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  • Close elections push voters to extremes - Futurity
    Penn State Princeton University Purdue University Rice University Rutgers University Stanford University Stony Brook University Syracuse University Texas A M University Tulane University University at Buffalo University College London University of Arizona University of California at Irvine University of California Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Society and Culture Related Articles 4 reasons people can t quite quit Facebook Noisy test predicts future reading trouble Facebook profiles reveal true self Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print When people believe that there is greater competition between their group and another group they want to make clear what the differences are between the two groups says Rosalind Chow To make the distinction between the two groups clear they choose leaders who are extreme in their views Credit Justin Grimes Flickr Close elections push voters to extremes Carnegie Mellon University right Original Study Posted by Mark Burd Carnegie Mellon on October 30 2014 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license When political races are competitive both Democrat and Republican voters favor candidates who are more strongly conservative or liberal new research shows The findings contradict conventional thinking that holds close elections swing appeal to the center toward candidates with a moderate or centrist ideology and may explain why voters in the United States have elected so many polarizing candidates in recent elections Related Articles On Futurity Yale University Political campaigns comb data but what is it worth Stanford University Are US farmers pushing the limits of the Corn Belt University of California Santa Barbara Why we blow up when we argue about politics For a study published in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology researchers conducted a series of three experiments The first presented subjects with a hypothetical primary election in the United States and observed whether the participant s preference for an extreme leader was altered by their perception of how competitive the election would be When an electoral district was described as hotly contested between Republicans and Democrats Democrat participants were more likely to choose an extreme liberal from a lineup of primary candidates than when the district was described as being safe A second study which was conducted shortly before the 2012 Presidential election found that both Democrat and Republican participants were

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/close-elections-voters-793342/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Antarctic glacier is rapidly melting from the bottom up - Futurity
    collapses Endangered okapi are surprisingly diverse Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print It s the most complex thermal environment you might imagine says Don Blankenship And then you plop the most critical dynamically unstable ice sheet on planet Earth in the middle of this thing and then you try to model it It s virtually impossible Credit NASA ICE Flickr Antarctic glacier is rapidly melting from the bottom up University of Texas at Austin right Original Study Posted by Kimberly Berger Texas on June 11 2014 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license Thwaites Glacier the large rapidly changing outlet of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is not only being eroded by the warming ocean it s also being melted from below by geothermal heat researchers report The glacier is on the way to collapsing but more data and computer modeling are needed to determine when the collapse will begin in earnest and at what rate the sea level will increase as it proceeds scientists say Related Articles On Futurity McGill University Why climate scientists are tracking Arctic beetles Shifting debate on sea level models University of Colorado at Boulder Greenland ice slip n slides into ocean Using radar techniques to map how water flows under ice sheets researchers were able to estimate ice melting rates and then identify that significant sources of geothermal heat under the glacier are distributed over a wider area and are much hotter than previously assumed The geothermal heat contributes significantly to melting of the underside of the glacier and might be a key factor in allowing the ice sheet to slide affecting its stability and its contribution to future sea level rise The cause of the variable distribution of heat beneath the glacier is thought to be the movement of magma and associated volcanic activity arising from the rifting of the Earth s crust beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Most complex thermal environment Knowing the pattern of heat distribution beneath the glacier is crucial information that enables ice sheet modelers to more accurately predict the response of the glacier to the presence of a warming ocean Until now scientists have been unable to measure the strength or location of heat flow under the glacier Current ice sheet models have assumed that heat flow under the glacier is uniform like a pancake griddle with even heat distribution across the bottom of the ice But the new findings published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences show that the glacier sits on something more like a multi burner stovetop with burners putting out heat at different levels at different locations It s the most complex thermal environment you might imagine says coauthor Don Blankenship a senior research scientist at University of Texas Institute of Geophysics And then you plop the most critical dynamically unstable ice sheet on planet Earth in the middle of this

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/thwaites-glacier-antarctica-melt/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Caves get bigger when microbes eat this - Futurity
    University Stanford University Stony Brook University Syracuse University Texas A M University Tulane University University at Buffalo University College London University of Arizona University of California at Irvine University of California Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Earth and Environment Related Articles Greenland s largest glacier breaks speed record Ozone spike linked to overseas emissions Methane levels near normal in Gulf Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print We knew from previous research that microbes do play a role in cave development says Jennifer Macalady What we were trying to assess was the extent of that contribution which would help us understand how caves all over the world as well as on other worlds form Credit iStockphoto Caves get bigger when microbes eat this Penn State right Original Study Posted by A ndrea Elyse Messer Penn State on September 7 2015 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license Since 2004 researchers have been studying the Frasassi cave system an actively developing limestone cave system located 1 500 feet underground in central Italy Limestone caves can form when solid limestone dissolves after coming in contact with certain types of acids The resulting void is the cave system We knew from previous research that microbes do play a role in cave development says Jennifer Macalady associate professor of geosciences at Penn State and coauthor of a new paper published in Chemical Geology What we were trying to assess was the extent of that contribution which would help us understand how caves all over the world as well as on other worlds form prehistoric women left their mark on cave walls In hydrogen sulfide rich caves microbes eat the hydrogen sulfide through a process known as aerobic respiration Macalady says The byproduct of this process is the creation of sulfuric acid which has the potential to dissolve limestone and contribute to cave growth The main goal of our study was to investigate what happened to hydrogen sulfide in the cave because when the microbes use hydrogen sulfide for energy this along with oxygen leads to the production of sulfuric acid says Macalady The researchers measured oxygen levels and the amount of chemicals degassing changing from liquid to gas state throughout several parts of the cave system

