archive-org.com » ORG » H » HISTORY-WORLD.ORG

Total: 1156

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • Middle Ages, Beginnings Of The French Nation
    the royal domain the Ile de France paralleled on a smaller scale the work of William the Conqueror in England With the support of the church which supplied him with able advisers Louis determined to crush the lawless barons who were defying royal authority in the Ile de France Castles of the defiant vassals were captured and in many cases torn down Louis made his word law in the Ile de France established a solid base from which royal power could be extended and increased the prestige of the monarchy so much that the great duke of Aquitaine deigned to marry his daughter Eleanor to Louis son Unfortunately Eleanor s behavior so scandalized Louis pious son I thought I married a king Eleanor once exclaimed but instead I am the wife of a monk that he had the marriage annulled and Aquitaine passed to Eleanor s second husband Henry II of England The Growth Of The French Monarchy The first great expansion of the royal domain was the work of the next Capetian Philip II Augustus 1180 1223 during whose reign the French king for the first time became more powerful than any of his vassals and France replaced Germany as the strongest monarchy in continental Europe Philip s great ambition was to take from the English Plantagenets the vast territory they held in France Philip made little headway against Henry II except to make Henry s life miserable by encouraging his faithless sons Richard the Lion Hearted and John to revolt Philip took Normandy Maine Anjou and Touraine from John thereby tripling the size of the French royal domain Philip also greatly strengthened the royal administrative system by devising new agencies for centralized government and tapping new sources of revenue including a money payment from his vassals in lieu of military service Salaried officials called bailiffs performed duties similar to those carried out in England by itinerant justices and sheriffs A corps of loyal officials like the bailiffs recruited not from the feudal nobility but from the ranks of the bourgeoisie was collected around the king As in England special administrative departments were created the parlement a supreme court of justice not to be confused with the British Parliament which became primarily a legislative body the chamber of accounts or royal treasury and the royal or privy council a group of advisers who assisted the king in the conduct of the daily business of the state In this phase of consolidation of royal power the papacy which was struggling with the German emperors usually allied itself with the French monarchy As in England and Germany however the kings sometimes collided with the popes Philip II defied Innocent III by having French bishops annul his marriage but when the pope imposed an interdict on France Philip backed down and his wife again became his queen On the other hand the church inadvertently helped expand the royal domain In southern France particularly in Toulouse the Albigensian sect flourished Determined to stamp

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/midfrench_nation.htm (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Middle Ages, Christian Reconquista In Spain
    11 The Church in the Middle Ages I page 12 The Church in the Middle Ages II page 13 The Intellectual Synthesis Of The High Middle Ages page 14 Conclusions Additional Topics Dancing In The Middle Ages Castle Life Cultural Expression Dynamics of the Middle Ages Influences of Christianity Monks and Monasticism Monetary System Peasant s Life The Rise of Towns The Middle Ages Date 1992 The Christian Reconquista In Spain The Christian Reconquista In Spain The unification of Spain was by a different route than that of either France or England The customary rivalry between the feudal aristocracy and the royal authority was complicated by another significant element a religious crusade National unification required the ejection of the Muslims with their foreign religion and culture Unity also called for the consolidation of several distinct Christian states During the long struggle to drive the Muslims from Spain a mounting patriotism blended with a fanatical religious spirit As early as the ninth century northern Spain became caught up in a religious zeal centering around Santiago de Compostela reputed to be the burial site of the apostle St James His bones were enshrined in a great cathedral visited by thousands of pilgrims Banners were consecrated there and the battle cry of the Christian soldiers became Santiago a contraction of Sante Iago St James name in Spanish Another symbol of national awakening was an eleventh century soldier of fortune El Cid Arabic for lord His exploits against the Muslims thrilled Europe and he became the hero of the great Spanish epic Poema de Mio Cid In the epic El Cid appears as a perfect Christian knight although in reality he was an adventurer seemingly more interested in booty and power than in religion In 1212 at Las Navas de Tolosa the Christians achieved

