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  • Great Start Michigan Department of Education Lansing MI Early Childhood Home Visiting Programs in Diverse Contexts Assessing Outcomes in the Context of a Long Term Home Visiting Program with American Indian Families Kate McGilly PhD Senior Director of Research and Quality Parents as Teachers National Center St Louis MO Attrition in a Home Visiting Program Lessons Learned and Program Implications Matthew Fifolt MEd PhD Associate Director of the Evaluation and Assessment Unit Center for the Study of Community Health Birmingham AL Julie Preskitt MSOT MPH PhD Assistant Professor in Health Care Organization and Policy University of Alabama at Birmingham Birmingham AL Tracye Strichik EdS Director Office of Early Learning Alabama Department of Early Childhood Education Montgomery AL Making Data Count in Early Childhood Programs Kyle Snow PhD Director NAEYC Center for Applied Research Washington DC 2 00 3 30 p m Michigan Great Start to Quality Observing Programs in Diverse Settings as a Component of Continuous Quality Improvement Sheri Butters Director of Assessment Systems Great Start to Quality Early Childhood Investment Corporation Lansing MI Heather Evans Manager Validation Assessment Great Start to Quality Early Childhood Investment Corporation Lansing MI Tomoko Wakabayashi EdD Director Center for Early Education Evaluation at HighScope

    Original URL path: http://highscope.org/print.asp?ContentId=904&version=-1 (2016-02-14)
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  • in an informal setting and to obtain individualized advice on topics such as research or career paths Mentors for the session will be from the following areas Nonprofit organizations Universities colleges Local educational agencies State government Private foundations When Where does the Lunch With the Leaders Mentoring Session take place Lunch With the Leaders will take place on October 16 2015 during the Annual Early Childhood Research and Evaluation Conference It will take place at the Ann Arbor Marriott Ypsilanti at Eagle Crest from 12 30 p m 1 45 p m How can I participate in the Lunch With the Leaders Complete the Lunch With the Leaders Application Form You will be matched with leaders based on areas of interest you indicate on your application Notification of acceptance to Lunch With the Leaders will be sent by September 8 2015 At the conference nametags will indicate the participants in the event and table assignments for lunch There will also be CEEE and HighScope staff to assist you Priority for selection into the Lunch With the Leaders Graduate students accepted for the poster presentation Graduate students affiliated with the institutions who sponsor the event the number of slots funded by

    Original URL path: http://highscope.org/print.asp?ContentId=893&version=-1 (2016-02-14)
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  • Trends Coalition for Evidence Based Policy Social Programs that Work Collaborative for Academic Social and Emotional Learning Select Programs Colorado Blueprints Promising Programs Find Youth Info U S Government Level 1 highest of 3 levels National Registry of Evidence Based

    Original URL path: http://highscope.org/print.asp?ContentId=610&version=-1 (2016-02-14)
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  • study analyzing the reports of participants in 40 seven week training projects and surveying 203 certified HighScope trainers a teacher study interviewing 244 HighScope and 122 non HighScope comparison teachers and a child study systematically observing 97 children in HighScope classrooms and 103 comparison children in classrooms using other early childhood educational approaches Study Findings Findings from the trainer and teacher studies show that systematic inservice training is an effective way to achieve program quality Independent observers rated HighScope programs significantly higher than comparison programs in Providing a good physical environment that is organized and gives children access to diverse materials Creating a consistent daily routine that encourages children to plan carry out and review their work Establishing supportive patterns of adult child interaction that promote children s reasoning and language skills Another study finding was that each HighScope trainer following certification trains an average of 25 early childhood teachers and caregivers Based on this figure researchers calculate that since 1982 the Foundation s 1 300 certified trainers have trained 32 500 early childhood practitioners serving 325 000 children annually in HighScope programs Findings from the child study favor children in HighScope programs they were found to significantly outperform children

    Original URL path: http://highscope.org/print.asp?ContentId=233&version=-1 (2016-02-14)