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/caves-limestone-microbes-997182/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Polar bears' ice not so thin after all - Futurity
    Irvine University of California Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Earth and Environment Related Articles Warming trend may lengthen season for West Nile virus Gulf dead zone may be second smallest Overwhelmed Mississippi River dumps nitrates into Gulf Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print Polar bears ice not so thin after all University of Washington Posted by Bob Roseth UW on December 21 2010 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license U WASHINGTON US The fate of polar bear may not be as grim as previously thought Polar bears were added to the threatened species list nearly three years ago as their icy habitat showed steady precipitous decline because of a warming climate Now scientists believe if humans reduce greenhouse gas emissions significantly in the next decade or two enough Arctic ice is likely to remain intact during late summer and early autumn for polar bears to survive What we projected in 2007 was based solely on the business as usual greenhouse gas scenario says Steven Amstrup an emeritus researcher with the U S Geological Survey and the senior scientist with the Montana based conservation organization Polar Bears International That was a pretty dire outlook but it didn t consider the possibility of greenhouse gas mitigation The earlier study projected only about one third of the world s 22 000 polar bears might be left by mid century if the dramatic Arctic ice decline continued and that eventually they could disappear completely leading to the 2008 listing of polar bears as a threatened species The new research published in the Dec 16 issue of Nature indicates there is no tipping point that would result in unstoppable loss of summer sea ice when greenhouse gas driven warming rises above a certain threshold Our research offers a very promising hopeful message but it s also an incentive for mitigating greenhouse emissions says Cecilia Bitz associate professor of atmospheric sciences at the University of Washington Previous work by Bitz and others showed that unchecked temperature increases along with natural environmental volatility could result in the loss of vast areas of Arctic ice in less than a decade It also showed that with continued business as usual greenhouse gas emissions the ice did not recover after

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/polar-bears-ice-not-so-thin-after-all/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Fred Love-Iowa State, Author at Futurity
    Michigan State University Monash University National University of Singapore New York University Northwestern University Penn State Princeton University Purdue University Rice University Rutgers University Stanford University Stony Brook University Syracuse University Texas A M University Tulane University University at Buffalo University College London University of Arizona University of California at Irvine University of California Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University All Articles By Fred Love Iowa State Iowa State University Male infertility linked to housekeeping gene in mice A housekeeping gene present in every cell may be one of only a handful of genes suspected to have a connection to sperm count and male infertility READ MORE Iowa State University El Niño can be a blessing or curse for Midwest crops Midwestern farmers usually fare well during El Niño years with above trend crop yields But that can all change if La Niña weather follows closely behind READ MORE Iowa State University Adding this one gene gives crops more protein A gene found in only one plant species can increase protein content when introduced into rice corn and soybeans a new study shows READ MORE Iowa State University Scientists find the virus that makes piglets shake Researchers have finally identified a virus that causes piglets to have such bad tremors that they starve because they can t settle down to nurse READ MORE Iowa State University Regulars at bird feeders spread eye infection Diseases including an infection similar to pink eye may spread faster in birds that visit bird feeders frequently according to new research READ MORE Iowa State University How fertilizer alters soil microbes around the world Results from test plots of grasslands around the world agree Adding nitrogen and phosphorous to the soil alters microbial communities READ MORE Iowa State University Safe plastics leach toxins when they break down Trace amounts of toxic substances in plastics don t contaminate food or beverages but they can leach heavy metals when they break down years later READ MORE Iowa State University Soybean farmers face a new foe early aphids Aphids the tiny insects that can overwhelm soybeans and reduce yields are appearing earlier than in previous years But they re not the only threat READ MORE Iowa State University Slow money movement would keep capital nearby Slow money a philosophy inspired by the local food movement embraces environmental and social benefits

