinesque s focus on turtles and the lack of knowledge about the meaning of linapiwi caused him to miss a key element in the Walam Olum story The man men who had the land in the earlier country was were immersed in water to be pure This description strongly implies that a Christian man men possessed the land Rafinesque probably did not even consider the possibility that the Indians may have migrated from a Christian land His thinking reflected the national mindset of the early 1800 s Americans who were promoting Manifest Destiny may not have been willing to consider a hypothesis that implied the people being shoved aside were descendents of Christians If Rafinesque could have published the correct concept of this verse of the Walam Olum sooner the outcome of Indian American relationships may have been improved The harsh effects of those relationships still persist in America Hopefully a better understanding of the Walam Olum can still moderate the harsh effects back to top 3 8 The discouraged people were worried about worn out land they had to abandon The priest said We decent people should go somewhere else 3 9 The common people

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/Verse37.html (2016-04-26)
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  • Untitled Document
    len am 4 Algonquin words naka lawé lendam v 4 p 90 v 8 p 45 Old Norse knekkja lav lyndi 5 Norse English they abandon it with low disposition Original English and all said to their priest Recorded sounds nako powa Algonquin words enkooda powwow v 7 p 52 v 8 p 86 Old Norse hneigjanda paave Norse English agreeing the priest said 6 Original English let us Recorded sounds wemi owen luen Algonquin words wemi owena rena v 4 p 156 1O6 v 1 P 168 Old Norse hveim hvii einn hrein Norse English all which who are decent 6 Original English go Recorded sounds At a m Algonquin words at a pin v 4 p 17 Old Norse endr aa bua 7 Norse English remain in a different place 6 back to top Notes 1 Somehow somebody changed the sense of the original spoken words The Algonquin ON words mean all the gentle people Both the Recorder and the Editor may have recognized the common Algonquin word for fire tend and may have misunderstood ako Tend comes later in the verse but may have caused them to think of cabin fires Also they may have thought that ako was aki meaning land See third set of recorded sounds below 2 The Old Norse literal meaning for uugarrus is not coarse Sherwin suggests an idiom meaning gentle but the Algonquin use of the word appears to mean common people 3 The original sounds are best deciphered as words meaning fire d area lands The fire d land words may have been the source of the cabin fires that the Recorder or the Editor wrote in the first phrase of this verse Charles Mann in his book 1491 cites several sources who reported that the Indians Algonquin Old Norse burned the grasslands of the Great Plains to improve the grass Hardy broad leaf plants will usually intrude into an over grazed pasture The broad leaves shade the grass and are poor fodder When I was a farm boy before herbicides I often mowed our pasture at the best time to kill the broad leaf plants The Norse in Greenland may have fired their overgrazed grass lands in an attempt to kill the broad leaf plants The difference between burning grass land in the Great Plains and in Greenland is spring moisture The rainfall on the Great Plains peaks in April May and June In Greenland the months of April May and June have the least moisture The logical time to burn to kill broad leaf plants is in the fall when the pasture plants have dried But then the winter snow the most likely source of Greenland moisture might have been blown past by the winds and was not caught by grass which was not there The low rainfall in the spring may have slowed the growth of the grass So the Greenlanders attempt to control the broad leaf plants by burning may have created an ecological disaster resulting

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/Verse38.html (2016-04-26)
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  • Untitled Document
    All references are to Sherwin s eight volumes of the Viking and the Red Man Original English To the snake land Recorded sounds Akho kin k Algonquin words Akoores kime sik v 1 p 9 v 2 p 59 Old Norse Uugaurvs geyma sik Norse English Gentle people hid themselves Original English in the east Recorded sounds wapaneu Algonquin words wapanneu v 5 p 154 easterly Old Norse verpandi Norse English turning pale Original English they went forth Recorded sounds we moltin Algonquin words we matin v 1 p 233 Old Norse vedr madin Norse English plighted brother s Original English going away Recorded sounds palli aal Algonquin words pala doo v 5 p 100 1 Old Norse bila thaa Norse English abandon it Original English earnestly Recorded sounds kit e len dam Algonquin words kitchi lawe len dam v 1 p 76 v 8 p 45 Old Norse geysi lawe lyndi doom Norse English great low disposition imposed Original English grieving Recorded sounds apt e len dam Algonquin words apt lawe len dam v 1 p 17 v 8 p 45 Old Norse ap lawe lyndi doom Norse English Again low dispositions imposed back to top Notes 1 Sherwin does not offer Pala aal as an Algonquin word but the Old Norse words bila al would make sense as abandon all General Comments There is a similarity between the paraphrase of the Old Norse words and the original English Both English versions have people going away with low spirits But in the Old Norse version the snakes are the common people who have little chance to possess land The brothers who might eventually possess some land abandon their rights to the homestead The grieving as for the dead is better described as discouragement as in overwhelmed by adverse circumstances

