archive-org.com » ORG » G » GEPR.ORG

Total: 971

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • A revolution in radiation protection that would lead to safer and cheaper nuclear power : Global Energy Policy Research
    payers and consumers without benefit or reason An illustrative example comes from an unsolicited email received in December 2012 from Ken Chaplin a senior long time inspector in the nuclear industry who writes There are two negative impacts of Radiation Protection on my workers First concerns for radiological protection outweigh concerns for industrial safety One example four of us were working in a relatively high temperature environment in lead jackets and plastic lined tyvex suits The radiological hazards were insignificant but two of us almost passed out from the heat in a very difficult to access location A second example I had staff climbing ladders attached to walls with very little space to get their feet on the ladder rungs They were required to wear steel toed shoes inside rubber one size fits all boots inside paper booties The extra layers were in the name of contamination control however I am far more concerned about people falling 8 metres onto piping A second issue is increased psychological stress I have had my inspection staff worried and declaring tasks too dangerous to perform Upon discussion with radiation protection staff I convinced the inspection staff that the work was possible The work resulted in only 4 of the allowable dose A second example staff are increasingly worried about low levels of contamination in spite of ever increasing efforts to eliminate contamination In my opinion this results in much lower productivity and higher stress levels caused and experienced by the entire organization pursuing ALARA without accompanying health benefits I am watching as radiological protection dogma in particular ALARA stops the nuclear industry dead in its tracks It is hard to prevent this but I am trying This testimony shows how safety restrictions intended to allay fears achieve exactly the opposite Radiation regulation and personal stress to workers combine to drives up costs and kill professional motivation these bring no benefit and are economically harmful Nuclear is a source of energy that has no downside Freed from the shackles of misapprehension and regulation induced by ALARA it would be inexpensive and its waste would not be a major problem Unlike biological or fossil fuel waste nuclear waste is not volatile or released into the environment By its nature nuclear activity does not spread like wildfire or propagate like the disease that follows biological waste Nuclear waste does not even persist indefinitely like toxic chemical waste For the same energy production nuclear waste is about a millionth of that of fossil fuel and can be safely disposed of once cooled and separated by simple burial for a few hundred years Indeed a debate to discontinue the use of fire would be rather finely balanced compared to the case to discontinue nuclear Those of our cautious cave living forbears who voted against fire and returned to their uncooked food and wretched existence of cold and damp had undeniably strong points to make although those who actually chose that way made a big mistake and probably perished

    Original URL path: http://www.gepr.org/en/contents/20130107-03/ (2016-02-14)
    Open archived version from archive


  • The case for nuclear power : Global Energy Policy Research
    have been amakudari implants from government ministries with little knowledge of nuclear power Media studies on Onagawa s survival give much of the credit for Onagawa s survival to the late Yanosuke Hirai a former Tohoku Electric vice president He had checked past tsunami records and forced through the decision to build the sea wall higher than originally planned Earlier he had saved a large Niigata thermal plant built on soft ground from destruction in the powerful 1964 earthquake there by insisting the plant be built on caisson foundations Interviews with former subordinates show a man with a strict sense of responsibility who realized that bureaucratic regulations alone would not guarantee safety He resembled Kotoku Wamura the former mayor of the small Tohoku fishing port of Fudai who remembering the damage from previous tsunami battled bureaucratic and cost cutting opposition to build the 15 5 meter seawall and floodgate Fudai alone was saved from the destruction that wiped out all other fishing ports in the area Meanwhile what had been going on at TEPCO Despite the record of very destructive tsunamis along the Tohoku coast for centuries and even in recent years the Fukushima No 1 plant had been placed near sea level protected only by a 5 7 meter seawall The engineer involved has revealed that TEPCO had decided it could save construction costs that way Hirai pointed out that nuclear plant construction should not be left to the electric companies Inevitably they would compromise safety by trying to cut costs Today people call for increased regulation and government control But that is unlikely to improve things In Japan s collectivist society it is too easy for the regulators to collude with the people they are supposed to regulate A tight exclusivist nexus develops and is impervious to criticism Besides and as Hirai pointed out regulators tend to concentrate on rules rather than contingencies If Japan decides to stay with nuclear power and the arguments in favor are strong then it should study how France goes about selecting and training the people for its very successful government controlled Electricite de France nuclear power subsidiary True France has the advantage of a better educated and rounded elite But the key to EDF s success is its autonomy its status comes not from its balance sheet or bureaucratic power but from its ability safely to service 75 percent of France s electricity needs It even manages to service Italy and Germany which are rejecting nuclear power Rejecting nuclear power means Japan will miss some of the technological and safety advances that nuclear power committed societies like France and China will enjoy But that is not all Scientists agree that hydrogen fusion is the safe power source of the future In the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor committee set up to decide location for the first experimental fusion plant Japan has already lost out to France And now in the wake of the Fukushima disaster a Japanese advisory panel has called on the