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/author/iowa-state-love/ (2016-02-11)
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  • El Niño heat sets off waves of dengue fever - Futurity
    of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Health and Medicine Related Articles Baby babble catches up after cochlear implants ADHD kids have different DNA Why some kids avoid California s tap water Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print Given the increased cross border mobility of people strong evidence of global warming and the potential for rapid global proliferation of infectious diseases a better understanding of how contagious diseases spread over long distances is essential for global health security says Willem G van Panhuis Credit European Commission DG ECHO Flickr El Niño heat sets off waves of dengue fever University of Florida University of Pittsburgh right Original Study Posted by Allison Hydzik Pittsburgh on October 7 2015 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license New research shows that epidemics of dengue caused by a mosquito borne virus across southeast Asia appear to be linked to the abnormally high temperatures brought by the El Niño weather phenomenon Now as the most intense El Niño in nearly two decades is emerging in the Pacific the finding reported the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences may be a harbinger of a spike in cases of the dangerous hemorrhagic fever throughout southeast Asian countries early next year Large dengue epidemics occur unexpectedly which can overburden the health care systems says lead author Willem G van Panhuis assistant professor of epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh Public Health Our analysis shows that elevated temperatures can create the ideal circumstance for large scale dengue epidemics to spread across a wide region The ability to predict and prepare for these epidemics should lead to more effective disease surveillance and control efforts 390 million infections each year Dengue causes an estimated 390 million infections each year Though there is no specific pharmaceutical treatment supportive therapy can greatly improve outcomes Dengue infects large numbers of people across the tropics each year but incidence can vary dramatically from year to year in any setting says lead author Derek Cumming a biology professor at the University of Florida and member of the Emerging Pathogens Institute During years of large incidence the number of people requiring hospitalization and care can overwhelm health systems If we can understand the factors that contribute to these increases we can prepare for them and act to mitigate the impact of the disease New antibody adds to arsenal against Dengue The research team collected and analyzed 18 years

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/dengue-el-nino-southeast-asia-1020082-2/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Can salmon survive changes at the Equator? - Futurity
    University College London University of Arizona University of California at Irvine University of California Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Earth and Environment Related Articles What massive icebergs tell us about Earth s chilly past Two thirds of eastern US rivers are alkaline This nontoxic material is a spray on water repellent Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print Two species that historically have had different responses and seem to be very different in their coastal wide patterns now appear to be more synchronized says Patrick Kilduff When that happens it s either good for everyone or bad for everyone similar to the stock market Credit salmon via Shutterstock Can salmon survive changes at the Equator University of California Davis right Original Study Posted by Andy Fell UC Davis on August 6 2015 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license What happens at the equator doesn t stay at the equator El Niño associated changes in the ocean may be putting the biodiversity of two Northern Pacific salmon species at risk Researchers tracked the survival of Chinook and coho salmon from hatcheries in North America between 1980 and 2006 Before the 1990s ocean survival rates of Chinook and coho salmon varied from each other but the new findings show that survival rates of the two species have become increasingly similar Like the stock market Two species that historically have had different responses and seem to be very different in their coastal wide patterns now appear to be more synchronized says lead author Patrick Kilduff a postdoctoral scholar working with Louis Botsford in the wildlife fish and conservation biology department at University of California Davis at the time of the study When salmon populations are synchronized it s either good for everyone or bad for everyone similar to the stock market From an economic perspective it means that when catch of one species is low catch of the other also will tend to be low This synchronous response to ocean conditions represents a loss in biological diversity that can t be addressed directly by freshwater management actions It s not yet well understood what is causing the increasing similarity but it could reflect a change in coastal ocean food web linkages or perhaps a

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/salmon-oceans-el-nino-976982/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Boston can blame Pacific's warm 'blob' for record snow - Futurity
    Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print This is a taste of what the ocean will be like in future decades says Dennis Hartmann It wasn t caused by global warming but it s producing conditions that we think are going to be more common with global warming Credit BU Interactive News Flickr Boston can blame Pacific s warm blob for record snow University of Washington right Original Study Posted by Hannah Hickey UW on April 10 2015 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license The West Coast in the United States is warm and parched The East Coast spent the past winter cold and snowed under What s the cause of all this mayhem Two new studies suggest a long lived patch of warm water off the West Coast about 1 to 4 degrees Celsius 2 to 7 degrees Fahrenheit above normal may be at least partly responsible In the fall of 2013 and early 2014 we started to notice a big almost circular mass of water that just didn t cool off as much as it usually did so by spring of 2014 it was warmer than we had ever seen it for that time of year says Nick Bond a climate scientist at the Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean a joint research center of the University of Washington and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration The huge patch of water 1 000 miles in each direction and 300 feet deep had contributed to Washington s mild 2014 winter and might signal a warmer summer Less cooling not more heating Ten months later the patch what Bond dubbed the blob is still offshore now squished up against the coast and extending about 1 000 miles offshore from Mexico up through Alaska with water about 2 degrees Celsius 3 6 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than normal All the models point to it continuing through the end of this year Bond says Findings published in Geophysical Research Letters and funded by NOAA suggest the blob relates to a persistent high pressure ridge that caused a calmer ocean during the past two winters so less heat was lost to cold air above The warmer temperatures we see now aren t due to more heating but less winter cooling The study warns that the blob is affecting West Coast marine life fish have been seen in unusual places supporting recent reports that West Coast marine ecosystems are suffering and the food web is being disrupted by warm less nutrient rich Pacific Ocean water Bone chilling winters The blob s influence also extends inland As air passes over warmer water and reaches the coast it brings more heat and less snow which the paper shows helped cause current drought conditions in California Oregon and Washington The mass is just one element of a broader pattern in the Pacific Ocean whose influence reaches much further possibly

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/pacific-ocean-weather-895002/ (2016-02-11)
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