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  • California's native fish face extinction - Futurity
    Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Earth and Environment Related Articles Online access to a world of grass Why people don t trust energy saving gadgets Oceans hold treasure trove of minerals Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print California s native fish face extinction University of California Davis right Original Study Posted by Kat Kerlin UC Davis on May 31 2013 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license UC DAVIS US Salmon and other native freshwater fish in California will likely go extinct within the next century due to climate change if current trends continue The study published online in May in the journal PLOS ONE assessed how vulnerable each freshwater species in California is to climate change and estimated the likelihood that those species would become extinct in 100 years The researchers from the Center for Watershed Sciences at the University of California Davis found that of 121 native fish species 82 percent are likely to be driven to extinction or very low numbers as climate change speeds the decline of already depleted populations In contrast only 19 percent of the 50 non native fish species in the state face a similar risk of extinction Delta smelt are fifth on the list of native California fish most likely to become extinct in the state within 100 years due to climate change Credit USFWS Pacific Southwest Region Flickr If present trends continue much of the unique California fish fauna will disappear and be replaced by alien fishes such as carp largemouth bass fathead minnows and green sunfish says Peter Moyle a professor of fish biology who has been documenting the biology and status of California fish for the past 40 years Disappearing fish will include not only obscure species of minnows suckers and pupfishes but also coho salmon most runs of steelhead trout and Chinook salmon and Sacramento perch Moyle says Fish requiring cold water such as salmon and trout are particularly likely to go extinct the study says However non native fish species are expected to thrive although some will lose their aquatic habitats during severe droughts and low flow summer months The top 20 native California fish most likely to become extinct in California within 100 years as the result

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/californias-native-fish-face-extinction/ (2016-02-12)
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  • Hey, this invasive crab's not all bad - Futurity
    Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Earth and Environment Related Articles Claims about crops won t save wild bees Scientists ask Put a price tag on nature Warming threatens one of world s oldest lakes Hey this invasive crab s not all bad Brown University University of Florida Posted by Richard Lewis Brown on May 20 2010 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license BROWN US A mysterious foreigner washed up on the New Jersey shore in 1988 The Asian shore crab likely arrived in ballast from commercial ships Instead of wreaking havoc researchers have found the crab has carved out a hospitable niche and in fact gets along just fine with native species More than two decades later the crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus has expanded its range along the Atlantic coast northward to Maine and southward to North Carolina Its numbers continue to expand and wildlife biologists have found them in greater densities along New England s cobbled shores While the crab has exploited the conditions set up by the native cordgrass and ribbed mussels that dominate the cobbled beach ecosystem it does not appear to do so at the expense of other species that call the shoreline home Usually when you think of invasions says Andrew Altieri a marine ecologist at Brown University and author of a new paper in Ecology that scrutinizes the crabs success you think it will be bad Yet we found here a situation where that doesn t occur We ve found a place where the natives and invasives get along quite well Altieri and team members counted crabs which measure about 1 1 2 inches wide at four sites on Narragansett and Mount Hope bays in Rhode Island in summer 2003 2004 They found crab density an indicator of their numbers to be highest where cordgrass and ribbed mussels proliferated Crab density was more than 100 times higher in those areas compared to spots along the beaches where cordgrass or mussels were missing The crabs have found their transplanted home so inviting that their populations are denser in North America than in their native range in Asia From the field observations the team determined the Asian shore crab took advantage of the moist shady environment created by the cordgrass and the mussels In ecological terms the researchers found a facilitation cascade The cordgrass attracts ribbed mussels by giving the molluscs something to attach