    Original URL path: http://www.gepr.org/en/contents/20121217-03/ (2016-02-14)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Japan Cannot Abandon her Nuclear Fuel Cycle! — A Critical Review of DPJ’s “Nuclear Zero” Policy : Global Energy Policy Research
    because the system is so complicated and so esoteric an area that only handful of qualified experts can fully comprehend and because news coverage by the local media is always miserably inadequate In order to understand the serious nature of this particular problem just imagine a future international scene where civil nuclear energy activities are carried out by only the five declared nuclear weapon States and two undeclared States India and Pakistan together with an increasing number of non nuclear weapon States both developed and developing with China Russia and France playing a predominant role in international market as the major suppliers of reactors fuels and technology To put it bluntly these three countries especially China and Russia all exempt from compulsory IAEA safeguards obligations under the NPT are very eager and aggressive to sell their reactors and technology often without requiring their customers to accept stringent obligations based on NPT IAEA standard Russia s nuclear sales to North Korea and China s to Pakistan in the 1970 80s are only a few such bad examples Americans are rightly worried about the possibility of looser application of non proliferation requirements in international nuclear market leading to the eventual collapse of NPT IAEA regime and the wider spread of nuclear weapons capabilities As a faithful supporter of the said regime and a strenuous contributor to strengthening it in the past Japan can never be indifferent to the American concern and their apocalyptic predictions Pros cons regarding Japanese reactor sales abroad Now this brings into picture another crucial problem often overlooked in domestic debates the negative impact on Japanese ability and credibility to export her own reactors At the moment the three big nuclear manufactures Toshiba Hitachi and Mitsubishi are striving to sell their commodities produced by their world s first rate technology independently or in close collaboration with American or French counterparts such as Westinghouse General Electric or Areva Japan already obtained the promise of the Vietnamese government to purchase two Japan made reactors for its Nhin Thuan NPP II scheduled to go into operation in early 2020s The promise was signed between the two countries on October 31 2010 just four months before the Fukushima debacle After the 3 11 accident the Japanese government was forced to freeze all the measures to implement the agreement with Vietnam under mounting domestic pressure to suspend nuclear exports to Vietnam and several other countries with which Japan had been negotiating to conclude bilateral agreements necessary for such exports although the cooperation agreements signed with Vietnam Jordan South Korea and Russia were finally approved by the National Diet in December 2011 and ratified subsequently Naturally the Vietnamese government has been urging Japan to expedite necessary processes to build nuclear plants according to their original schedule The prime ministers of both countries have since reaffirmed their commitment to early implementation of the agreement but domestic opposition is still persistent even within the ruling Democratic Party Dissident MPs argue that when Japan is moving toward nuclear 0 at home there is no moral justification whatsoever to export Japan made nuclear reactors to foreign countries Dream may come true for nuclear plants in Vietnam Very recently however it is reported that local objection to nuclear power plants is gradually surfacing in Vietnam notably within its National Parliament It is argued there reportedly that Vietnam is not quite ready economically socially and technologically to embark on such gigantic and sophisticated technical enterprise as nuclear plants construction requiring both a vast amount of initial investment and the advanced legal and social infrastructure to ensure nuclear safety and liability compensation in the event of major accidents It may well be recalled in this context that the proposed Bullet Train project connecting Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City was rejected by the Parliament in 2011 as being premature for a poor country such as Vietnam Personally I find the current situation in Vietnam very regrettable as I have spent more than thirty years since the late 1970s in advocating the importance of civil nuclear energy among countries in East Asia including Vietnam and Indonesia in particular During my tenures as the first Director of Nuclear Energy Division of the Foreign Ministry 1977 82 and the Executive Director for the Japan National Committee for the Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference PECC preceding the APEC 1982 89 I kept proposing the establishment of an ASIATOM a regional body to coordinate and promote cooperative activities within East Asia in close liaison with IAEA My own proposal became widely known within the region and even enjoyed the enthusiastic support by a number of influential leaders in various countries in Asia and elsewhere I even drafted the treaty establishing ASIATOM and circulated it to several countries expected to join the new entity Unfortunately however my proposal a rather historic one if I may say so did not go much further after I left the Foreign Ministry in 1989 My successors shifted the focus of their policies to something else These things do happen in bureaucratic system in a country like Japan For those who are interested in this subject please refer to my book Nippon no kaku Ajia no kaku Nuclear Energy for Military and Civil Uses in Japan and Asia published by Asahi Shimbun in 1997 particularly Chapters 5 and 6 Rokkasho may offer useful services to Vietnam and S Korea While I have the opportunity to restate the original concept and the basic philosophy of my proposed ASIATOM let me say a few more words It is granted that the basic concept of ASIATOM has become somewhat obsolete overtaken by subsequent events Yet some of those ideas are still valid and useful I believe For instance if Japan maintains its nuclear fuel cycle program intact and if Japan builds a second Reprocessing Plant in Rokkasho mura roughly of the same capacity 800tons per year as it was envisioned prior to the Fukushima accident then Vietnam in the future will be able to get their spent