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/midreconquista.htm (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Middle Ages, Government In Germany And Italy
    in the reign of Otto III 983 1002 who promoted his grandiose scheme for the renewal of the Roman Empire Ignoring Germany the real source of his power he made Rome his capital built a palace there and styled himself emperor of the Romans As the servant of Jesus Christ another of his titles Otto installed non Italian popes in Rome and conceived of the papacy as a partner in ruling an empire of Germans Italians and Slavs But notwithstanding Otto s love for Italy the fickle Roman populace revolted and forced him to flee the city He died a year later while preparing to beseige Rome Despite the distractions in Italy the Saxon rulers were the most powerful in Europe They had permanently halted Magyar pillaging and by utilizing the German church as an ally had limited tendencies toward feudalism in their homeland They had also fostered economic progress German eastward expansion had begun and the Alpine passes had been freed of Muslim raiders and made safe for the Italian merchants See Germany About 1000 The Salian Emperors The Saxon kings were succeeded by a new royal line the Salian House which ruled from 1024 to 1125 and whose members tried to establish a centralized monarchy To the dismay of many nobles a body of lowborn royal officials was recruited and the power of the dukes was weakened further when the crown won the allegiance of the lesser nobles The reign of Henry IV 1056 1106 was a watershed in German history The monarchy reached the height of its power but it also experienced a major reverse For a century the Ottonian system by which the king had governed his kingdom through the clergy whom he appointed had functioned smoothly Under Henry IV however the revival of a powerful papacy led to a bitter conflict centering on the king s right to appoint church officials who were also his most loyal supporters This disagreement between state and church culminated in Henry himself suffering the humiliation of begging the pope s forgiveness by dressing as a penitent and standing in the snow at Canossa the papal winter residence This conflict known as the Investiture Controversy resulted in the loss of the monarchy s major sources of strength the loyalty of the German church now transferred to the papacy the support of the great nobles now openly rebellious and insistent on their inborn rights and the chief material base of royal power the king s lands which were diminished by grants to nobles who would stay loyal only if such concessions were made The real victors in the Investiture Controversy were the German nobles many of whom allied themselves with the papacy and continued to defy the monarchy long after the reign of Henry IV From the time of Henry s death in 1106 until the accession of Frederick Barbarossa in 1152 the Welfs of Bavaria and the Hohenstaufens of Swabia along with the other noble factions fought over the throne

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/midgerm.htm (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Middle Ages, The Crusades
    outpouring of religious enthusiasm The word crusade itself is derived from taking the cross after the example of Christ The Results Of The Crusades From the end of the eleventh century to the end of the thirteenth there were seven major crusades as well as various small expenditions that from time to time warred against the Muslins in the Near East whom the crusaders called Saracens The First Crusade composed of feudal nobles from France parts of Germany and Norman Italy proceeded overland to Constantiople Having expected the help of European mercenaries agains the Seljuks the emperor Alexius Comnenus was taken aback when confronted by an unruly horde of what Pope Urban himself had called aforetime robbers He hastily directed the crusaders out of Constantinople to fight the Turks The First Crusade was the most successful of the seven with not more than 5000 knights and infantry it overcame the resistance of the Turks who were no longer united Above all it captured Jerusalem the Holy City The First Crusade conquered a narrow strip of land stretching from Antioch to Jerusalem and created the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem distinct from the city itself over which Crusaders and Muslims continued to battle until the region finally was retaken by the Muslims in 1291 When the kingdom of Jerusalem became endangered St Bernard of Clairvaux induced the kings of France and Germany to lead the Second Crusade in 1147 It never reached Jerusalem having turned aside to attack Damascus where its forces were routed The fall of Jerusalem in 1187 to the Muslims reinvigorated under the leadership of Saladin the Kurdish sultan of Egypt and Syria provoked the Third Crusade in 1189 Its leaders were three of the most famous medieval kings Frederick Barbarossa of Germany Richard the Lion Hearted of England and Philip Augustus of France Frederick was drowned in Asia Minor and after many quarrels with Richard Philip returned home Saladin and Richard remained the protagonists but finally agreed to a three year truce and free access to Jerusalem for Christian pilgrims The Fourth Crusade 1202 1204 was a disaster from a religious perspective No kings answered Pope Innocent II call and the knights who did were unable to pay the Venetians the agreed upon transport charges The Venetians persuaded the crusaders to pay off the sum by capturing the Christian town of Zara on the Adriatic coast which had long proved troublesome to Venetian trading interests Then in order to absorb all Byzantine commerce the Venetians pressured the crusaders into attacking Constantinople After conquering and sacking the greatest city in Europe the crusaders set up the Latin empire of Constantinople and forgot about recovering the Holy Land The thirteenth century saw other crusades The youngsters of the ill fated Children s Crusade in 1212 fully expected the waters of the Mediterranean to part and make a path to the Holy Land which they would take without fighting but thousands of them were sold into slavery by Marseilles merchants The