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/Verse39.html (2016-04-26)
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  • Untitled Document
    their land burned Recorded sounds lusan aki Algonquin words lusasu aki v 7 p 47 v 1 p 8 Old Norse glossast akr Norse English tempering from burnt ground Original English they went torn Recorded sounds pikihil Algonquin words pikkuhul v 7 p 72 Old Norse bjarga 1 Norse English save rescue 2 Original English and broken Recorded sounds po kwihil Algonquin words po ckquijra v 1 p 159 tired Old Norse byy kyrra Norse English be resting 3 to snake Island akomen aki agaming aki v 6 p 166 v 1 p 8 gumpr akr hinder land on the other side 4 back to top Notes 1 The vocal change from bj to pikk is difficult to believe Sherwin presented evidence to support the vocal change for many words in his earlier volumes 2 The Old Norse words here present a much different image than the original English version The Historian may have not known pidihil from the sounds and perhaps he accepted a revised version which was changed during the memorizing generations 3 The Algonquin word means tired Tired people do rest But the Old Norse meaning gives a sense of resting after saving themselves i e Thr worst is over In the pictograph the head on the right is lying in its side The resting head appears to support the Old Norse meaning 4 In Sherwin the Algonquin word Agaming is found under KAMA with a string of Algonquin words meaning the other side The most likely Algonquin meaning is the other side Sherwin s gumpr does not seem to be the correct Old Norse word Most of his other Algonquin Old Norse phrases have a better match in meaning and sound The Old Norse word chosen by Sherwin lacks the precision of most of his comparisons Here a vowel a had to have been added to the original Old Norse word We have seen before that vowels may be changed or lost but rarely added Also the constant p was lost P is a constant that was rarely lost in other words Then the Old Norse meaning hinder would have had to change to on the other side The appearance is that Sherwin could not find a good match in Old Norse words and meanings These words are in volume seven Sherwin may have felt that he was running out of time He appears to have made a best guess There may be another explanation for Akomen as viable as Sherwin s guess King Haakon Haakon IV may have had many ships in America between 1247 and 1282 Wherever they landed they may have called themselves Haakon s Man where man means people King Haakon was a powerful man There is a passage between Scotland and Ireland named after him just because he sailed his fleet through Haakon s people may have been proud to use his name wherever they went If Haakon s Man came from the other side of the ocean and landed in

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/Verse310.html (2016-04-26)
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  • Untitled Document
    After moving down from the snowy land and discreetly leaving the cousins separated through out all the land Maalan Aarum Algonquin Old Norse Nihillapewin komelendam lowaniwi wemitten chihillen winaken Nahooch bi win kimi allumskaan lowaney wematin chilhillen wemaken nidhr hniiga by wineu geymi a f lymskaada raa andi vedh madhir Skilja vera hveim akran Those from the north being free without care from the land of snow Missing went forth In different directions original English translation translation of Old Norse Be dropping down from snow discreetly stealing off from freezing plighted brothers were separated through all the land WORD PHRASE BY WORD PHRASE DECIPHERMENT All references are to Sherwin s eight volumes of the Viking and the Red Man Original English Those from the north Recorded sounds Ni hilla pe win Algonquin words Nahooch bi win v 7 p 52 v 4 91 Old Norse nidhr hniiga by wineu v 7 p 108 Norse English Be dropping down from snow Original English being free without care Recorded sounds kom e lendam Algonquin words kimi al lumskaan v 8 p 37 1 Old Norse geymi a f lymskaada Norse English discreetly stealing off Original English From the land of snow English order changed Recorded sounds lowaniwi to match Algonquin Algonquin words lowaney v 6 p 58 northerly Old Norse raa andi Norse English freezing Original English missing Recorded sounds wemitten Algonquin words wematin v 1 p 233 2 Old Norse vedh madhir Norse English plighted brothers 3 Original English went forth Recorded sounds chihillen Algonquin words chilhillen v 1 p 38 Old Norse Skilja vera Norse English were separated Original English In different directions Recorded sounds win aken Algonquin words wem aken v 4 p 159 Old Norse hveim akran Norse English through all the land Notes 1 The Recorder had written lendam endings Here the word ending had a different sound and meaning but he apparently spelled the ending the same way as before The free without care probably came from the Historian who understood that slipping away would enable a person to be free without care The discreetly stealing off may describe a process where people walked away from the camp ground near the boats with the full knowledge of everyone in camp that they should load the boat and sail when the time was right 2 Plighted brothers may refer to the sons of any Norse man There were other men servants and slaves Those men may have discreetly slipped away too But they probably did not help write the Maalan Aarum 3 According to Sherwin plighted brothers could include up to fifth cousins That status may have included most of the Greenland men General Comments The original English and the paraphrase from the Old Norse are similar except that the Old Norse version leaves a sense that they came to stay The episode in verses 8 through 11 appears to be an one occurrence but there were probably repeated episodes from 1050 to 1300 This verse about