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/hey-this-invasive-crabs-not-all-bad/ (2016-02-12)
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  • Krishna Ramanujan-Cornell, Author at Futurity
    University McGill University Michigan State University Monash University National University of Singapore New York University Northwestern University Penn State Princeton University Purdue University Rice University Rutgers University Stanford University Stony Brook University Syracuse University Texas A M University Tulane University University at Buffalo University College London University of Arizona University of California at Irvine University of California Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University All Articles By Krishna Ramanujan Cornell Cornell University Why diabetes goes into remission days after bariatric surgery A study with mice suggests why people who have bariatric surgery experience remission of Type 2 diabetes sometimes just days after the procedure READ MORE Cornell University Gut bacteria differ when zinc goes missing Zinc deficiency alters the makeup of bacteria found in the intestine according to a new study with chickens READ MORE Cornell University These are the first puppies born by I V F Since the mid 1970s people have been trying to do this in a dog and have been unsuccessful says researcher Alex Travis READ MORE Cornell University This foam pump works like a human heart A new stretchy foam mimics the pumping action of a human heart The researchers who created say it could make other body parts They re working on a hand READ MORE Cornell University Some cultures say memory improves with age Perceptions of aging are more positive among the indigenous Tsimané people than in Poland or the US Should we try to improve our stereotypes READ MORE Cornell University Would you take food advice from a heavier blogger People judge food advice according to the blogger s body weight report researchers Could being aware of bias help us better evaluate health information READ MORE Cornell University Silver scans solve mystery of Jamestown graves The discovery of graves under a Jamestown church built in 1608 had archaeologists wondering who was buried there A bit of silver helped solve the mystery READ MORE Cornell University Obesity makes breast tissue stiff and scarred Physical change in the consistency of breast tissue may explain why obese women have a higher risk of breast cancer READ MORE Cornell University Pearl millet with extra iron could fight anemia Anemia affects more than 1 6 billion people worldwide A study with Indian schoolchildren suggests bio fortified pearl millet can alleviate iron deficiency READ MORE Cornell University RNA insecticide could

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/author/cornell-ramanujan/ (2016-02-12)
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  • Mutated gene causes heart defect in Newfoundland dogs - Futurity
    Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Health and Medicine Related Articles Obesity risk for kids who don t taste bitter Why flu shot messages fail to reach minority women In autism brain doesn t prune extra synapses Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print Our hope now is that breeders will be able to make informed breeding decisions and avoid breeding dogs that harbor this mutation thus gradually eliminating the disease from the Newfoundland breed Joshua Stern says Credit Matty Sides Flickr Mutated gene causes heart defect in Newfoundland dogs University of California Davis right Original Study Posted by Pat Bailey UC Davis on August 7 2014 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license Researchers have discovered a gene mutation that causes a deadly heart defect in Newfoundland dogs They hope the findings will lead to better breeding practices Newfoundlands those massive furry black dogs are all too often afflicted with a potentially lethal congenital disease called subvalvular aortic stenosis or SAS which also affects other dog breeds including the golden retriever Although rare SAS sometimes affects children but when it is diagnosed surgical removal of the ridge or ring below the aortic valve is one option for improving the child s health In dogs however such a surgical procedure has not increased survival And open heart surgery for dogs is only available at a few centers around the world Our hope now is that breeders will be able to make informed breeding decisions and avoid breeding dogs that harbor this mutation thus gradually eliminating the disease from the Newfoundland breed says Joshua Stern a veterinary cardiologist at the University of California Davis who led the study In addition now that we know one gene responsible for SAS and more about which proteins are involved we can move forward to consider novel therapies that may help treat this devastating condition The researchers conducted a whole genome analysis scanning thousands of genes which revealed that the mutation associated with SAS resides in a gene called PICALM This same gene mutation has been associated with the formation of plaque like lesions in the brains of people with Alzheimer s disease Stern says The researchers also conducted a pedigree analysis in a family of 45 Newfoundland dogs to examine the inheritance pattern of the SAS mutation This analysis confirmed that the inheritance follows a certain pattern by which only one parent needs to be carrying the gene mutation in order for the offspring to