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  • to providing high quality programs for children and effective teacher training for adults Project staff systematically and objectively compared how the various models view children s development and translate these underlying beliefs into practice The study looked closely at the teacher training methods used by proponents of each model as well as how widely the model developers have disseminated their approaches The study also examined how proponents of each model

    Original URL path: http://highscope.org/print.asp?ContentId=235&version=-1 (2016-02-14)
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  • Beat Competence Analysis Test A version of the HighScope Beat Competence Analysis Test Weikart 1987 using the seven movements listed above was used in this study to assess beat competence by observing an individual s performance of a series of seven movements to the steady beat of music Although two pieces of recorded instrumental music of different tempos are generally used only one piece of recorded instrumental music was used in this study to allow time for the child s participation in the other assessment activities In this study children performed the same seven movements used to assess metronome timing to the steady beat of a recorded musical selection Of course they did not have to use the several motion sensing triggers Their performance was videotaped and subsequently scored by eight trained raters A rater gave each child a score of 1 through 5 on each of these items the score representing the rater s assessment of each child s ability to identify and match the steady beat over a series of 36 beats Raters characterized children s musical timing as follows Accurate and consistent all but 0 to 3 beats matched Fairly accurate and consistent 24 beats matched Sometimes accurate and consistent 16 beats matched Steady and even but off the beat 8 to 12 beats matched 4 at a time Uneven and off the beat no beats matched Several studies using the HighScope Beat Competence Analysis Test provide evidence of the instrument s psychometric properties Weikart et al 1987 found the instrument to have alpha coefficients of internal consistency ranging from 70 to 79 The concurrent validity of the instrument was shown by its statistically significant positive correlations with the Test of Gross Motor Ability Kiger 1994 and school achievement Kiger 1994 Weikart et al 1987 Study participants This study was conducted in Effingham Illinois a city of about 12 500 people Greater Effingham Chamber of Commerce and Industry 1997 Children in preschool through grade four at three elementary schools and the early learning center of the Effingham school district participated in this study Of the 609 children who returned signed permission forms 605 were tested 585 produced usable data on metronome timing and 523 produced usable data on musical timing The percentages of children in the sample diminished steadily by grade with 26 of the sample in preschool and 10 in grade 4 The children ranged from 4 years old up to 11 years old Of the 585 children in the sample 571 98 were Caucasian 6 1 were Hispanic 4 1 were Black and 4 1 were Asian Of 576 children for whom parents or guardians reported family configuration 477 83 were in two parent homes including 30 5 living with either a stepfather or stepmother 89 15 lived with their mother only 6 1 lived with their father only and 4 1 lived with other relatives Of 1 056 parents and guardians reporting 920 87 had at least a high school diploma 525 50 had only a high school diploma 170 16 had an associate s degree 152 14 had a bachelor s degree and 73 7 had a graduate degree For the 537 families reporting the median household income was 30 000 39 999 Of the 576 children 85 15 received free lunches available to those with annual incomes up to 130 of the federal poverty guidelines 17 329 for a family of three in FY 1998 Of the 585 children with parental reports 77 13 had dance training and 45 8 had instrumental music training These classes were almost certainly extracurricular because the Effingham school district did not offer dance or instrumental music classes until fifth grade Various school based programs were available to children in grades 1 through 4 Of the 312 children in these grades the following numbers and percentages were or had been in such classes 33 11 in gifted and talented classes 43 7 in the district s Title 1 Reading Recovery program 36 12 in speech and language programs 15 5 in classes for children with learning disabilities 5 2 in classes for children with educable mental handicaps One child was treated for trainable mental handicap two were visually impaired one was hearing impaired and one was behavior disabled Results This section examines the