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  • Can microfossils preview climate's effect on oceans? - Futurity
    Stanford University Stony Brook University Syracuse University Texas A M University Tulane University University at Buffalo University College London University of Arizona University of California at Irvine University of California Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Earth and Environment Related Articles Satellite tracks 25 years of giant kelp Monarchs fly north toward uncertain future Renewable fuel made from CO2 Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print By comparing our fossil data with oxygen levels simulated in climate models we think oxygen minimum zones were much more prevalent 55 million years ago than they are today says Zunli Lu Credit Noora Al Meer Flickr Can microfossils preview climate s effect on oceans Syracuse University Yale University right Original Study Posted by Rob Enslin Syracuse on October 16 2014 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license Tiny fossilized organisms offer scientists a better understanding of how a rapid warming event affected global marine life more than 55 million years ago Global warming impacts marine life in complex ways of which the loss of dissolved oxygen a condition known as hypoxia is a growing concern says Zunli Lu assistant professor of Earth sciences and a member of Syracuse University s Water Science and Engineering Initiative Moreover it s difficult to predict future deoxygenation that is induced by carbon emissions without a good understanding of our geologic past Lu says this type of deoxygenation leads to larger and thicker oxygen minimum zones OMZs in the world s oceans An OMZ is the layer of water in an ocean where oxygen saturation is at its lowest Clues in the microfossils Much of Lu s work revolves around the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum PETM a well studied analogue for modern climate warming Documenting the expansion of OMZs during the PETM is difficult because of the lack of a sensitive widely applicable indicator of dissolved oxygen Related Articles On Futurity Stanford University Germany s big push for renewables is paying off Yale University Giant sea scorpion was likely a lame predator University of Texas at Austin This cave may hold clues to future climate change To address the problem Lu and his colleagues have begun working with iodate a type of iodine that exists only in oxygenated waters By analyzing

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/oceans-microfossils-oxygen-784822/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Darwin was right about invasive species - Futurity
    University right Original Study Posted by David Orenstein Brown on October 2 2014 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license Charles Darwin proposed the evolutionary imbalance hypothesis EIH to help predict species invasiveness in ecosystems Now scientists have tested it using quantifiable evidence and report that it pans out The EIH idea is this Species from regions with deep and diverse evolutionary histories are more likely to become successful invaders in regions with less deep less diverse evolutionary histories To predict the probability of invasiveness ecologists can quantify the imbalance between the evolutionary histories of donor and recipient regions as Dov Sax of Brown University and Jason Fridley of Syracuse University have demonstrated in several examples The findings appear in Global Ecology and Biogeography Darwin s idea Darwin s original insight was that the more challenges a region s species have faced in their evolution the more robust they ll be in new environments As natural selection acts by competition it adapts the inhabitants of each country only in relation to the degree of perfection of their associates Darwin wrote in 1859 Related Articles On Futurity National University of Singapore Spots make praying mantis fumble its attack Cardiff University Rapid evolution made falcons fierce University of Florida Comb jellies have evolved totally different brains Better tested species such as those from larger regions he reasoned have consequently been advanced through natural selection and competition to a higher stage of perfection or dominating power To Sax and Fridley the explanatory power of EIH suggests that when analyzing invasiveness ecologists should add historical evolutionary imbalance to the other factors they consider Invasion biology is well studied now but this is never listed there even though Darwin basically spelled it out says Sax associate of ecology and evolutionary biology It certainly hasn t been tested before We think this is a really important part of the story Advancing Darwin s insight from idea to hypothesis required determining a way to test it against measurable evidence The ideal data would encapsulate a region s population size and diversity relative environmental stability and habitat age and the intensity of competition Sax and Fridley found a suitable proxy phylogenetic diversity PD an index of how many unique lineages have developed in a region over the time of their evolution All else equal our expectation is that biotas represented by lineages of greater number or longer evolutionary history should be more likely to have produced a more optimal solution to a given environmental problem and it is this regional disparity approximated by PD that allows predictions of global invasion patterns they write Putting it to the test Using detailed databases on plant species in 35 regions of the world they looked at the relative success of those species invasiveness in three well documented destinations Eastern North America the Czech Republic and New Zealand They found that in all three regions the higher the PD of a species native region the

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/invasive-species-darwin-776222/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Team confirms first signs of oxygen in ancient oceans - Futurity
    University Rutgers University Stanford University Stony Brook University Syracuse University Texas A M University Tulane University University at Buffalo University College London University of Arizona University of California at Irvine University of California Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Earth and Environment Related Articles Twig by twig climbing Earth s Tree of Life Map charts future for Scotland s wild lands Plant version of checks and balances Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print Using a novel approach called iodine geochemistry researchers have confirmed the earliest appearance of dissolved oxygen in the ocean s surface waters Credit jon hayes Flickr Team confirms first signs of oxygen in ancient oceans Syracuse University right Original Study Posted by Rob Enslin Syracuse on June 12 2014 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license Geologists have discovered a proxy chemical that allows them to measure and study oxygen levels in the Earth s oldest oceans More than 2 5 billion years ago there was little to no oxygen in the oceans as methane shrouded the Earth in

