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  • This Week's Update - What is appropriate radiation protection? (27th February, 2012) : Global Energy Policy Research
    key stakeholders are important to confront nuclear accident Japanese Government however has not appropriately made policy in any of the above contentions This Week s News The New York Times reported A Confused Nuclear Clean Up at 10th Feb It reports on site nuclear clean up activity from Iitate village Fukushima Prefecture And it analyzes Japanese Government s policy on nuclear clean up Cost of nuclear clean up will be 1 trillion yen about 13 billon US dollars But its effectiveness to avoid health damages of residents is unknown Academic Articles ICRP Publication 111 Application of the Commission s Recommendations to the Protection of People Living in Long term Contaminated Areas After a Nuclear Accident or Radiation Emergency This was published in 2008 and is a guideline for radioactivity protections for nuclear disasters Video Is Fukushima Dangerous Distorted images of Japan Morley Robertson Nobuo Ikeda What s happen What was the cause in Fukushima Morley Robertson writer and DJ talk about distorted images of Japan after Fukushima nuclear plant accident with Nobuo Ikeda 21st Century Energy Challenges At the ARPA E 2012 summit Bill Gates and U S Energy Secretary Steven Chu discussed the largest energy challenges of the 21st century in the U S and around the world A Web TV Program Is radiation really so harmful Considering risks of nuclear power generation Japanese only Agora Institute who operates GEPR broadcasted a Web TV program Is radiation really so harmful Considering risks of nuclear power generation on internet video streaming channel Niconico Live on January 19th in Japanese only Nobuo Ikeda President of Agora Incorporated and three experts on radiation risk analysis and energy policy discussed about the situations after Fukushima nuclear accident Their opinions were consistent that potentiality of health damage caused by the Fukushima accident is very

    Original URL path: http://www.gepr.org/en/contents/20120227-03/ (2016-02-14)
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  • Fukushima: Neither Chernobyl, Nor Hiroshima : Global Energy Policy Research
    explosion consisted of radioisotopes with half lives of seconds or minutes This is because the size of radioactivity is inverse proportion to a half life In contrast the radiation from cesium with a half life of 30 years is so low as to be virtually ignorable and has not caused any deaths After the reactors nuclear reactions stopped the leak of radioactive substances occurred in Fukushima after a full day elapsed Naturally the disaster did not lead to the situation in Hiroshima and of course no shockwave or searing light generated by a nuclear explosion was experienced in Fukushima Reality of Low Fukushima Doses Within one month of the accident the maximum thyroid dosage of 66 individuals whom I tested including those tested in Namie machi was 8 mSv the proper specialized unit would actually be milligray or between one thousands and ten thousandth of Chernobyl victims These levels preclude thyroid cancer caused by radiation I tested 87 individuals for total body cesium radioactivity in the cities of Minami Soma Koriyama Iwaki Fukushima and Nihonmatsu and across all of Fukushima Prefecture from newborns to adults Out of this number 83 were below the detection limit 10 Becquerels Bq or less per kilogram For the remaining 17 the individual with the largest reading was 165 Bq per kilogram an estimated annual dose of 0 4 mSv which is completely within the range of safety because the annual average dose for internal exposure globally from natural radiation is 1 3 mSv The value is lower than that In April June and August I conducted investigations in Fukushima Prefecture for two nights and three days on each occasion with a personal dosimeter on my chest I entered the 20 km zone for two days in April as close as the property line of Fukushima Dai Ichi Nuclear Power plant and measured a total dosage of 0 10 mSv For my investigations in June I travelled to Fukushima Iitaate mura Minami Soma and Iwaki and sustained a total dose of 0 01 mSv My August investigation of Shirakawa Aizu and Fukushima resulted in a total dose of 0 006 mSv After the first month radioactivity fell to a level of 1 4 or less and continues to attenuate Thus the maximum annual dose for many Fukushima Prefecture residents in 2011 was assessed at less than 5 mSv The total annual dose in 2012 furthermore would be a maximum 1 mSv in the Aizu Region without special decontamination work Prefecture residents are deemed to have suffered no health hazards originating from radiation Recovery within 20 km Zone of Fukushima Dai Ichi Possible Proposed Levee Park Using Removed Rubble and Debris The national government should take responsibility for and efficiently decontaminate certain parts of Fukushima Prefecture within the 20 km zone The goal here is to restore agriculture by achieving an actual maximum annual dose of 1 mSv without natural background radiation for residents and levels at or below the cesium reference standard for agricultural products