internal structure and reliability of metronome and musical timing and their relationship to each other Next it looks at their correlations with children s various characteristics with special attention to age and school achievement Metronome and musical timing Table 1 lists children s average scores on each item Of the children tested the metronome timing assessment and qualitative information were complete for 585 children 316 boys and 269 girls The table presents the items in order of their increasing difficulty This order differs from the originally hypothesized order in two ways a patting knees with alternating hands was easier than patting a knee with either the preferred or the nonpreferred hand and b of the two locomotor items tapping toe and stepping back was easier than walking in place Children s timing scores were the sums of their scores from the seven items divided by the number of items completed The 7 item metronome timing scale had a very respectable internal consistency with an alpha coefficient of 889 Table 1 Metronome Timing Items Item n Mean SD Minimum Maximum 2 Patting knees with both hands 585 145 7 98 8 17 0 514 4 3 Clapping hands together 585 153 9 107 8 21 0 517 0 4 Patting knees with alternating hands 585 161 4 97 5 24 4 396 4 5 Patting knee with preferred hand 585 166 8 108 0 18 0 501 9 6 Patting knee with nonpreferred hand 585 170 0 108 3 17 0 527 6 7 Toe tapping pad with alternating feet 569 197 1 106 5 33 1 500 3 8 Walking in place 585 202 3 101 5 25 9 457 4 Metronome timing mean of the 7 items 585 171 2 80 7 Note A metronome timing score is the student s mean number of milliseconds off the beat of the Interactive Metronome thus the lower the score the better the timing Although 569 children participated in the assessment of musical timing 22 did not complete the testing procedure and descriptive information was incomplete for another 24 Thus the information and assessment was complete for 523 children 279 boys and 244 girls Table 2 presents counts and percentages of each rating and the mean ratings for each item The item means vary between 3 14 and 3 79 Noting that equal percentages of ratings across five levels would place 20 of ratings at each level it appears that children tended to be at the extremes either fully accurate and consistent or uneven and off the beat matching no beats The percentages at these two extremes together varied from 61 to 70 exceeding their allotted 40 by 21 to 30 Table 2 Musical Timing Items Item Rating 1 2 3 4 5 Mean SD 1 Patting knees with both hands 119 64 58 85 197 3 34 1 61 23 12 11 16 38 2 Clapping hands together 139 51 54 55 224 3 33 1 70 27 10 10 11 43 3 Patting knees with alternating hands 133 63 57 70 200 3 27 1 65 25 12 11 13 38 4 Patting knee with preferred hand 126 49 65 70 213 3 37 1 64 24 9 12 13 41 5 Patting knee with nonpreferred hand 135 48 63 68 209 3 32 1 66 26 9 12 13 40 6 Toe tapping pad with alternating feet 154 46 69 81 173 3 14 1 65 29 9 13 16 33 7 Walking in place 91 37 42 74 279 3 79 1 56 17 7 8 14 53 Musical timing 73 80 89 135 146 3 37 1 33 11 12 14 21 22 Note N 523 Rating 1 1 00 to 1 49 Accurate and consistent 2 1 50 to 2 49 Fairly accurate and consistent 3 2 50 to 3 49 Sometimes accurate and consistent 4 3 50 to 4 49 Even but off the beat 5 4 50 to 5 00 Uneven and off the beat Thus the lower the score the better the timing The musical timing ratings had a different order of difficulty from the metronome timing scores The items listed 1 7 in Tables 1 and 2 are arranged in order of their difficulty in metronome timing from easiest to most difficult Their difficulty ranking for musical timing was 6 3 5 2 1 4 7 Only walking in place was found to have the same level of difficulty most difficult by both measures Perhaps raters compensated for the varying degrees of inherent difficulty in assigning their ratings because as presented below they did reliably distinguish children with varying levels of musical timing The internal consistency of the seven items was quite high with an alpha coefficient of 915 The correlations between metronome timing and musical timing suggest distinct but related abilities The correlations between the same items measured both ways ranged from 243 to 399 and the correlation between the two total scores was 498 n 523 p 001 While both metronome timing and musical timing had strong internal consistency indicating the integrity of the constructs that they each measured they clearly measured different aspects of timing Concurrent validity of the timing measures As shown in Table 3 both metronome timing and musical timing had statistically significant correlations in the expected direction with most of the variables examined for this purpose Exceptions to this generalization are that metronome timing was not significantly correlated with gender repeating