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/midcrusades.htm (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Middle Ages, Towns In The Middle Ages
    was a prime cause of the revival of towns the towns arose because of trade but they also stimulated trade by providing greater markets and by producing goods for the merchants to sell In this revival geography played a significant role Rivers important to the evolution of ancient civilizations were also important in the development of medieval towns They were natural highways on which articles of commerce could be easily transported Another factor contributing to the rise of towns was population growth In Britian for example the population more than tripled between 1066 and 1350 The reasons for this rapid increase in population are varied The ending of bloody foreign invasions and in some areas the stabilization of feudal society were contributing factors More important was an increase in food production brought about by the cultivation of wastelands clearing of forests and draining of marshes Merchant And Craft Guilds In each town the merchants and artisans organized themselves into guilds which were useful not only for business but also for social and political purposes There were two kinds of guilds merchant and craft The merchant guild ensured a monopoly of trade within a given locality All alien merchants were supervised closely and made to pay tolls Disputes among merchants were settled at the guild court according to its own legal code The guilds also tried to make sure that the customers were not cheated they checked weights and measures and insisted upon a standard quality for goods To allow only a legitimate profit the guild fixed a just price which was fair to both producer and customer The guild s functions stretched beyond business and politics into charitable and social activities A guildsman who fell into poverty received aid from the guild The guild also provided financial assistance for the burial expense of its members and looked after their dependents Members attended social meetings in the guildhall and periodically held processions in honor of their patron saints With the increase of commerce in the towns artisans began to organize as early as the eleventh century Craftsmen in each of the medieval trades weaving cobbling tanning and so on joined forces The result was the craft guild which differed from the merchant guild in that membership was limited to artisans in one particular craft The general aims of the craft guilds were the same as those of the merchant guilds the creation of a monopoly and the enforcement of a set of trade rules Each guild had a monopoly of a certain article in a particular town and every effort was made to prevent competition between members of the same guild The guild restricted the number of its members regulated the quantity and quality of the goods produced and set prices It also enforced regulations to protect the consumer from bad workmanship and inferior materials The craft guild also differed from the merchant guild in its recognition of three distinct classes of workers apprentices journeymen and master craftsmen The apprentice was

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/midtowns.htm (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Middle Ages, Church In The High Middle Ages
    to comply with the church s moral code by taking back as his queen the woman he had divorced with the consent of the French bishops As for the Holy Roman Empire Innocent intervened in a civil war between rival candidates for the throne supporting first one then the other In the end Innocent secured the election of his ward the young Hohenstaufen heir Frederick II who promised to respect papal rights and to go on a crusade Church Administration The universality and power of the church rested not only upon a systematized uniform creed but also upon the most highly organized administrative system in the West At the head was the pope or bishop of Rome see ch 5 He was assisted by the Curia the papal council or court which in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries developed an intricate adminstrative system Judicial and secretarial problems were handled by the papal Chancery financial matters by the Camera and disciplinary questions by the Penitentiary Special emissaries called legates whose powers were superior to those of the local churchmen carried the pope s orders throughout Europe The church was ahead of secular states in developing a system of courts and a body of law Church or canon law was based on the Scriptures the writings of the church Fathers and the decrees of church councils and popes In the twelfth century the church issued its official body of canon law which guided the church courts in judging perjury blasphemy sorcery usury the medieval church denounced the taking of interest and heresy Heresey was the most horrible of all crimes in medieval eyes A murder was a crime against society but the heretic s disbelief in the teaching of Christ or His church was considered a crime against God The papacy s chief weapons in support of its authority were spiritual penalties The most powerful of these was excommunication by which people became anathema set apart from the church and all the faithful A person who was excommunicant could not act as judge juror notary witness or attorney That person could not be a guardian an executor or a party to any contracts When one died as an excommunicant one received no Christian burial and if by chance he or she was buried in consecrated ground the body was dug up and thrown away An excommunicant who entered a church during Mass was to be expelled or the Mass discontinued After the reading of a sentence of excommunication a bell was rung as for a funeral a book closed and a candle extinguished to symbolize the spiritual death of the guilty person Interdict which has been termed an ecclesiastical lockout was also a powerful instrument Whereas excommunication was directed against individuals interdict suspended all public worship and withheld all sacraments other than Baptism and Extreme Unction in the realm of a disobedient ruler Pope Innocent III successfully applied or threatened the interdict eighty five times against disobedient kings and princes From the