    Original URL path: http://www.gepr.org/en/contents/20121105-04/ (2016-02-14)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Expectations for Negawatt Trading : Global Energy Policy Research
    in the spirit of sacrifice or voluntarism without any enforcement DR however is neither of these efforts but a mechanism of purchasing power conserved during peak demand as if that power were generated referred to as negawatt generation Thus the customer has no need to reflect on the spirit of sacrifice or any enforcement but is provided freely with an option The customer can opt to use relatively expensive power during peak times based on the time banded electricity tariff to be introduced in the future engage in normal business and pocket the profits accordingly Otherwise the customer can cut back on normal business conserve electric power and pocket the cash from conserved amounts as negawatts The negawatt trading that KEPCO is privately launching for the summer this year ordinarily should be instituted with the opening of a public negawatt market The buyer being limited to one company KEPCO in this case has resulted in the format adopted Mr Edano as Minister of Economy Trade and Industry has personally stated that METI and Agency of Natural Resources and Energy are both supporting and taking notice of this lead in to a future public negawatt market Since the world s first derivative market in rice futures started in Dojima Osaka during the Edo Period I find it deeply significant that Japan s first negawatt trading market will also begin in Osaka Remaining Issue of Evaluating Power Conservation Amounts Since the Negawatt Plan announcement the Conference has demanded improvements to the evaluation method for amounts of power conserved and on the determination method of bidding price and final price etc with an eye toward future succession by a public negawatt market which would have a more universal application These two methods gained no improvements this time which left room for dissatisfaction I would nonetheless like to offer high praise for the decision to expand outside the KEPCO service area as an improvement item that was requested and accommodated This action is a step change forward when compared to the behavior patterns of the ten power companies who have found a haven in their regional monopolies so far Competition provides an impetus for progress The electric power market if matters proceed smoothly will transform into a fair competitive market within two years through the dismantling of the regional monopolies due to the separation between transmission and generation of power If KEPCO were already looking ahead at this development I would characterize the company as a scrupulous Osaka merchant The evaluation method for the amounts of power conserved relates to identifying the originally planned amount of power consumption baseline and comparing to the actual amount of power consumption The KEPCO person in charge explained that the simplest approach is desirable at the initial introduction therefore a comparison will be made against a baseline for the amount of power consumed on the same day of the prior week Outside of Japan several ideas have been put forward for baseline forecasting For example the following method

