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  • Is willpower just a mind game? - Futurity
    State University Johns Hopkins University McGill University Michigan State University Monash University National University of Singapore New York University Northwestern University Penn State Princeton University Purdue University Rice University Rutgers University Stanford University Stony Brook University Syracuse University Texas A M University Tulane University University at Buffalo University College London University of Arizona University of California at Irvine University of California Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Society and Culture Related Articles Child care costs risk family finances Money wields quiet power in state politics Women at universities file patents at higher rate Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print Is willpower just a mind game Stanford University Posted by Adam Gorlick Stanford on October 15 2010 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license STANFORD US Burning the candle at both ends Think a break would help The urge to refresh or just procrastinate might be all in your head In a paper published this week in Psychological Science researchers challenge a long held theory that willpower defined as the ability to resist temptation and stay focused on a demanding task is a limited resource A long held argument says that when willpower is drained the only way to restore it is by recharging our bodies with rest food or some other physical distraction that takes you away from whatever is burning you out Not so says the new study It is a person s mindset and personal beliefs about willpower that determine how long and how well they ll be able to work on a tough mental exercise If you think of willpower as something that s biologically limited you re more likely to be tired when you perform a difficult task says Veronika Job the paper s lead author who conducted her research at Stanford University and is now a postdoctoral scholar at the University of Zurich But if you think of willpower as something that is not easily depleted you can go on and on Researchers designed a series of four experiments to test and manipulate students beliefs about willpower After a tiring task those who believed or were led to believe that willpower is a limited resource performed worse on standard concentration tests than those who thought of willpower

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/is-willpower-just-a-mind-game/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Messenger snaps pics of ice on planet Mercury - Futurity
    googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print A depiction of the Messenger spacecraft is shown viewing the Rachmaninoff basin Both the monochrome and enhanced color views of Mercury were obtained during Messenger s third Mercury flyby Credit NASA Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Carnegie Institution of Washington Messenger snaps pics of ice on planet Mercury Johns Hopkins University right Original Study Posted by Paulette Campbell Johns Hopkins on October 16 2014 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license NASA s Messenger spacecraft has taken the first pictures of ice frozen in dark spots on Mercury the planet closest to the sun The probe which has orbited Mercury since 2011 snapped shots of water ice and other frozen volatile materials in permanently shadowed craters near the planet s north pole Prokofiev named in August 2012 for the Russian composer is the largest crater in Mercury s north polar region to host radar bright material Credit NASA Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Carnegie Institution of Washington The images provide clues as to when ice formed on Mercury and how it has evolved according to a study published in the journal Geology That in turn is expected to help scientists figure out more about how water came to other planetary bodies including Earth and the moon One of the big questions we ve been grappling with is When did Mercury s water ice deposits show up Are they billions of years old or were they emplaced only recently says lead author Nancy Chabot instrument scientist for MESSENGER s Mercury Dual Imaging System and a planetary scientist at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Understanding the age of these deposits has implications for understanding the delivery of water to all the terrestrial planets including Earth Extreme temperatures Mercury is not the hottest planet in the solar system that honor goes to Venus but temperatures on the day side facing the sun do rise to about 800 degrees Fahrenheit But with scarcely any atmosphere to trap heat the planet plunges to around minus 300 degrees at night Because the planet rotates around an axis that is not tilted like Earth s the sun is never high in the sky at the poles and some parts of craters never see sunlight at all Two decades ago images from Earth based radar first revealed the frozen polar deposits believed to be water ice That was later confirmed by Messenger even before the new pictures with a combination of neutron spectrometry thermal modeling and infrared reflectometry But along with confirming the earlier idea there is a lot new to be learned by seeing the deposits in the new visible light photos Chabot says The largest crater Beginning in 2012 scientists began looking for ice with the broadband clear filter of MDIS s wide angle camera Although the polar ice deposits are in permanent shadow in the depths of craters the camera was able