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/midchurchhigh.htm (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Middle Ages, The Intellectual Synthesis Of The High Middle Ages
    hired thugs who attacked and castrated the scholar Both Abelard and Helose then sought refuge in the churchhe as a monk and she as the abbess of a convent The New Material And The Task Of Reconciliation In the twelfth century Western scholars flocked to Spain and Sicily and there translated Muslim editions of ancient writings As a result of these translations a host of new ideas particularly in science and philosophy were introduced to Western scholars Western knowledge was expanded to include not only Arabic learning but also such important classical works as Euclid s Geometry Ptolemy s Almagest Hippocrates and Galen s treatises in medicine and all of Aristotle s extant writing except the Poetics and the Rhetoric Because of the emphasis on authority and the all pervasive influence of the church the medieval atmosphere was not conductive to free scientific investigation Those who studied science were churchmen and their findings were supposed to illuminate rather than contradict the dogmas of the theologians When Greek and Arabic works were translated in the twelfth century the West inherited a magnificent legacy of mathematical and scientific knowledge Algebra trigonometry and Euclid s Geometry became available and Arabic numerals and the symbol for zero made possible the decimal system of computation Physics was based on Aristotle s theory of four elements water earth air and fire and on his theories of dynamics doctrines that took centuries to disprove Some fourteenth century nominalists were the first to challenge Aristotle s theory later conclusively disproven by Galileo that a heavy object falls faster than a light one Chemistry was based on Aristotelian concepts mixed with magic and alchemy Like the Muslim alchemist the European counterpart tried in vain to transmute base metals into gold and silver and to obtain a magic elixir that would prolong life in both cases the attempts did much to advance true findings in the field of chemistry Two notable exceptions to the medieval rule of subservience to authority were the emperor Frederick II and the English Franciscan Roger Bacon Frederick had a genuine scientific interest in animals and was famed for his large traveling menagerie which included elephants camels panthers lions leopards and a giraffe He also wrote a remarkable treatise The Art of Falconry which is still considered largely accurate in it observations of the life and habits of various kinds of hunting birds At his Sicilian court Frederick gathered about him many distinguished Greek Muslim and Latin scholars and he wrote to others in distant lands seeking their views on such problems as why objects appear bent when partly covered by water He indulged in many experiments one was a test to determine what language children would speak if raised in absolute silence The experiment was a failure because all the children died Roger Bacon 1214 1292 also employed the inductive scientific method he coined the term experimental science and boldly criticized the deductive syllogistic reasoning used by scholastic thinkers Bacon never doubted the authority of

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/midintellectual.htm (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Middle Ages, Conclusion
    Dancing In The Middle Ages Castle Life Cultural Expression Dynamics of the Middle Ages Influences of Christianity Monks and Monasticism Monetary System Peasant s Life The Rise of Towns The Middle Ages Date 2003 Conclusion Conclusion The period from 1000 to 1300 called the High Middle Ages witnessed significant changes and high levels of advancement from a wide variety of perspectives In England William the Conqueror secured a unified kingdom in 1066 and successive English kings managed to keep their competitors under control and build up the machinery of royal administration In France the movement toward the consolidation of royal power emanated from the minuscule Ile de France Each of the many counties and duchies that constituted feudal France had to be subordinated and brought within the framework of royal authority It took the French kings three centuries to accomplish what William the Conqueror had done in one generation The German kings dissipated their energies by seeking the prize of empire over the Alps in Italy and Sicily Nation making in Spain was unique since it acquired the religious fervor of a crusade In the mid eleventh century the Christian Spanish states began the Reconquista in earnest but not until

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/midconclusion.htm (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive



  •