    Original URL path: http://www.gepr.org/en/contents/20120702-01/ (2016-02-14)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Current State of Radiation Doses in Fukushima Prefecture: No Health Risk, Calling for Institution of Scientific Measurements and Correction to Foolish Policy : Global Energy Policy Research
    counter used globally at nuclear disaster sites by using the previous spectrometers The first challenge was to adapt it to measure large cattle but the solution was found relatively quickly Healthy Cattle of Yamamoto Ranch in Suenomori Namie machi August 2012 We measured cattle weighing 400 kg on their backs abdomens and rear thighs and concluded that the thighs were optimum Note 5 According to past evidence the calibration constant for radioactivity per unit of body weight for humans is not affected much by body size For human measurement the detector contacts the abdomen but for cattle the closest arrangement was the thigh which is rational for measurement since cesium accumulates in the muscles Thus cesium density could be measured within 1 minute for thigh meat as live cattle In this way internal cesium was tested for cattle at three ranches respectively at short distances from each other The test results through August for thighs of 27 head of wagyu breeds at the three Namie machi ranches concluded that 9 head were below 500 Bq per kilogram Internal cesium of the cattle declined in August compared to the February March timing Wagyu beef shipments are deemed to be definitely possible in the future Potassium radioactivity of dried seaweed is 1 600 Bq per kilogram and cattle with lower radioactivity are living within the 20km radius of Fukushima Dai Ichi The radioactivity level per kilogram of 500 Bq is the guideline for food product regulations of the Nuclear Safety Commission prior to 3 11 Foolishly the current DPJ government has taken the unscientific position of tightening the food production regulations below natural radioactivity to a maximum 200 Bq per kilogram This situation was criticized at the IRPA 13 international conference In March this year cesium trial decontamination was conducted at the Suenomori ranchland of Namie machi Experience of overseas surveys led to the belief that topsoil to a depth of 10 centimeters should be scraped off because elemental cesium has a characteristic of adsorption within topsoil to this depth Three sites were roped off as 3 x 3 meter plots whose topsoil was removed to the prescribed depth The removed soil was bagged and temporarily stored outside of the plots Topsoil cesium contamination density can be measured immediately with a gamma ray spectrometer Based on values from before and after decontamination the average rate of cesium removal at the three scraped plots in the test was 94 a sufficient result The removal of topsoil across the entire ranchland would enable wagyu ranching to start immediately Everyone was happy with the good results Namie machi Repatriation Possible But Crazy Measurements Determine Policy Actual doses can be learned from an on site survey of two nights and three days The figures announced by the central government however are radiation doses calculated from air dose rates from fields without investigating actual doses of inhabitants and are problematically in excess by a factor 4 to 5 of these actual doses Families wishing to go home

    Original URL path: http://www.gepr.org/en/contents/20121001-01/ (2016-02-14)
    Open archived version from archive

  • The Highly Safe Nuclear Power Plant: Reevaluation and Technology Devolution of The Fast Reactor : Global Energy Policy Research
    peak below the boiling point of sodium the temperature dropped and the reactor statically stabilized at the rated operating temperature During this time the operator did not intervene at all and simply monitored the control panel Integrity of the nuclear reactor was confirmed and there was no fuel damage The testing was not over however A verification test for the next severe scenario followed in which a scram failure and secondary heat source removal system failure were combined Details are omitted here but the test progressed according to prediction and the reactor stabilized safely at low temperature without any fuel damage EBR II accomplished two tests simulating two types of severe scenarios in a day Researchers from CRIEPI attended these tests and were amazed at the utter self confidence and certainty regarding passive safety held by ANL Following on these events CRIEPI decided to participate in the ANL program in 1989 and established the Metallic Fuel Laboratory I became the head of this lab For a period of three years lasting until 1996 I was in residence at the EBR II site and learned about ANL s philosophy of safety With respect to Figure 1 the curve with the solid line is a plot of the predicted temperature readings according to temperature analytical codes These analytical codes refer to the tool for predicting the constantly changing conditions of the nuclear reactor through calculations The varying temperature and degree of thermal expansion of the various reactor core parts are described by equations which calculate the influence on the nuclear reaction The static stabilization at low temperature as predicted by the analytical codes was a superb achievement in tracking conditions over a time span measured in seconds in an actual nuclear reactor where complex effects interact The predictive method of analytical codes was validated with a real reactor and found to be sufficiently reliable Analytical codes were also employed at CRIEPI to study many reactor core design concepts Regardless of nuclear reactor output metallic fuel was found to afford passive safety for small reactors and large reactors I recall strong criticism voiced in Japan and from around the world at the time however such as A simultaneous combination of such severe conditions is excessive for an assumption and There is no need to assume such conditions because they will never occur Last year on March 11 2011 although automatic scrams did engage at Fukushima Dai Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Unit Nos 1 2 and 3 cooling performance failure resulting from external power loss and emergency power failure resulted in extensive fuel damage fuel meltdown and release of radioactive substances into our environment In terms of whether a massive release of radioactive substances occurred or not the high degree of safety for a metallic fuel fast reactor should be convincing 3 Risks of Confined National Dialogue Japan seems to have a thought process at its foundation where problems tend to be grouped under a single word I consider this singular manner of discussion