    Original URL path: http://www.gepr.org/en/contents/20120220-01/ (2016-02-14)
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  • This Week's Update - Would there be any health hazard from a low radiation dose of Fukushima? (20th February, 2012) : Global Energy Policy Research
    19th was Is radiation really so harmful Considering risks of nuclear power generation Japanese only This is written into an article English summary coming soon Dr Nobuo Ikeda Agora Institute suggested What is important is to minimize the damage of accident We must consider rehabilitation on the premise that there will be no health hazard in Fukushima which all the speakers agreed with This Week s Academic Articles 1 There are various studies on long term cumulative low radiation dose which does not immediately affect health Commercial pilots are exposed to higher radiation than public during flight In the Cosmic radiation and cancer mortality among airline pilots results from a European cohort study ESCAPE 19 184 male pilots were studied Analyses showed no substantially increased health risks such as for cancer 2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation a Perspective for Japan There is a concept that a small radiation dose is rather beneficial and will lower mortality Radon hot springs for example are considered to be good for one s health which is called the hormesis hypothesis This hypothesis is introduced in an article Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation a Perspective for Japan by an American scientist Prof T D Luckey This hypothesis has not been scientifically proven at this stage Naturally even if it is effective it will be limited Video Is Fukushima Dangerous Distorted images of Japan Morley Robertson Nobuo Ikeda What s happen What was the cause in Fukushima Morley Robertson writer and DJ talk about distorted images of Japan after Fukushima nuclear plant accident with Nobuo Ikeda 21st Century Energy Challenges At the ARPA E 2012 summit Bill Gates and U S Energy Secretary Steven Chu discussed the largest energy challenges of the 21st century in the U S and around the world A Web TV

    Original URL path: http://www.gepr.org/en/contents/20120220-04/ (2016-02-14)
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  • Preparing for the Arriving Era of Natural Gas : Global Energy Policy Research
    power density for each energy source are necessary for understanding the basics here The EROEI is an index of energy efficiency that describes how many units of energy must be invested initially for humans to be able to utilize 1 unit of energy for any energy source This index underscores the most important factor the cost of such energy A small figure means that no matter how abundantly in existence or how low the environmental burden such an energy source cannot support urban society with enormous populations The following example helps to explain the principle No matter how many hundreds of fast moving game like rabbits are around to be hunted if the hunter s equipment or physical ability to capture one rabbit requires an investment in energy equal to the calories held by one rabbit then the hunter is doomed to starve The EROEI ratio is just a few multiples for renewable energy sources prior to the industrial revolution like firewood or charcoal and water wheels a few ten multiples for coal the driver of the revolution and a multiplier of 50 even today globally for petroleum and natural gas whose full fledged usage began in the 20th century In comparison solar power generation which seems highly efficient in its application of quantum theory has a multiplier of 5 to 7 while wind power generation has a multiplier of around 10 just slightly higher than firewood and charcoal water wheels or oxen and horses Next power density is defined as output per unit area of ground surface and represents the direct load to land use and ecology Most renewable energy directly or indirectly exploits sunlight with its low energy density flow An effort to obtain large output on the order of a fossil fuel combusting or nuclear power plant therefore would require occupation of vast stretches of the earth s surface Despite zero CO2 emissions a large direct burden would be imposed on ecosystems through forest destruction for example The power density of a mega solar power plant is 1 2 000 of a combined cycle natural gas power plant which has the highest power density The former captures sunlight across a vast area for an overwhelmingly greater direct burden on ecosystems In other words despite near zero CO2 emissions large scale exploitation is no longer environmentally friendly Mesopotamia and numerous other ancient civilizations collapsed under forest destruction resulting from excessive exploitation of renewable energies such as firewood and charcoal and oxen and horses Thus from perspectives of exploitable magnitude and ecological burden societies that can increase their share of renewable energy are nations and sparse regions with low population density and extra land Renewable energy is permanently yoked to the conditions hinging on this principle High Cost Structure Requires Correction for Effective Exploitation of Natural Gas Meanwhile the recent revolution in developmental and production technologies of non conventional resources such as shale gas has exponentially increased the resource capacity of natural gas and extended minable reserves to several

