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  • Hidden ice blamed for crazy crater on Mars - Futurity
    Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Science and Technology Related Articles This sound not that one scares away wild elephants Sensor detects lithium battery fires Telescopes reveal brown dwarf s iron rain Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print It s worth mentioning that terraced craters of this size are quite rare says Shane Byrne But in this area of Mars Arcadia Planitia there are a lot of terraced craters The craters may have formed at different times but they all have terraces which indicates something weird is going on in the subsurface Credit NASA USGS via Marc Van Norden Flickr Hidden ice blamed for crazy crater on Mars University of Arizona right Original Study Posted by U Arizona on August 28 2015 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license A crazy looking crater on Mars caught the attention of scientists A simple calculation cleared up how it got its strange shape but also raised a few questions about past weather on Mars Craters should be bowl shaped but this one had terraces in the wall says Ali Bramson a graduate student in the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory LPL at the University of Arizona Terraces can form when there are layers of different materials in the planet s subsurface such as dirt ice or rock When the crater is forming the shock wave from an object hitting a planet s surface propagates differently depending on what substrates are beneath the area of impact Bramson says If you have a weaker material in one layer the shock wave can push out that material more easily and the result is terracing at the interface between the weaker and stronger materials Something weird is going on It s worth mentioning that terraced craters of this size are quite rare says Shane Byrne associate professor in LPL But in this area of Mars Arcadia Planitia there are a lot of terraced craters The craters may have formed at different times but they all have terraces which indicates something weird is going on in the subsurface Thanks to Mars unstable obliquity the degree the planet tilts on its axis its climate changes often Unlike Earth Mars doesn t have a large moon to keep it stable Instead it wobbles on its axis and that wobbling leads to dramatic climatic shifts Those shifts in turn have led to intermittent ice ages Using a camera on NASA s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter researchers created 3D models of the area s craters which allowed them to measure the depth of their terraces The researchers then beamed radar pulses to Mars to measure the time it took for the

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/ice-craters-mars-991712/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Why snakes have more species than crocs - Futurity
    Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Science and Technology Related Articles Dinosaur eggs reveal their body temperature Reef fish resemble ancestors from 50M years ago Lamprey DNA could hold evolution secrets Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print Until now surprisingly little has been known about how or why differences occur in species numbers among these major vertebrate groups It turns out the answer may be habitat Credit Tambako The Jaguar Flickr Why snakes have more species than crocs University of Arizona right Original Study Posted by Daniel Stolte Arizona on August 10 2015 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license Of the nearly 1 5 million known animal species on Earth those with backbones come in a stunning array of shapes and sizes Vertebrates include fish amphibians reptiles birds and mammals The number of species within these groups varies wildly There are only six species of lungfish and only 25 crocodilians but roughly 10 000 birds and 9 700 lizards and snakes Until now surprisingly little has been known about how or why differences occur in species numbers among these major vertebrate groups It turns out the answer may be habitat Credit Héctor de Pereda Flickr Land and water Published in the journal Biology Letters a new analysis of vertebrates suggests the diversification rates of terrestrial groups are much higher than aquatic groups Habitat is likely to be a more important variable in explaining species richness than other hypothesized explanations such as climate or metabolic rate Further the importance of habitat may apply to many other types of organisms as well says John Wiens professor in the ecology and evolutionary biology department at the University of Arizona I wanted to understand why these different groups vary in species numbers I found that most variation in species numbers has a simple explanation Groups living on land proliferate more rapidly than those in water Previous studies have hypothesized a connection between terrestrial habitats and higher rates of diversification but none had performed a quantitative analysis to test the idea Net diversification To address this question researchers calculated the net diversification rates for 12 major vertebrate groups The net diversification rate is similar to the number of species in a group divided by its age Using this approach they were able to compare how fast species within each clade were proliferating An example of a clade with a high net diversification rate is birds which on a timescale of hundreds of millions of years are a relatively young group Since they are both young and have many species their rate is relatively high Wiens says In contrast sharks and rays have a smaller number of species and they re a much older group so they have a lower rate Ray finned fishes which make up about 96 percent of fish species

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/animals-species-habitats-978782/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Can science offer us immortality? Should it? - Futurity
    reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print And I do wonder not just ethically but socially if people are living for hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of years at what point do we finally grow up says Michael Bonaguidi Credit iStockphoto Can science offer us immortality Should it University of Arizona University of Southern California Posted by Cristy Lytal USC on July 22 2015 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license Can science make us immortal At a recent Los Angeles screening of the new science fiction thriller Self Less USC Stem Cell researcher Michael Bonaguidi and University of Arizona researcher Wolfgang Fink tackled this and other provocative questions during a panel discussion The film follows a wealthy cancer patient Ben Kingsley who signs up for an experimental medical procedure that transfers his consciousness into the body of a healthy young donor Ryan Reynolds The procedure known as shedding has some serious side effects Here are some highlights from the discussion Tell us about what you do at your schools and what you study Fink I m a physicist by training and I work in two main areas One is autonomous systems basically making spacecraft robots intelligent so they can conduct their own operations And the other side is biomedical engineering in particular vision implants for the blind Bonaguidi And what I investigate is how the brain adapts and repairs itself with implications for rejuvenation Considering your areas of expertise what might be the biggest challenge to achieving immortality and can it be overcome in the near future Bonaguidi For me immortality is something that is a little science fiction currently I would never say never in the future because there will be people who can imagine things today and tomorrow and beyond that we could only dream about yesterday And that s evidenced by a lot of the technology that is commonplace to us such as portable devices and so forth Fink If at all I would see immortality coming from the biological sector if you manage somehow to prevent cell death from happening or if you extend the life span of cells beyond their natural life span In the movie the character played by Ben Kingsley was able to shed the term used in the film because he had the money to pay for it Will immortality be something only available to the haves or can the have nots be immortal too Bonaguidi Generally with technologies they are available to those who have the funds at the onset And then over time it becomes more cost effective and then becomes available to the public You may have heard about how the genome was sequenced back in the early 2000s And when this was originally done it cost millions and millions and millions of dollars And now it s a few thousand Fink Not only that It also took years and years to do it Now I think you can do it in