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/ancient-oceans-oxygen/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Carbon limits for power plants have healthy 'side effects' - Futurity
    Earth and Environment Related Articles Green offices keep workers in the pink Tampon test finds pollution in rivers and streams Coal burns cleaner when you add oat hulls Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print With a mix of stringency and flexibility the new EPA rules have the potential to substantially reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from power plants which contribute to local and regional air pollution says Jonathan Buonocore This is an opportunity to both mitigate climate change and protect public health Credit Martin Flickr Carbon limits for power plants have healthy side effects Syracuse University right Original Study Posted by Ariel DuChene Syracuse on May 28 2014 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license Researchers say new carbon standards for power plants could cut more than 750 thousand tons of other harmful air pollutants from across the continental US They report that setting strong standards for climate changing carbon emissions from power plants would provide additional benefits including reductions in other air pollutants that can make people sick less damage to forests crops and lakes and decreased harm to fish and wildlife The authors of the new study use three policy options for the forthcoming Environmental Protection Agency EPA rule as a guide to model changes in power plant emissions of four other harmful air pollutants fine particulate matter nitrogen oxides sulfur dioxide and mercury The scientists compared the model results with a business as usual reference case for the year 2020 Of the three scenarios simulated the top performing option decreased sulfur dioxide and mercury emissions by 27 percent and nitrogen oxide emissions by 22 percent by 2020 compared to the reference case This option reduced carbon dioxide emissions from the power sector by 35 percent from 2005 levels by 2020 Pollution and public health The scientists state that the resulting air quality improvements are likely to lead to significant gains in public and environmental health Related Articles On Futurity McGill University Groundwater footprints are way too big University of California Santa Barbara Lost sea slug sighted in California waters University of Southern California Kids lungs grow faster in California s cleaner air When power plants limit carbon dioxide emissions they can also release less sulfur dioxide nitrogen oxide and other pollutants says Charles Driscoll professor of civil and environmental engineering in the Syracuse University College of Engineering and Computer Science who led the study One of the policy options we analyzed cut emissions of these non carbon pollutants by approximately 775 000 tons per year by 2020 he says We know that these other pollutants contribute to increased risk of premature death and heart attacks as well as increased incidence and severity of asthma and other health effects They also contribute to acid rain ozone damage to trees and crops and the accumulation of toxic mercury in fish adds Driscoll This new analysis shows that

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/carbon-limits-power-plants-health-side-effects/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Agents control, but don't kill, bacteria - Futurity
    Georgia Institute of Technology Indiana University Iowa State University Johns Hopkins University McGill University Michigan State University Monash University National University of Singapore New York University Northwestern University Penn State Princeton University Purdue University Rice University Rutgers University Stanford University Stony Brook University Syracuse University Texas A M University Tulane University University at Buffalo University College London University of Arizona University of California at Irvine University of California Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Health and Medicine Related Articles Seasonal depression linked to this brain region Fungus adds to asthma for 5 million worldwide If they re bored teen pot smokers may try other drugs Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print Scientists have designed synthetic molecules that can control certain behaviors in bacteria such as swarming and forming biofilms The molecules have the potential to stop bacteria from transferring genes which allows the microbes to develop resistance to drugs Credit mostly harmless Flickr Agents control but don t kill bacteria Syracuse University Posted by Rob Enslin Syracuse on May 14 2014 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license Instead of killing bacteria chemists are designing agents that can control them They say the technique might offer a way to treat infections caused by drug resistant bugs Since the discovery of the first antibiotic penicillin in 1928 bacteria have become smarter and have developed resistance to many drugs says Yan Yeung Luk an associate professor of chemistry at Syracuse University Related Articles On Futurity California Institute of Technology Intestine nanonets snag microbe invaders Michigan State University Tough guts of female mice point to colitis Stanford University Tune E coli to churn out biodiesel They ve done this by altering their genetic make up transferring drug resistant genes between one another and creating biofilms which are multicellular communities where bacteria can be a thousand fold more resistant to antibiotics In response Luk s team has developed a class of chemical agents that does not kill bacteria Instead the agents change their multicellular behaviors These agents are called disaccharide derivatives and they mimic a class of natural molecules known as rhamnolipids which are produced and secreted by the bacterium itself Luk says that while non microbicidal non killing molecules are nothing new his are unique

