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  • Lesson 1
    that action Notice the subjects and predicates in the following English sentences Subject Predicate Your uncle is sleeping This big heavy book was expensive All the children laughed Elizabeth will dance In English the subject comes before the predicate The same is true in Haida We will call this Sentence Pattern 1 Sentence Pattern 1 Subject Predicate 2 In the vocabulary section of this lesson we learned six different nouns Some of these such as díi aw my mother are personal nouns while others such as nang jáadaas the woman are verbal nouns For now we don t need to worry about the difference between these two types of nouns All we need to know is that any of these nouns can be put into the subject slot in a Haida sentence 3 In the vocabulary section we also learned four verbs All four of them are what we will call Intransitive A verbs The reason why we call them this will become clear in later lessons For now all we need to know is that any of these verbs can be put into the predicate slot in a Haida sentence 4 By putting a noun into the subject slot and a verb into the predicate slot we can create many different sentences For example Subject Predicate Díi git náanggang My child is playing Díi aw tak áalanggang My mother is writing Nang íihlangaas gatáagang The man is eating Albert k ajúugang Albert is singing This particular version of Sentence Pattern 1 with a noun as the subject and an Intransitive A verb as the predicate is called Sentence Pattern 1A Sentence Pattern 1A Subject Predicate Noun Intransitive A Verb We will see different variations on Sentence Pattern 1 coming up in the next few lessons Using What You Know

    Original URL path: http://www.haidalanguage.org/lessons/Lesson_001.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Lesson 2
    meaning is usually made clear from context Note also that Haida does make a clear distinction between dáng you when talking to just one person and daláng you when talking to more than one person To help us keep that distinction clear in English we will always translate daláng as y all and vice versa The pronouns t aláng and daláng are often pronounced in a contracted form as tl áng and dláng respectively For the sake of simplicity in these lessons we will always use the longer uncontracted forms The pronoun tl is special It typically has an indefinite non specific meaning It refers to some unspecified group of people or just people in general So for example Tl kúugaagang could be translated as People are cooking or even There s some cooking going on In these lessons we will translate the Haida pronoun tl with the English noun people and vice versa 3 There are actually four different sets of pronouns in Haida The set we are learning in this lesson is called the Weak A set of pronouns For now we don t have to worry about why we call them that The reason will become clear when we learn about the other three sets of pronouns in upcoming lessons 4 In this lesson we are focusing on a new sentence pattern 1B The difference between 1B and 1A is that where 1A had a noun in the subject slot 1B has a pronoun specifically a Weak A pronoun otherwise they are the same Note that the subject still comes before the predicate Sentence Pattern 1B Subject Predicate Weak A Pronoun Intransitive A Verb Here are some examples of Sentence Pattern 1B using the Intransitive A verb k ajúugang singing Subject Predicate Hl k ajúugang I am

    Original URL path: http://www.haidalanguage.org/lessons/Lesson_002.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Lesson 3
    of the sentence For example in our model sentences the question word gíist who is in focus in the question In the answer the focus of the sentence is díi git íihlangaas my son since that is the part that directly answers the question word This brings us to our new sentence pattern for this lesson Basically what we have is the regular pattern 1A except that the focus marker has been added and the subject has been moved out in front We call this Pattern 1A Subject Focus or 1A SF for short as shown below Sentence Pattern 1A Subject Focus Subject Focus Marker Predicate Noun Phrase uu Intransitive A Verb Here are some more examples of Pattern 1A SF Subject Focus Marker Predicate Díi git uu k ajúugang My child is the one singing Díi g ung uu táanaang My father of a male is the one smoking fish Nang íihlangaas uu kúugaagang The man is the one coming in Charlie uu aadáang Charlie is the one seining 2 In Haida there are two ways of saying my father díi g ung and díi x áat The first is used by males to refer to their fathers while the second is used by females 3 Many verbs in English actually correspond to two different verbs in Haida depending on how many people are carrying out the action For example for the action of coming in entering the verb k ats áang is used if there is only one person coming in If two or more people are entering then the verb ists áang is used So for example note the difference between these two sentences Hl k ats áang I am coming in T aláng ists áang We are coming in Although most verbs in Haida can be

    Original URL path: http://www.haidalanguage.org/lessons/Lesson_003.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Lesson 4
    Likewise we can t say Hláa k adíigang because that sentence requires a Weak A pronoun and not a Strong A pronoun The rule to remember is this If the pronoun occurs immediately before the verb use the Weak form Otherwise use the Strong form Here is a comparison of the two sets of pronouns we have learned so far Weak A Strong A I hl hláa you dáng dáa he she hal láa we t aláng t aláng y all daláng daláng people tl tl áa Note that for t aláng and daláng the pronoun stays the same in both the Weak A and Strong A forms All the other pronouns however do change their forms 2 The new sentence pattern for this lesson using the Strong A pronouns in focus position is Pattern 1B Subject Focus or 1B SF for short We can summarize the pattern like this Sentence Pattern 1B Subject Focus Subject Focus Marker Predicate Strong A Pronoun uu Intransitive A Verb Here are some more examples of Pattern 1B SF using the Intransitive A verb kúugaagang cooking Subject Focus Marker Predicate Hláa uu kúugaagang I am the one cooking Dáa uu kúugaagang You are the one cooking Láa uu kúugaagang He she is the one cooking T aláng uu kúugaagang We are the ones cooking Daláng uu kúugaagang Y all are the ones cooking Note that the pronoun tl tl áa typically does not occur in focus position for the same reasons that we don t usually say People are the ones cooking in English Look at the following pairs of sentences the first built following Pattern 1B the second following Pattern 1B SF and watch how the pronoun changes or doesn t change between the two 1B Hl gatáagang I am eating 1B SF Hláa uu gatáagang I am the one eating 1B Dáng gatáagang You are eating 1B SF Dáa uu gatáagang You are the one eating 1B Hal gatáagang He she is eating 1B SF Láa uu gatáagang He she is the one eating 1B T aláng gatáagang We are eating 1B SF T aláng uu gatáagang We are the ones eating 1B Daláng gatáagang Y all are eating 1B SF Daláng uu gatáagang Y all the ones eating 3 The question word gíisgaay means who just like the question word gíist that we learned in Lesson Three The difference is that gíisgaay is used when asking a question about several people while gíist is used when you re just asking about one person In other words gíist is singular and gíisgaay is plural For example if you were listening to the radio and a song came on that was being sung by one woman you might ask Gíist uu k ajúugang Who one person is singing But if the song was clearly being sung by a group of people you would ask Gíisgaay uu k ajúugang Who two or more people is singing If you have a verb that is specifically