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/self-less-movie-immortality-964582/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Blood test predicts Alzheimer's risk early - Futurity
    of cognitive impairment has long been a Holy Grail of the neuromedicine community says Mark Mapstone Biomarkers that can allow us to intervene early in the course of the disease could be a game changer Credit Phillip Jeffrey Flickr Blood test predicts Alzheimer s risk early University of California at Irvine University of Rochester right Original Study Posted by Mark Michaud Rochester on March 10 2014 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license Researchers have developed a blood test that predicts with more than 90 percent accuracy who is at risk for developing Alzheimer s disease The findings could lead to a new generation of treatments to head off the disease before neurological damage becomes irreversible The biomarker which consists of 10 specific lipids found in blood plasma can also predict who will go on to develop a precursor condition known as amnestic mild cognitive impairment aMCI Related Articles On Futurity University of California Davis Brain site shrinkage adds to Alzheimer s University of Michigan Living wills End of life care on your terms University of Pittsburgh Daily walks slow Alzheimer s pace The cost of the simple blood test required to detect these lipids is a fraction of other techniques and unlike alternatives it identifies risk early in the disease process before cognitive symptoms appears The ability to identify individuals who are at risk of developing Alzheimer s before the clinical manifestation of cognitive impairment has long been a Holy Grail of the neuromedicine community says lead author Mark Mapstone a neuropsychologist with the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry Current efforts to develop a treatment for this disease are coming up short because they are probably being used too late Biomarkers that can allow us to intervene early in the course of the disease could be a game changer Alzheimer s research is at an impasse with many once promising experimental therapies failing in late stage clinical trials These setbacks have led all but a few major pharmaceutical companies to pull back from their research and development in the disease A silver tsunami The absence of an effective treatment for Alzheimer s and the dwindling options in the drug development pipeline mean that the nation and the world are woefully unprepared for the coming Silver Tsunami of aging baby boomers who will develop the disease in the coming years By 2050 an estimated 14 million Americans will have Alzheimer s consuming an estimated 1 2 trillion in health care costs per year There is an emerging scientific consensus that once the cognitive symptoms of the Alzheimer s have emerged it may be too late to slow or reverse the neurological damage caused by the disease Researchers speculate that if treatments could be initiated early in the disease cycle they may stand more of a chance of being effective In fact many of the same experimental treatments that have failed in recent clinical studies may ultimately prove to be successful

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/blood-test-predicts-alzheimers-risk/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Fiber-optic implants stop seizures - Futurity
    University Syracuse University Texas A M University Tulane University University at Buffalo University College London University of Arizona University of California at Irvine University of California Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Health and Medicine Related Articles Signature identifies severe pancreatic cancer Decisions get tougher as white matter ages After radiation sleeping brain cells wake up Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print Fiber optic implants stop seizures University of California at Irvine right Original Study Posted by Tom Vasich UC Irvine on January 28 2013 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license UC IRVINE US Neuroscientists have developed a way to stop epileptic seizures in mice with fiber optic light signals The new approach could potentially lead to better epilepsy treatment options particularly for people who have the most severe symptoms Using a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy Ivan Soltesz professor and chair of anatomy and neurobiology at the University of California Irvine and colleagues created an EEG based computer system that activates hair thin optical strands implanted in the brain