a grade or being treated for learning disability and musical timing was not significantly correlated with reading or mathematics achievement or with placement in any of the compensatory or special education programs Title I reading speech and language repeating a grade learning disability or mentally handicapped Metronome timing had correlations of 3 or greater with physical coordination motor skill ability to attend over a period of time age and rated kindergarten achievement Musical timing had correlations of 3 or greater with age These discrepancies do not challenge the validity of either measure but rather help define the difference between them Table 3 Correlations of Timing Measures With Validity Variables Variable Metronome Timing Musical Timing N R N R Gender 1 male 2 female 585 060 523 155 d Handedness 1 right 2 left 585 146 d 523 182 c Physical coordination motor skill 427 303 d 398 241 a Pays attention during class 427 244 d 398 195 a Ability to attend over a period of time 427 330 d 398 244 d Dance classes 585 122 c 523 184 d Instrumental music 585 187 d 523 237 d Household income 537 243 d 478 249 d Parents highest level of schooling 575 166 d 513 228 d Age 585 491 d 523 426 d Grade 585 498 d 523 426 d CAT total achievement grades 1 4 303 264 d 279 137 a CAT reading grades 1 4 304 231 d 280 125 CAT language grades 1 4 304 225 c 280 156 b CAT mathematics grades 1 4 303 273 d 279 107 Rated kindergarten achievement 112 335 c 109 212 a Gifted talented program 427 150 c 398 243 d Title I reading program 427 150 c 398 066 Speech language program 427 119 a 398 059 Repeated a grade 585 068 523 030 Learning disability program 427 091 398 081 Mentally handicapped program 427 132 b 398 040 Note The signs of correlation coefficients with metronome timing and with musical timing are reversed to reflect the fact that on both measures lower scores indicate better timing a p 05 b p 01 c p 005 d p 001 The directions of timing findings for gender and handedness are interesting Girls had better musical timing than boys but no better metronome timing suggesting that girls have greater ability to identify the beat of a musical selection than boys but cannot track beeps better Left handers had better metronome and musical timing than right handers perhaps because left handers are required to use their nonpreferred right hand more often than right handers are required to use their nonpreferred left hand In support of this explanation while left handers scored significantly better than right handers on all 7 metronome timing items and all 7 musical timing items patting knee with nonpreferred hand had the largest difference for metronome timing and only 04 of a point less than the largest difference for musical timing Children s timing and age As Table 4 shows older children had better metronome and musical timing than younger children The metronome timing means ranked in order by age except that 6 year olds had better timing than 7 year olds The musical timing means ranked in order by age without exception Post hoc Bonferroni analyses indicated two metronome timing plateaus the metronome timing of children aged 4 to 7 was significantly different from the metronome timing of children aged 8 to 10 A similar but more complex pattern was found for musical timing each age mean was not significantly different from adjacent years but was significantly different from any age more than one year above or below it Table 4 Metronome and Musical Timing by Age Age Metronome Timingb Musical Timingc n Mean SD n Mean SD 4 83 234 6 46 0 65 4 41 0 76 5 95 221 2 54 6 81 3 91 1 07 6 117 161 8 72 5 110 3 47 1 22 7 97 168 6 83 3 93 3 31 1 34 8 73 142 7 76 1 69 2 76 1 51 9 61 118 4 79 7 52 2 68 1 32 10 59 115 1 70 2 53 2 63 1 33 Note The year of age includes all children from that birthday to the day before the next one for example 4 includes children from 4 00 to 4 99 For both metronome timing and musical timing the lower the score the better the timing a F 6 578 34 13 p 001 two tailed Bonferroni post hoc analyses indicated that the metronome timing of children aged 4 to 7 was significantly different from the metronome timing of children aged 8 to 10 p 05 b F 6 516 19 98 p 001 two tailed Bonferroni post hoc analyses indicated that each age mean was not significantly different p 05 from adjacent years but was significantly different from any age more than one year above or below it for example 4 year olds had worse timing than 6 to 10 year olds 6 year olds had better timing than 4 year olds but worse timing than 8 to 10 year olds Children s timing and school achievement As shown in Table 5 children s metronome and musical timing were significantly related to their percentiles on the California Achievement Test The relationship between metronome timing and these test scores was the stronger