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/messenger-first-pics-ice-mercury-784692/ (2016-02-11)
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  • To learn new tools, these crows don't copy - Futurity
    of Cambridge Okay if they don t imitate or emulate how could they still have cumulative technological culture There s a hypothesis that says in order for cumulative technological culture to occur you need to copy the actions of another individual And we don t know whether the crows are paying attention to the actions of others when they learn from someone else But the crows have been observed using tools they ve made out of long narrow palm like Pandanus leaves It has a serrated edge and they cut into one side of the leaf then make another cut farther down and then rip off the part in between Logan explained It makes a tool they can use to dig grubs out of logs Even more curious according to Logan the crows have been observed using tools made of the same material but in different shapes wide narrow and stepped which might be more structurally sound However no one has been able to explain the geographic variation in tool shapes all three shapes are seen at the south end of New Caledonia while the stepped tool is more prevalent everywhere else It s thought that in order for tool shapes to be transmitted one bird would have to watch another cutting the leaf and then mimic that bird s actions Logan continues That would require imitation or emulation These crows aren t copy cats So Logan devised a study to look at all the learning mechanisms social and asocial the crows employ when solving a foraging problem To level the playing field so that those birds with more experience with one particular tool don t have an advantage over the others Logan gave them a novel non tool task She designed the experiment based on apparatus used by University of Leeds zoologist Will Hoppitt in a similar study he conducted with meerkats I used two apparatuses with multiple access points on each she says so we could look at whether the crows were imitating or emulating whether they were just paying attention to another crow s general location or whether they were paying attention to a specific area on an apparatus that another crow was interacting with Logan and colleagues found that the crows don t imitate or copy actions at all So there goes that theory she says Assuming how they learn in a non tool context carries over to a tool context they wouldn t copy the actions of individuals they see cutting up Pandanus leaves to make tools Crows beat test that stumps little kids But Logan and her team did strong evidence of social learning If one crow sees a companion interacting with a particular area of the apparatus reaching its bill through a door and pulling out a piece of boiled egg the treat the former is far more likely to try that particular door on either apparatus before choosing the other access options Trial and error It s called stimulus enhancement she explains

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/social-learning-crows-989522-2/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Why some birds are babysitters instead of parents - Futurity
    Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Science and Technology Related Articles Evidence of early hunters deep below Lake Huron New website wants your speech mistakes Ethanol leftovers From fungus to feed Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print When it comes to guarding the nest if there is extra help for the breeding pair it enhances protection against brood parasites and the chances that their own chicks will survive say Michelle Hall and Raoul Mulder Credit Nottsexminer Flickr Why some birds are babysitters instead of parents University of Melbourne right Original Study Posted by Rebecca Scott Melbourne on December 24 2013 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license Rather than reproducing themselves some birds choose to make sure the family genes are passed on by protecting the nests of their close relatives A new study shows that 9 percent of all bird species include non breeders that help drive off birds like cuckoos which lay their eggs in the nests of other birds Credit ted bongiovanni Flickr Related Articles On Futurity Cornell University PCB pollution garbles chickadee songs University at Buffalo

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/birds-baby-sitters-instead-parents/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Liam Jackson-Penn State, Author at Futurity
    of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University University Boston University Brandeis University Brown University California Institute of Technology Cardiff University Carnegie Mellon University Case Western Reserve University Columbia University Cornell University Duke University Emory University ETH Zurich Georgia Institute of Technology Indiana University Iowa State University Johns Hopkins University McGill University Michigan State University Monash University National University of Singapore New York University Northwestern University Penn State Princeton University Purdue University Rice University Rutgers University Stanford University Stony Brook University Syracuse University Texas A M University Tulane University University at Buffalo University College London University of Arizona University of California at Irvine University of California Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University All Articles By Liam Jackson Penn State Penn State 2 Congo disasters uncover new source of strong earthquakes A closer look at two natural disasters in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has identified a new source for dangerous earthquakes READ MORE Penn State During a weather disaster Twitter does what satellites