    Original URL path: http://www.gepr.org/en/contents/20120213-03/ (2016-02-14)
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  • TThis Week's Update — The Times of Natural Gas – Security of Persian Gulf determines the fate of Japan's energy (13th February, 2012) : Global Energy Policy Research
    has it become so serious Confusion brought about from lack of knowledge on radioactivity coming soon This week s News Since the nuclear accident in Fukushima last March nuclear power plants have stopped operation one after another There are 54 nuclear power plants in Japan As of February 13th only 5 plants are operating Having finished the regular inspection of once a year local people oppose its re operation The Agency for Natural Resources and Energy reported that the current generation ratio of different power sources are 20 with oil 40 LNG 25 coal 5 nuclear power and 10 renewable energy at this time estimated Japan now relies heavily on LNG In 2009 that ratio was 7 9 oil 29 4 LNG 24 7 coal 29 2 nuclear power and 9 1 renewable energy And Japan imports 30 of LNG from the Middle East countries If Iran crisis in the Middle East occurs and the Strait of Hormuz is blockaded oil and LNG price will violently fluctuate and due to tension stable supply of energy of the world and Japan is likely to be significantly impaired temporarily Foreign Affairs reported How to Engage Iran What Went Wrong Last Time And How to Fix It Japanese government analysts and experts are concerned that the public opinion of the US to become strong against Iran Video Is Fukushima Dangerous Distorted images of Japan Morley Robertson Nobuo Ikeda What s happen What was the cause in Fukushima Morley Robertson writer and DJ talk about distorted images of Japan after Fukushima nuclear plant accident with Nobuo Ikeda 21st Century Energy Challenges At the ARPA E 2012 summit Bill Gates and U S Energy Secretary Steven Chu discussed the largest energy challenges of the 21st century in the U S and around the world A

    Original URL path: http://www.gepr.org/en/contents/20120213-02/ (2016-02-14)
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  • Strict Standards for Food: Human-Induced Disaster for Affected Fishing and Farming Households : Global Energy Policy Research
    principles As the Chairman of the Science Council of Japan has proclaimed in the discourse For the Correct Understanding of Radiation Protection the response to the recent nuclear power plant accident should follow the three principles of ICRP The three ICRP principles refer to 1 Justification 2 Optimization and 3 Application of Dose Limits 1 Justification means that exposure is permitted when the benefit outweighs the harm 2 Optimization means to achieve the lowest possible dosage and headcount to radiological exposure while considering socioeconomic factors 3 Application of Dose Limits means not to exceed appropriate total individual dosage under foreseeable exposure conditions such as radiation work and disaster relief work There are consumers who recognize value in supporting through eating and the fear of internal radiation exposure from food products actually exceeding 1 mSv is essentially unfounded The additional regulations contemplated by government under these circumstances violate the fairness principle of accepting exposure when the benefit outweighs the harm Furthermore the institution of such regulations is a divisive act that cuts the ties between affected farmers and fishermen and their consumers Some consumers however continue to demand safety During this period then concentrations of radioactive substances in food products should be displayed when in excess of the new standards and the consumer should be given the freedom to choose That will lead to consumer security At the same time testing for thyroid cancer and insurance for patients should be maintained for Fukushima Prefecture residents and nuclear power plant workers Again the Chairman of the Science Council of Japan has stated that although the cause and effect relationship to the nuclear accident will be hard to establish the victims of the accident should at least be entitled to a sense of security as much as possible The tentative standards set forth by the national government are not necessarily optimum values A relaxation will hardly ever result in a consumer with 1 mSv yr for internal exposure from food products By the principle of applying dose limits however the standards once put in place should not relaxed Thus in response to the proposed new standards of the MLHW rather than deny them I offered the following partial changes Revision to the tentative standards should be postponed until recovery proceeds to a manageable level The deadline noted in the description of tentative measures should be changed from April 2012 to until the time when recovery reaches a manageable point Since the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident the disorder continues no end to the cleanup is in sight residents remain evacuated and farming and fishing cannot restart Under these circumstances the same standards as ordinary conditions when the accident is resolved cannot be applied The new proposed standard unfortunately does not relate the reality The same extensive government service like before the accident is impossible The affected farmers and fishermen will doubtless feel this impact as a further hardship in the future The Association of Japanese Agricultural Scientific Societies issued a technical recommendation that