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/Verse311.html (2016-04-26)
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  • Untitled Document
    English Not compressed pack ice 1 2 Original English remain Recorded sounds pokha pokha pek Algonquin words pokha pokha paka v 2 p 172 p 108 Old Norse bakki bakki buka Norse English banked banked pack ice 3 Original English rich in fish Recorded sounds gun eun ga Algonquin words gu n ewun ka v 6 p 30 v 4 p 106 Old Norse korn foen ka Norse English snow drifts a lot Original English the bald eagle Recorded sounds wapla newa Algonquin words wapi niska v 5 p 162 Old Norse verpa niska North American Indian p 206 Norse English White geese 4 Original English along the sea Recorded sounds ouke n Algonquin words ogi ma v 1 p 135 v 3p 34 Old Norse hoega madh Norse English high ruler 5 Original English and the white wolves Recorded sounds wapla mewi Algonquin words wapi musqi v 5 p 162 Old Norse verpa musqi North American Indian p 206 Norse English white bear 4 and muscles ouke n ogi ma v 1 p 135 v 3 p 34 5 hoega madh high ruler Notes 1 The Algonquin word paka means to strike The modern Norwegian dictionary has the word pakkis which means pack ice Floating ice that strikes boats is a better description of pakkis than ice that is packed together An examination of Sherwin s list of p k Algonquin words came down to paka as the word similar in sound to pek A good hypothesis may be that pek was originally pakkis because the Walam Olum word pek is used repeatedly in sentences about frozen water The is syllable may have been lost by historians who did not know about striking ice The knowledge of pakkis would have been unimportant to the sixteen generations of Algonquin Norse people who roamed the solid land of America Until a better explanation appears pek will be deciphered to be the same as modern pakkis 2 Note the distinct difference between the original English phrase and the decipherment via the Old Norse The Old Norse words describe features of an open water marvel which the pictograph appears to illustrate 3 The Old Norse description in these two phrases Not compressed pack ice banked banked pack ice is probably the best short description of an open water marvel which has open water in the midst of thick ice 4 The Algonquins appeared to name animals and birds by imitating the sounds they made Niska is the Cree name for goose The original creator of the Walam Olum was probably describing a white goose When the Historian and the Recorder tried to record verbal history in Indiana the bald eagle was a good but wild guess based on their experience In the same way the white animal was certainly not a wolf The name is closer to the names given to bears by the Cree and Algonquin tribes 5 Although ogima was used by the Algonquins for chief the word had extensive and

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/Verse312.html (2016-04-26)
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  • Untitled Document
    Algonquin words Nama sugge paka v 4 p 91 v4 p 136 1 Old Norse Nema soekkva buka is v 2 p 108 Norse English Not compressed pack ice 1 2 Original English remain Recorded sounds pokha pokha pek Algonquin words pokha pokha paka v 2 p 172 p 108 Old Norse bakki bakki buka Norse English banked banked pack ice 3 Original English rich in fish Recorded sounds gun eun ga Algonquin words gu n ewun ka v 6 p 30 v 4 p 106 Old Norse korn foen ka Norse English snow drifts a lot Original English the bald eagle Recorded sounds wapla newa Algonquin words wapi niska v 5 p 162 Old Norse verpa niska North American Indian p 206 Norse English White geese 4 Original English along the sea Recorded sounds ouke n Algonquin words ogi ma v 1 p 135 v 3p 34 Old Norse hoega madh Norse English high ruler 5 Original English and the white wolves Recorded sounds wapla mewi Algonquin words wapi musqi v 5 p 162 Old Norse verpa musqi North American Indian p 206 Norse English white bear 4 and muscles ouke n ogi ma v 1 p 135 v 3 p 34 5 hoega madh high ruler Notes 1 The Algonquin word paka means to strike The modern Norwegian dictionary has the word pakkis which means pack ice Floating ice that strikes boats is a better description of pakkis than ice that is packed together An examination of Sherwin s list of p k Algonquin words came down to paka as the word similar in sound to pek A good hypothesis may be that pek was originally pakkis because the Walam Olum word pek is used repeatedly in sentences about frozen water The is syllable may have been lost by historians who did not know about striking ice The knowledge of pakkis would have been unimportant to the sixteen generations of Algonquin Norse people who roamed the solid land of America Until a better explanation appears pek will be deciphered to be the same as modern pakkis 2 Note the distinct difference between the original English phrase and the decipherment via the Old Norse The Old Norse words describe features of an open water marvel which the pictograph appears to illustrate 3 The Old Norse description in these two phrases Not compressed pack ice banked banked pack ice is probably the best short description of an open water marvel which has open water in the midst of thick ice 4 The Algonquins appeared to name animals and birds by imitating the sounds they made Niska is the Cree name for goose The original creator of the Walam Olum was probably describing a white goose When the Historian and the Recorder tried to record verbal history in Indiana the bald eagle was a good but wild guess based on their experience In the same way the white animal was certainly not a wolf The name is closer to the names

    Original URL path: http://www.frozentrail.org/Verse313.html (2016-04-26)
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