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/author/penn-state-jackson/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Why some earthquakes hit in 'supercycles' - Futurity
    s Pacific Northwest off Sumatra and in Japan Credit monaken mona Flickr Why some earthquakes hit in supercycles ETH Zurich right Original Study Posted by Astrid Tomczak Plewka ETH Zurich on May 7 2015 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license In March 2011 a massive release of stress between two overlapping tectonic plates occurred beneath the ocean floor off the coast of Japan triggering a giant tsunami The Tohoku quake resulted in the death of more than 15 000 people the partial or total destruction of nearly 400 000 buildings and major damage to the Fukushima nuclear power plant This superquake may have been the largest in a series of earthquakes marking the end of what s known as a supercycle a sequence of several large earthquakes A research team at ETH Zurich headed by Taras Gerya professor of geophysics and Ylona van Dinther is studying supercycles such as this that occur in subduction zones Geologists use the term subduction zone to refer to the boundary between two tectonic plates along a megathrust fault where one plate underthrusts the other and moves into the earth s mantle These zones are found all over the world off the South American coast in the US s Pacific Northwest off Sumatra and in Japan Why gradual ruptures occur Earthquakes don t occur at just any point along a megathrust fault but only in the fault s seismogenic zones Why In these zones friction prevents relative movement of the plates over long periods of time This causes stresses to build up an earthquake releases them all of a sudden explains ETH doctoral student Robert Herrendörfer After the quake has released these stresses the continued movement of the plates builds up new stresses which are then released by new earthquakes and an earthquake cycle is born In a supercycle the initial quakes rupture only parts of a subduction zone segment whereas the final superquake affects the entire segment Several different theories have been advanced to explain this gradual rupture phenomenon but they all assume that individual segments along the megathrust fault are governed by different frictional properties This heterogeneity results in a kind of patchwork rug says Herrendörfer To begin with earthquakes rupture individual smaller patches but later a superquake ruptures several patches all at once Wider zones In a new article recently published in Nature Geoscience Herrendörfer s research group proposed a further explanation that doesn t include this patchwork idea Simply put the wider a seismogenic zone the greater the probability of a supercycle occurring To understand this you first have to picture the physical forces at work in a subduction zone As one plate dives beneath the other at a particular angle the plates along the megathrust fault become partially coupled together so the lower plate pulls the upper one down with it Researchers ran computer simulations of this process with the overriding plate represented by a wedge and the lower by a rigid

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/earthquakes-supercycles-916542/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Chemists shocked by positive-to-positive bond - Futurity
    University Rice University Rutgers University Stanford University Stony Brook University Syracuse University Texas A M University Tulane University University at Buffalo University College London University of Arizona University of California at Irvine University of California Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Science and Technology Related Articles Chemical program controls synthetic DNA As climate warmed early horses shrank How a missile detector can stop malaria in its tracks Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print The discovery that positive hydrogen also can bind to positive phosphorus provides the basis for an entirely new understanding of how atomic charge works Credit Daniel Hoherd Flickr Chemists shocked by positive to positive bond University of Copenhagen right Original Study Posted by Jes Andersen U Copenhagen on March 25 2015 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license Positively charged molecules repel each other at least that s how it typically works A recent experiment suggests however there are exceptions to the rule For the first time a team from the University of Copenhagen s chemistry department has bonded

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/hydrogen-bond-positive-883782/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Scarier weapons get the (spider) girl - Futurity
    University College London University of Arizona University of California at Irvine University of California Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Science and Technology Related Articles Dino ecosystem as big as a continent Can supercapacitor wafers make power cords obsolete Giant planets orbit close but don t crash into star Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print Scarier weapons get the spider girl Duke University right Original Study Posted by Karl Bates Duke on December 15 2011 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license DUKE US The bigger a male jumping spider s weapons appear to be the more likely his rival will slink away without a fight leaving the bigger guy a clear path to the waiting female Duke University graduate student Cynthia Tedore working with her dissertation advisor visual ecologist Sönke Johnsen wanted to know what visual signals matter most to magnolia green jumping spiders which have an impressive array of eyes including two giant green ones that face forward The magnolia green spider can move its giant front facing eyes independently You re seeing the retina at the back of the dark eye on the right while the other eye is looking somewhere else and appears light green Credit Cynthia Tedore Duke httpv www youtube com watch v jUP8e1 etAg Vision is clearly important to these quarter inch animals which Tedore says can be very predaceous and aggressive when love is in the air Tedore s lab in the basement of Duke s biological sciences building is lined with wire shelves covered with row after row of Lucite boxes each holding an individual chartreuse jumping spider Full spectrum lights and squares of green paper mimic sunlight and leaves to keep the spiders calm between bouts They re fed leftover fruit flies from other labs In pairs 24 males squared off for 10 minutes in the arena a box festooned with female silk to put the males in a fighting frame of mind Over the course of 68 of these cage matches the male with the bigger chelicerae heavy bristling fangs hanging in front of their mouth parts usually scared the other guy off without a fight The males wave their forelegs at each other for a period and then the smaller

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/scarier-weapons-get-the-spider-girl/ (2016-02-11)
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