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/gene-mutation-newfoundland-dogs-744122/ (2016-02-12)
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  • Dog genes may offer clues to cleft palate in humans - Futurity
    Johns Hopkins University McGill University Michigan State University Monash University National University of Singapore New York University Northwestern University Penn State Princeton University Purdue University Rice University Rutgers University Stanford University Stony Brook University Syracuse University Texas A M University Tulane University University at Buffalo University College London University of Arizona University of California at Irvine University of California Berkeley University of California Davis University of California Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Copenhagen University of Florida University of Illinois University of Iowa University of Kansas University of Leeds University of Maryland University of Melbourne University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh University of Queensland University of Rochester University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Southern California University of Texas at Austin University of Toronto University of Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Health and Medicine Related Articles Drug may protect teen heart post chemo Genes tied to severe seizure disorders in kids Stem cells deliver therapy for Huntington s Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print This puppy is a Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever the breed with the newly discovered genetic mutation for cleft palate Credit Danika Bannasch UC Davis Dog genes may offer clues to cleft palate in humans University of California Davis right Original Study Posted by Trina Wood UC Davis on April 8 2014 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license Researchers have identified the genetic mutation responsible for a form of cleft palate in a breed of dog the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever They hope the discovery which provides the first dog model for the craniofacial defect will lead to a better understanding of cleft palate in humans Related Articles On Futurity University of California Santa Barbara We look right below the eyes to judge faces University of California Davis Like purebreds mutts can inherit medical trouble Cornell University Some cultures say memory improves with age Although cleft palate is one of the most common birth defects in children affecting approximately one in 1 500 live human births in the United States it is not completely understood The findings appear online this week in the journal PLOS Genetics This discovery provides novel insight into the genetic cause of a form of cleft palate through the use of a less conventional animal model says study leader Professor Danika Bannasch a veterinary geneticist at the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine It also demonstrates that dogs have multiple genetic causes of cleft palate that we anticipate will aid in the identification of additional candidate genes relevant to human cleft palate Bannasch explains that common breeding practices have made the dog a unique animal model to help

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/dogs-duck-tolling-cleft-palate/ (2016-02-12)
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  • Fishing lets crabs chow down on marshes - Futurity
    fewer predators including striped bass blue crabs and smooth dogfish in areas where recreational fishing is prevalent native Sesarma crabs have had relatively free rein to eat salt marsh grasses causing the ecosystem to collapse says Mark Bertness chair of the Brown University Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and the paper s senior author He led a series of experiments and measurements published online in the journal Ecology that he said unavoidably implicate recreational fishing in marsh die off We had to be so careful about dotting all the i s and crossing all the t s and making sure that we had ruled out all alternative hypotheses because even within the scientific community there are plenty of fishermen who don t want this to be true Bertness says Certainly out in the general public there are plenty of people who are into recreational fishing who don t want it to be the problem Bertness says salt marshes are vitally important because they protect coastlines from erosion filter pollutants headed from land to sea and act as nurseries for the young of many species of crabs and fish Studies that assign economic value to varying ecosystems rank salt marshes at or near the top he says Making measurements To do their research Bertness s team worked at seven healthy and seven distressed salt marshes on Cape Cod in 2009 and 2010 They tested not only for direct evidence supporting their hypothesis about recreational fishing but also to check whether other factors could be responsible for the decline of the marshes They measured recreational fishing pressure at each of the 14 sites in two ways They directly observed and counted fishermen in the area They also observed the increase in recreational fishing infrastructure such as docks at the sites over several decades by studying historical aerial photographs They consulted those photographs to measure how marshes have died off over time In 2009 the team tallied top Sesarma eating predator populations at the sites by catching samplings in traps and then releasing them They also counted Sesarma densities at the 14 sites measured the intensity with which Sesarma crabs were eating grasses and evaluated the extent of marsh die off at these sites The story told by these measurements was clear As recreation fishing infrastructure has developed over time nearby marshes have increasingly died off and collapsed The marshes in the areas with prevalent recreational fishing were always the ones that were dying off The dying marshes had significantly fewer Sesarma eating predators many more Sesarma and the intensity with which Sesarma were eating the marshes was much higher The team even did experiments where they tied up Sesarma crabs and left them as sitting ducks for predators to eat In the waters of dying marshes the crabs were three times less likely to be eaten than in marshes that were healthy Ruling out alternatives The team knew that their research program had to rule out alternative explanations to a trophic