    Original URL path: http://www.gepr.org/en/contents/20120206-01/ (2016-02-14)
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  • This Week's Update — Discussions about Internal Exposure from Food (6th February, 2012) : Global Energy Policy Research
    There are possibilities that agricultures and fisheries in Fukushima can be no longer feasible by applying these strict standards He pointed out the institution of such regulations is a divisive act that cuts the ties between affected farmers and fishermen and their consumers 2 GEPR editorial staffs reported a column Green jobs cannot be created with subsidies Illusion of Feed in Tariff This column shows the promotion of renewable energy relying on subsidies does not work Video Is Fukushima Dangerous Distorted images of Japan Morley Robertson Nobuo Ikeda What s happen What was the cause in Fukushima Morley Robertson writer and DJ talk about distorted images of Japan after Fukushima nuclear plant accident with Nobuo Ikeda 21st Century Energy Challenges At the ARPA E 2012 summit Bill Gates and U S Energy Secretary Steven Chu discussed the largest energy challenges of the 21st century in the U S and around the world A Web TV Program Is radiation really so harmful Considering risks of nuclear power generation Japanese only Agora Institute who operates GEPR broadcasted a Web TV program Is radiation really so harmful Considering risks of nuclear power generation on internet video streaming channel Niconico Live on January 19th in Japanese only Nobuo Ikeda President of Agora Incorporated and three experts on radiation risk analysis and energy policy discussed about the situations after Fukushima nuclear accident Their opinions were consistent that potentiality of health damage caused by the Fukushima accident is very small GEPR will provide a summary about this program soon Podcast Agora Inc who operates GEPR releases a podcast program which was originally aired on Jan 19th 2012on internet video streaming channel Nico nico Live Is radiation really so harmful Considering risks of nuclear power generation Japanese only The panel Nobuo Ikeda Akihiro Sawa Jun Takada and

    Original URL path: http://www.gepr.org/en/contents/20120206-03/ (2016-02-14)
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  • Green jobs cannot be created with subsidies - Illusion of Feed-in Tariff : Global Energy Policy Research
    will give a positive effect to nation s economy and employment Developed countries however have not gained profit Let s take a look at present export situation Trade specialization index is used in order to see export competitiveness of solar cells in key countries Figure This index shows ratio of net export which is export amount minus import amount to total trade If it is close to 1 it can be judged that export specialization is higher thus higher export competitiveness and when it is close to minus 1 import specialization is higher thus lower export competitiveness Figure Trade specialization index of solar cells in key countries 1988 2010 created by the editorial from UN Statistics Looking at this result trade specialization index of Japan was around 0 6 throughout and remained approximately consistent however in recent years it is showing a tendency towards less export competitiveness This is because the price of solar cells is rapidly going down and Japanese makers are losing price competitiveness and significantly losing export profit The amount of export of solar cells from Japan was a record high for two years in a row in 2009 and 2010 however export value of shipment was 220 to 260 billion yen 2 75 to 3 25 billion USD for the same years which is 100 to 150 billion yen 1 25 to 1 87 billion USD less than the 370 billion yen 4 8 billion USD of 2008 Secondly while Germany is minus throughout i e import specialization since 2003 China has been rapidly increasing export competitiveness In 2010 it had greater export competitiveness than Japan This indicates that a production system of solar cells within China is rapidly improving Likewise Spain is specializing in import Germany and Spain both introduced FIT In Germany and Spain mass introduction of solar cells into the domestic market did not enhance export competitiveness of domestic manufacturers It gave entry opportunities to overseas manufacturers such as China and resulted in helping them catch up It is desirable that this should bring the price of solar cells down On the other hand however a dip in unit price of the product means less export profit therefore it is not a plus factor for export industry This indicates that achieving two objectives of promoting export and creating green jobs at the same time is difficult 3 Green jobs expansion policy by the Obama administration failed One of political slogans of President Obama inaugurated in 2009 was to create 5 million jobs related to green energy in next 10 years At this point there has been increasing criticism that it has hardly created domestic jobs in reality Bankruptcy of solar cells venture company Solyndra in 2009 government gave loan guarantee of 530 million dollars but most of it is irrecoverable was widely reported also in Japan Around the same time last September Office of Inspector General Department of Labor released an evaluation report on Green Jobs Program by its Employment and Training Administration

    Original URL path: http://www.gepr.org/en/contents/20120206-02/ (2016-02-14)
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