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/fiber-optic-implants-stop-seizures/ (2016-02-11)
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  • New infection from deer ticks shows up in US - Futurity
    Duke University Emory University ETH Zurich Georgia Institute of Technology Indiana University Iowa State University Johns Hopkins University McGill University Michigan State University Monash University National University of Singapore New York University Northwestern University Penn State Princeton University Purdue University Rice University Rutgers University Stanford University Stony Brook University Syracuse University Texas A M University Tulane University University at Buffalo University College London University of Arizona University of California at Irvine University of California Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Health and Medicine Related Articles Does sterilization policy put minority women at risk Does legal pot entice users to drink more How spit protects us from poison in coffee Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print New infection from deer ticks shows up in US University of California at Irvine Yale University right Original Study Posted by Michael Greenwood Yale on January 18 2013 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license YALE US A new tick borne infection that shares many similarities with Lyme disease has been discovered in 18 patients in southern New England and neighboring New York It is the first time that the disease so new that it does not yet have a name has been confirmed in humans in the United States Blood tests were used to detect evidence of infection by a bacterium that is found in deer ticks and is related to the one that causes Lyme disease httpv www youtube com watch v 6AGZW2zQD7s Researchers found positive results for the new infection in 21 percent of 14 patients with unexplained summertime febrile illness 3 percent of 273 patients with Lyme disease or suspected Lyme disease and 1 percent of 584 healthy people living in areas where Lyme disease is endemic Yale University scientists discovered the bacterium known as Borrelia miyamotoi in deer ticks from Connecticut more than a decade ago In 2011 they published the first evidence of human infection in Russian patients The current study published in the New England Journal of Medicine was designed to determine whether human infection occurs in the United States While many symptoms are similar to Lyme disease patients also may experience other symptoms such as relapsing fever says Peter Krause senior research scientist at the School of Public Health

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/new-infection-from-deer-ticks-shows-up-in-us/ (2016-02-11)
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  • X-rays find weak spot in ulcer bacteria - Futurity
    Johns Hopkins University McGill University Michigan State University Monash University National University of Singapore New York University Northwestern University Penn State Princeton University Purdue University Rice University Rutgers University Stanford University Stony Brook University Syracuse University Texas A M University Tulane University University at Buffalo University College London University of Arizona University of California at Irvine University of California Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Health and Medicine Related Articles Synthetic muscle brings back eye blink Targeting key protein may halt lung tumors Can shark eggs clarify how human necks develop Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print X rays find weak spot in ulcer bacteria Stanford University University of California at Irvine right Original Study Posted by Bjorn Carey Stanford on December 12 2012 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license STANFORD UC IRVINE US Powerful X rays have revealed a potential way to attack Helicobacter pylori a stomach bacteria harbored by at least half the world s population In 1982 Australian scientists extracted bacteria from a person s stomach grew them in a petri dish and identified them as the cause of ulcers and gastritis Hundreds of millions of people who carry H pylori suffer health problems that ultimately increase the odds of developing stomach cancer Current treatments require a complicated regimen of stomach acid inhibitors and antibiotics the latter of which have the side effect of indiscriminately knocking out beneficial bacteria H pylori is a robust bacterium able to thrive in an environment that s as caustic as car battery acid Crucial to H pylori s survival are tiny protein channels within its cell membrane Urea from the surrounding gastric juices passes through these channels and into the bacterium which converts the urea into ammonia that protects it from the acid Blocking the channels would disable this protective system leading to a new treatment for people with the infection Using X rays from SLAC s Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource SSRL we have deciphered the three dimensional molecular structure of a very promising drug target says Hartmut Hudel Luecke a researcher at the University of California Irvine and principal investigator on the paper which is published in Nature Solving the structure of the protein to find the specific area to target

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/x-rays-find-weak-spot-in-ulcer-bacteria/ (2016-02-11)
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  • Babies with skull defect share 'snip' genes - Futurity
    University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Health and Medicine Related Articles Brain gene hints at stomach cancer s origin To beat food temptations stick to a list Morphine like drug may ward off PTSD Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print Babies with skull defect share snip genes Johns Hopkins University Penn State University of California at Irvine University of California Davis University of Southern California University of Washington right Original Study Posted by Phyllis Brown UC Davis on November 19 2012 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license UC DAVIS US Two areas of the human genome appear to be associated with the most common form of a condition that causes the bony plates in a baby s skull to close too soon We have discovered two genetic factors that are strongly associated with the most common form of premature closure of the skull says Simeon Boyadjiev professor of pediatrics and genetics at the University of California Davis and the principal investigator for the study During fetal and early child development the skull is made of separate bony plates that allow for growth of the head The borders between the plates do not normally fuse completely until a child is about 2 years old leaving temporary soft spots at the intersection of the seams If the bones fuse too early the condition called craniosynostosis a child will develop an abnormally shaped head Left untreated the disorder causes complications due to brain compression such as neurologic and visual problems and learning disabilities Typically craniosynostosis requires extensive neurosurgical correction About 20 percent of cases of craniosynostosis have previously been linked to a number of different genetic syndromes but the vast majority of cases not associated with a syndrome involving other birth defects arise without any known family history or cause The most common form of non syndromic craniosynostosis which affects about 1 in 5 000 newborns involves the sagittal suture the main seam that runs down the center of the top of the skull These cases were the subject of the investigation Although the condition has long been thought to be partially determined by genes it is three times more common in boys than in girls and identical twins are much more likely to both be affected than non identical twins the exact basis was unclear To help determine the cause an international team of investigators conducted the first genome wide association study for the disorder which involves scanning the entire genome of a group of people with craniosynostosis and comparing it to a control group of people without the condition The study searched for single nucleotide polymorphisms abbreviated as SNPs and called snips that are associated with craniosynostosis SNPs are DNA changes in which a single nucleotide differs from the usual one at that position There are some three billion nucleotides the basic

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/babies-with-skull-defect-share-snip-genes/ (2016-02-11)
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