    Original URL path: http://www.haidalanguage.org/lessons/Lesson_004.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Lesson 5
    Weak B pronouns we see that only two of them are different hl vs díi for I and t aláng vs íitl for we The other four pronouns are the same in both the Weak A set and the Weak B set 2 In this lesson for the first time we are actually learning two new sentence patterns The first is Pattern 1C which has a noun in the subject slot just like Pattern 1A and an Intransitive B verb in the predicate slot Note that the subject still comes before the predicate Sentence Pattern 1C Subject Predicate Noun Intransitive B Verb Here are some examples of Pattern 1C using the Intransitive B verb st igáng is sick Subject Predicate Nang jáadaas st igáng The woman is sick G aagáay st igáng The children are sick Frankie st igáng Frankie is sick Díi k áa isgyáan díi s k áan st igáng My uncle and my aunt are sick The second new pattern is Pattern 1D Here instead of a noun as subject we have a pronoun Since the predicate in this pattern is an Intransitive B verb the pronoun must be from the Weak B set Sentence Pattern 1D Subject Predicate Weak B Pronoun Intransitive B Verb Here are some examples of Pattern 1D with the Intransitive B verb láagang is well Subject Predicate Díi láagang I am well Dáng láagang You are well Hal láagang He she is well Íitl láagang We are well Daláng láagang Y all are well Tl láagang People are well 3 One of the most important concepts in any language is possession namely how do we express that something or someone belongs to someone else There are several different ways of doing this in Haida The first way involves putting the possessor immediately before the one being possessed We can call this Possessed Noun Pattern 1 as shown in the following table Possessed Noun Pattern 1A Possessor Possessed You have probably noticed by now that the word díi means my in phrases like díi aw my mother and díi náan my grandmother As we see in this lesson díi is actually a Weak B pronoun It turns out that we can express this type of possession or close relationship by combining any of the Weak B pronouns with a Personal noun such as aw mother or náan grandmother T his is Possessed Noun Pattern 1A where the possessor is expressed with a pronoun and the possessed is a personal noun Possessed Noun Pattern 1A Possessor Possessed Weak B Pronoun Personal Noun Personal nouns in Haida typically refer to one s relatives or parts of one s body in other words things to which one has a close and personal relationship Other types of nouns like common nouns or verbal nouns don t use this same possessed noun pattern Most of the nouns we have learned so far have been personal nouns In upcoming lessons we will start learning about other types of nouns

    Original URL path: http://www.haidalanguage.org/lessons/Lesson_005.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Lesson 6
    must be a Strong B pronoun and not a Weak B pronoun Sentence Pattern 1D Subject Focus Subject Focus Marker Predicate Strong B Pronoun uu Intransitive B Verb Here are some examples of Pattern 1D SF using several different Intransitive B verbs Subject Focus Marker Predicate Díi uu st igáng I am the one who is sick Dáng uu hlkwiidáang You are the one who is in a hurry Láa uu xwíigang He she is the one who feels cold Íitl uu k angáagang We are the ones who are sleepy Daláng uu k wíidang Y all are the ones who are hungry Note the differences in the following pairs of sentences the first built following Pattern 1D the second following Pattern 1D SF 1D Díi xwíigang I feel cold 1D SF Díi uu xwíigang I am the one who feels cold 1D Dáng xwíigang You feel cold 1D SF Dáng uu xwíigang You are the one who feels cold 1D Hal xwíigang He she feels cold 1D SF Láa uu xwíigang He she is the one who feels cold 1D Íitl xwíigang We feel cold 1D SF Íitl uu xwíigang We are the ones who feel cold 1D Daláng xwíigang Y all feel cold 1D SF Daláng uu xwíigang Y all are the ones who feel cold As we noted earlier the pronoun tl tl áa typically does not occur in focus position The table below shows all four sets of pronouns we have learned Weak A Strong A Weak B Strong B I hl hláa díi díi you dáng dáa dáng dáng he she hal láa hal láa we t aláng t aláng íitl íitl y all daláng daláng daláng daláng people tl tl áa tl tl áa Note that there are no new forms among the Strong

    Original URL path: http://www.haidalanguage.org/lessons/Lesson_006.html (2016-02-09)
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