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/fishing-lets-crabs-chow-down-on-marshes/ (2016-02-12)
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  • Gulf dead zone tied to tile drainage - Futurity
    Virginia University of Warwick University of Washington University of York Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Yale University Earth and Environment Related Articles Earth would be a hot mess without carbon eating plants Oxygen levels fell in Ice Age oceans Don t blame boats for fatal fish virus Share This Article facebook twitter Action googleplus Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print Gulf dead zone tied to tile drainage Cornell University University of Illinois Posted by Debra Levey Larson Illinois on September 28 2010 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license U ILLINOIS US The most heavily tile drained areas of North America are the largest contributing sources of nitrate to the Gulf of Mexico leading to seasonal hypoxia In the summer of 2010 the dead zone in the Gulf spanned over 7 000 square miles Scientists compiled information on each county in the Mississippi River basin including crop acreage and yields fertilizer inputs atmospheric deposition number of people and livestock to calculate all nitrogen inputs and outputs from 1997 to 2006 For 153 watersheds in the basin they also used measurements of nitrate concentration and flow in streams which allowed them to develop a statistical model that explained 83 percent of the variation in springtime nitrate flow in the monitored streams The greatest nitrate loss to streams corresponds to the highly productive tile drained cornbelt from southwest Minnesota across Iowa Illinois Indiana and Ohio The study is published in the September October 2010 issue of the Journal of Environmental Quality This area of the basin has extensive row cropping of fertilized corn and soybeans a flat landscape with tile drainage and channelized ditches and streams to facilitate drainage Farmers are not to blame says Mark David professor of natural resources and environmental sciences at the University of Illinois They are using the same amount of nitrogen as they were 30 years ago and getting much higher corn yields but we have created a very leaky agricultural system This allows nitrate to move quickly from fields into ditches and on to the Gulf of Mexico We need policies that reward farmers to help correct the problem We ve had data from smaller watersheds for some time but this new study includes data from the entire Mississippi Basin It shows clearly where across the entire basin the sources of nitrate are A lot of people just want to blame fertilizer but it s not that simple David says It s fertilizer on intensive corn and soybean agricultural rotations in heavily tile drained areas There is also an additional source of nitrogen from sewage effluent from people although that is a small contribution It s all of these factors together Ripping out all of the drainage tiles is not a viable option he says Creating wetlands and reservoirs such as Lake Shelbyville can remove nitrate by holding the water back and letting natural processes remove it but that s not

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/gulf-dead-zone-tied-to-tile-drainage/ (2016-02-12)
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  • Fire hunting shields Australian mammals - Futurity
    Google linkedin LinkedIn pinterest Pinterest reddit Reddit Stumbleupon mail Email Print Fire hunting shields Australian mammals Stanford University right Original Study Posted by Max McClure Stanford on July 12 2012 You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4 0 International license STANFORD US When species start disappearing it usually makes sense to blame it on the arrival of humans But in the case of Western Australia s declining small mammal populations the opposite may be true The Aboriginal Martu people of Western Australia have traditionally set small fires while foraging leaving a patchwork landscape that proves a perfect environment for bilbies wallabies possums and other threatened mammals Anthropologists have discovered that when these controlled burns cease the desert rapidly becomes overgrown and a single lightning strike can send wildfires tearing through hundreds of square miles of tinder dry mammal habitat httpv www youtube com watch v j8zb44roDTM The paper authored by Stanford University anthropology Associate Professor Rebecca Bliege Bird senior research scientist Douglas Bird postdoctoral scholar Brian Codding and undergraduate Peter Kauhanen appeared recently in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Hunting with the Martu Martu Native Title deep in Australia s Western Desert contains some of the most remote human settlements in the world Parnngurr a Martu community with a population of around 80 is located more than 200 miles from the nearest mining outpost Making the most of the harsh arid landscape s resources the Aboriginal Australians hunt bustard emu and kangaroo and collect a wide variety of fruits tubers and seeds But their most important resource is the sand goanna a 4 foot long burrowing lizard that accounts for nearly 40 percent of all foraged calories The goanna hunt likely hasn t changed in thousands of years In winter when the lizards are hibernating groups of women head out from the camps and set fire to patches of the spinifex grass covering den entrances Once the brush has been cleared the woman who sets the fire has first rights to dig out any goanna burrows she finds in the fire scar The practice is so ingrained in Martu culture that the Martu language has words for every stage of plant growth following a fire ranging from nyurnma a fresh fire scar to kunarka a landscape overgrown with spinifex If you re out hunting with Martu it involves fire all the time Bird says You can t understand any of their values without factoring in the fundamental role of fire Comparing scars The Martu were cleared from their lands in the mid 1960s to make way for the British government s Blue Streak missile tests Until the people won the official title to their territory again in 2002 an Alabama sized portion of the Western Desert that they had previously managed saw no controlled fires Without human intervention El Niño driven monsoons had allowed dense spinifex to spring up in some areas and sprawling lightning caused fire scars to appear in others

    Original URL path: http://www.futurity.org/fire-hunting-shields-australian-mammals/ (2016-02-12)
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