    Original URL path: http://www.gepr.org/en/contents/20120723-03/ (2016-02-14)
    Open archived version from archive

  • This Week’s Update (October 9, 2010) : Global Energy Policy Research
    from the fact that the Fukushima nuclear accident occurred nuclear regulatory systems in Japan was not appropriate Dr Sawada points out that the new organization should have strong independence expertise and consider objections 3 We provide English translation of a column by GEPR editorial staffs with experts of electricity Considering external cost nuclear power generation is low from Extern E Experts of energy in various countries considered external costs of electric power plants EU European Union made an indicator Extern E to measure them External environmental costs of nuclear power are lower than other plants according to Extern E Because of Fukushima Nuclear power plants accident with political decision nuclear power probably can no longer be used in Japan We should however consider this problem from the view of costs Video Is Fukushima Dangerous Distorted images of Japan Morley Robertson Nobuo Ikeda What s happen What was the cause in Fukushima Morley Robertson writer and DJ talk about distorted images of Japan after Fukushima nuclear plant accident with Nobuo Ikeda 21st Century Energy Challenges At the ARPA E 2012 summit Bill Gates and U S Energy Secretary Steven Chu discussed the largest energy challenges of the 21st century in the U S and around the world A Web TV Program Is radiation really so harmful Considering risks of nuclear power generation Japanese only Agora Institute who operates GEPR broadcasted a Web TV program Is radiation really so harmful Considering risks of nuclear power generation on internet video streaming channel Niconico Live on January 19th in Japanese only Nobuo Ikeda President of Agora Incorporated and three experts on radiation risk analysis and energy policy discussed about the situations after Fukushima nuclear accident Their opinions were consistent that potentiality of health damage caused by the Fukushima accident is very small GEPR will

    Original URL path: http://www.gepr.org/en/contents/20121009-01/ (2016-02-14)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Inconsistent “Innovative Energy and Environment Council” : Global Energy Policy Research
    mark has been met By the same logic if we think we can try to put a cease to all nuclear power by the year 2039 we should be sure to be able to cease operations As it is now if we do not establish new nuclear power plants in the year 2030 the percentage of nuclear generation would be about 15 but nevertheless by this way of thinking this target is not inconsistent In brief as this is full of loopholes this does not make sense as a target Making mention of the second pillar green energy revolution there is published the fanciful figures of excluding hydraulic power increasing 25 billion kWh in 2010 to 190 billion kWh by 2030 8 fold This appears to replace about 60 of the 300 billion kWh of nuclear plants however because we can not use solar power or wind power on rainy days or days with no wind as a backup to this thermal power is required The point is that renewable energy will not be a substitute for nuclear energy On the other hand the feed in tariff of solar power became 42 kWh this established the highest fixed price in the world but this cost is completely imputed on customers This consequence establishing zero nuclear by 2030 and seeing electric utility expenses nearly double is a preliminary calculation by the government In regard to the third pillar the steady supply of energy it is written that If the social cost of nuclear energy is understood it is not as cheap comparatively as previously believed but that is just the opposite As the EU commission and others indicate the direct costs of nuclear energy are high but external costs are low However because the Democratic Party sees this problem conversely policies coming out are coming out illogically In Strategies it is raised the five policies for a turn towards the implementation of a society which does not rely on nuclear power but above all the biggest problem is the nuclear fuel cycle If we reduce nuclear power to zero there should be no need to make new fuel or have reprocessing facilities but the government says The nuclear fuel cycle is clearly being promoted in the medium long term On the other hand concerning the fast reactor prototype Monju it is written that research shall end and that construction of the commercial reactor will not be carried out What will we do with the generated plutonium driving the nuclear fuel cycle In regard to this there is nothing written in Strategies If you look at what is written We are launching research on direct disposal they are considering the plan to abandon reprocessing substantially but by specifying this as this is a violation of the promise with Aomori the description is ambiguous What is even more strange is the global warming counter plan Former Prime Minister Hatoyama made the international commitment stating to reduce amount of greenhouse gas emission in 2020

    Original URL path: http://www.gepr.org/en/contents/20120918-02/ (2016-02-14)
    Open archived version from archive



  •