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/agents-control-bacteria/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Antarctica was once as warm as California - Futurity
    of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Earth and Environment Related Articles Dung debate Most methane from cows Hotter climate may be too warm for wine Locally grown but is that lettuce really green Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print This provides strong evidence that global warming is especially pronounced close to the Earth s poles says Hagit Affek Warming in these regions has significant consequences for climate well beyond the high latitudes due to ocean circulation and melting of polar ice that leads to sea level rise Credit Christopher Michel Flickr Antarctica was once as warm as California Syracuse University Yale University right Original Study Posted by Eric Gershon Yale on April 22 2014 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license Parts of ancient Antarctica were as toasty as today s California coast say scientists who used a new method to measure past temperatures The study focused on Antarctica during the Eocene epoch 40 to 50 million years ago a period with high concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and consequently a greenhouse climate Today Antarctica is year round one of the coldest places on Earth and the continent s interior is the coldest place with annual average land temperatures far below zero degrees Fahrenheit Related Articles On Futurity Princeton University Tiger stripes slow Antarctic glaciers flow University of Washington How rain and snow combine to cause floods University of California Santa Barbara Why is California crawling with hot pink sea slugs The findings published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences underscore the potential for increased warmth at Earth s poles and the associated risk of melting polar ice and rising sea levels the researchers says But it wasn t always that way and the new measurements can help improve climate models used for predicting future climate according to co author Hagit Affek associate professor of geology and geophysics at Yale University Quantifying past temperatures helps us understand the sensitivity of the climate system to greenhouse gases and especially the amplification of global warming in polar regions Affek says The paper s lead author Peter M J Douglas performed the research as a graduate student in Affek s Yale laboratory He is now a postdoctoral scholar at the California Institute of Technology The research team included paleontologists geochemists and a climate physicist Average temperatures By measuring concentrations of rare isotopes in ancient fossil shells the scientists found that temperatures in parts of Antarctica reached as high as 17 degrees Celsius 63F during the Eocene with an average of 14 degrees Celsius 57F similar to the average annual temperature off the coast of California today Eocene temperatures in parts of the southern Pacific Ocean measured 22

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/antarctic-hot-california/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Endangered whales are breeding in a busy shipping lane - Futurity
    Zurich Georgia Institute of Technology Indiana University Iowa State University Johns Hopkins University McGill University Michigan State University Monash University National University of Singapore New York University Northwestern University Penn State Princeton University Purdue University Rice University Rutgers University Stanford University Stony Brook University Syracuse University Texas A M University Tulane University University at Buffalo University College London University of Arizona University of California at Irvine University of California Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Science and Technology Related Articles 3 D hologram moves in real time Rigid feathers suggest dinosaur could fly Would you want a robot with a human face Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print With only 400 to 500 in existence endangered North American right whales must congregate in the Roseway Basin off the coast of Nova Scotia to feed and find mates Susan Parks says Credit Georgia Wildlife Resources Division Flickr Endangered whales are breeding in a busy shipping lane Syracuse University right Original Study Posted by Rob Enslin Syracuse on March 26 2014 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license Using remote acoustic monitoring researchers have identified the Roseway Basin a heavily traveled shipping lane off the coast of Nova Scotia as a breeding ground for endangered North Atlantic right whales Our results support the hypothesis that the North Atlantic right whale s breeding season occurs mostly from August to November and that this basin is a widely used habitat area says Susan Parks assistant professor of biology at Syracuse University More than 30 percent of all right whales use Roseway Basin part of a larger geological formation called the Scotian Shelf throughout the year With only 400 to 500 in existence these whales must congregate in the basin to feed and find mates Parks says Already the US and Canadian governments have taken steps to redirect shipping traffic in response to several fatal collisions with right whales Part of the answer lies in a loud gunshot sound made by the male whale says Leanna Matthews a member of Parks lab and lead author of a new study published in PLOS ONE We re not exactly sure what the gunshot is but we think it may be a male to male antagonistic signal or an advertisement

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/monitors-pick-male-whales/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Monitors track noisy ships in dolphin habitat - Futurity
    Case Western Reserve University Columbia University Cornell University Duke University Emory University ETH Zurich Georgia Institute of Technology Indiana University Iowa State University Johns Hopkins University McGill University Michigan State University Monash University National University of Singapore New York University Northwestern University Penn State Princeton University Purdue University Rice University Rutgers University Stanford University Stony Brook University Syracuse University Texas A M University Tulane University University at Buffalo University College London University of Arizona University of California at Irvine University of California Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Earth and Environment Related Articles Is the U S Southwest headed for a megadrought New drugs to come from cone snail venom Captive breeding won t save endangered woodrat Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print Right now the million dollar question is Does this disturbance lead to changes in population levels of marine mammals That s what these long term studies are ultimately trying to find out says Nathan Merchant Credit Peter Asprey Wikimedia Commons Monitors track noisy ships in dolphin habitat Syracuse University right Original Study Posted by Rob Enslin Syracuse on December 5 2013 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license Too much noise from shipping can stress out marine mammals so scientists have developed a technique to monitor ship traffic and noise in a protected dolphin habitat in Scotland The effort is focused on the Moray Firth the country s largest inlet and home to a population of bottlenose dolphins and various types of seals porpoises and whales This protected habitat also houses construction yards that feed Scotland s ever expanding offshore wind sector Related Articles On Futurity Duke University Whales shout to be heard in noisy oceans Syracuse University Endangered whales are breeding in a busy shipping lane Emory University Should killer whales be captive Projected increases in wind farm construction are expected to bring more shipping through the habitat something scientists think could have a negative impact on resident marine mammals Different ships emit noise at different levels and frequencies so it s important to know which types of vessels are crossing the habitats and migration routes of marine mammals says Nathan Merchant a postdoctoral researcher at Syracuse University The cumulative effect of many noisy ship passages can raise

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/monitors-track-noisy-ships-dolphin-habitat/ (2016-02-11)
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