of the two with consistently better means with increasing achievement test scores children at or above the 80th percentile in achievement had significantly better metronome timing than children up to the 59th percentile Although the overall relationship between musical timing and these test scores was also statistically significant musical timing scores for children up to the 89th percentile varied only 05 of a point across categories and none of the differences between categories was statistically significant Table 5 Metronome and Musical Timing by Children s School Achievement Percentile Category Metronome Timinga Musical Timingb n Mean SD n Mean SD Up to 59th 79 170 7 81 9 73 3 16 1 31 60th to 79th 69 140 5 81 0 58 3 09 1 31 80th to 89th 53 131 8 69 5 49 3 13 1 31 90th to 99th 102 116 9 73 9 99 2 60 1 36 Note California Achievement Test total score percentiles for grades 1 4 For both metronome timing and musical timing the lower the score the better the timing a F 3 299 7 42 r 264 p 001 Bonferroni post hoc analyses found that children scoring at or above the 80th percentile in achievement had significantly better metronome timing than children up to the 59th percentile in achievement p 05 b F 3 275 3 34 r 137 p 05 Bonferroni post hoc analyses found no significant differences at p 05 in the musical timing of children differing in their achievement percentiles Discussion This study s results present the reliability and concurrent validity of metronome timing and musical timing Both measures were internally consistent and related in reasonable ways to the variables used to assess their concurrent validity Is one better than the other or should they be used together An analysis of their partial and multiple correlations revealed no clear cut empirical advantage to using one or the other or even both together While both measures of timing had the same seven items metronome timing used a computer and input devices to measure responses to unembedded beeps while musical timing had observers measure responses to beats embedded in instrumental music Metronome timing requires available equipment and competent operators while musical timing requires trained observers Equipment error is mechanical or electrical while observer error comes largely from their subjective judgments two very different types of error If girls really did have better timing than boys for example the musical timing measure was more sensitive to this difference than was the metronome timing measure On the other hand if girls really did not have better timing than boys observers subjective bias towards girls influenced the musical timing scores This study has established that children s timing can be measured with reliability and

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  • in their eventual effects Both the HighScope and Nursery School approaches emphasized child initiated activities in which young children pursued their own interests with staff support The Direct Instruction approach in contrast focused on academics and required young children to respond to rapid fire questions posed by teachers Effects on social responsibility The most recent interviews of participants in the HighScope Preschool Curriculum Comparison Study occurred when participants reached the age of 23 The major long term finding from this phase relates to the area of social responsibility Initially all three curriculum approaches improved young children s intellectual performance substantially with the average IQs of children in all three groups rising 27 points By age 15 however students in the HighScope group and the Nursery School group that is those students whose curriculum approaches had emphasized child initiated activities reported only half as much delinquent activity as the students in the Direct Instruction group Findings at age 23 continue to support the conclusion that the HighScope and Nursery School groups are better off than the Direct Instruction group in a variety of ways Either the HighScope group the Nursery School group or both show statistically significant advantages over the Direct Instruction group on 17 variables Most important compared with the Direct Instruction Group the HighScope and Nursery School groups have had significantly fewer felony arrests of various kinds and fewer years of special education for emotional impairment In addition compared with the Direct Instruction group the HighScope group aspires to complete a higher level of schooling and has more members living with their spouses It thus appears that preschool programs that promote child initiated activities such as the HighScope and Nursery School programs seem to contribute to the development of an individual s sense of personal and social responsibility References

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