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  • The African Diaspora
    part the slave based societies also varied in their composition In the 18th century for example on the Caribbean islands where the Indian population had died out or had been exterminated and where few Europeans settled Africans and their descendants formed the vast majority In Jamaica and St Domingue slaves made up over 80 percent of the population and because mortality levels were so high a large proportion were African born Brazil also had large numbers of imported Africans but its more diverse population and economy as well as a tradition of manumitting slaves and high levels of miscegenation meant that slaves made up only about 35 percent of the population Free people of color the descendants of former slaves however made up about another one third so that together slaves and free colored constituted two thirds of the total population The Caribbean and Brazil differed significantly from the southern colonies of British North America which depended less on imported Africans because of a positive rate of growth among the slave population There Creoles predominated but manumission was less common and free people of color were less than ten percent of the total Afro American origin The result was that slavery in North America was less influenced directly by Africa By the mid 18th century the slave population in most places in North America was reproducing itself By 1850 less than one percent of the slaves there were African born The combination of natural growth and the relatively small direct trade from Africa reduced the degree of African cultural reinforcement in comparison with Cuba or Brazil The People And Gods In exile Africans brought as slaves to America faced a peculiar series of problems Working conditions were exhausting and life for most slaves was often nasty brutish and short Family formation was made difficult because of the general shortage of women carried in the slave trade a situation made even worse where the ratio of men to women was sometimes as much as three to one To this was added the insecurity of slave status in which family members might be separated by sale or by the masters whim Still most slaves lived in family units even if their marriages were not always sanctioned by the religion of their masters Throughout the Americas wherever Africans were brought aspects of their language religion artistic sensibilities and other elements of culture survived To some extent the amount of continuity depended on the intensity and volume of the slave trade from a particular area Yoruba culture for example was particularly strong in northeastern Brazil because the trade between it and the Bight of Benin was heavy and continuous in the early 19th century During certain periods Akan peoples predominated in Jamaica while Ewe or Dahomeans predominated in Haiti Some slaveholders tried to mix up the slaves on their plantations so that strong African identities would be lost but colonial dependence on slavers who dealt continually with the same region tended to undercut such

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  • Australia
    justly proud of its public institutions Among these the Library ranks first It contains more than sixty thousand volumes and is free to all the people from ten in the forenoon until ten at night Here in the evening you may see the workingmen in their working dress As many as five hundred workingmen visit the Library daily The only requirements are that they shall sign their names on entering and observe proper behavior while they remain The Victorian Collection of pictures is in the same building and the galleries are very attractive The Post Office is another splendid building and one of the most commodious institutions of its kind in the world The University has hardly attained the success that the Library has had The building is a modest quadrangular one three sides of which have been completed These contain the lecture rooms a library and the residences of the professors Behind this building stands the Museum which is open to the public without charge But the most attractive part of Melbourne is its seashore especially in its pretty rapidly growing suburbs along the shores of Port Philip St Kilda is but three miles from the city and is a favorite resort of the people Many of them reside here and go back and forth to their business houses A fine promenade runs along the beach and the bathing is unusually good Large inclosures surrounded by piles are built for the bathers and above them raised high on platforms are commodious dressing rooms The beach has a sandy bottom and slopes gently from the shore to any depth of water affording a fine opportunity for swimmers They must however be careful not to encounter the cobbler This creature is like a small octopus It has legs or arms nearly equal in size and very long in proportion to its body They are used for creeping on the land swimming in the water and seizing its prey If it comes near any one it will administer a sharp slap at the same time squirting out a horrid acrid juice A thick rash quickly follows this infliction accompanied by swelling and much pain and for a while the delights of bathing have to be foregone Chapter III Sydney Brisbane Perth And Adelaide Notwithstanding the fact that Melbourne is the phenomenal city of Australia there are others as worthy of description These have had as marvelous if not as rapid a growth and have had much to do with the general development of the continent One of these is Sydney It is the capital of New South Wales and is the oldest city in Australia It has a population including its suburbs of over 408 500 It is a well built city with fine broad streets and imposing public buildings which combined with its commanding situation on a splendid harbor has gained for it the title of The Queen of the South Sydney is situated on Port Jackson near the thirty fourth degree of south latitude The choice of this precise spot for settlement was determined by the circumstance of a stream of fresh water being found there flowing into a deep inlet afterward known as Sydney Cove one of the numerous bays into which Port Jackson is divided This last mentioned body of water forms a magnificent harbor extending some twenty miles inland It is completely landlocked and can be entered only through a narrow passageway between the Heads as they are termed It accommodates vessels of the largest size Its shores present a succession of picturesque landscapes The cliffs which form the general outline of the harbor often rise to the height of two hundred and fifty feet In the intervening spaces the shore consists of terraces and smooth sandy beaches There are perhaps few places more suitable for the foundation of a great metropolis The city is situated at a distance of about eight miles from the sea and the whole circumference of the bay around which it is built forms a series of natural wharfs where ships of two thousand tons burden may be moored within a distance of twenty yards of the shore Sydney stands near the center north and south of the immense coal region of Australia which extends five hundred miles from north to south and has a breadth of from eighty to one hundred miles Large quantities of coal for colonial use and for export are mined within one hundred miles of the city The sandstone rock upon which the city is built affords much valuable building material Sydney now consists of three distinct districts First the Old City in which are George Street and other streets named after early governors Here we find the Houses of Parliament the Treasury buildings and the Government House with its park and botanic gardens The Houses of Parliament are rather disappointing in appearance The Lower House is small and in its arrangement resembles a music hall The Government House is situated on a promontory commanding a view of the bay On one side is Farm Cove and on the other is Sydney Cove where the large liners debark their passengers The Government House is very different from that in Melbourne It is like an ordinary English country house and though comfortable enough is rather inadequate to meet the present requirements of this growing place The other important buildings in Sydney are the large and imposing Town Hall the Museum and the railway station There are several theaters many handsome banks the Exchange and a number of elegant private residences The second division of Sydney is called Wooloomooloo This is the fashionable quarter and abounds in beautiful homes Further away we come across numerous small watering places dotted about the harbor the Parramatta and Botany Bay The third division is called North Shore and is reached by steam ferry from Sydney Cove in ten minutes Beside the city proper Sydney has extensive suburbs some of which are called

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  • Boer War
    to rise upon a certain night that Pretoria should be attacked the fort seized and the rifles and ammunition used to arm the Uitlanders It was a feasible device though it must seem to us who have had some experience of the military virtues of the burghers very desperate But it is conceivable that the rebels might have held Johannesburg until the universal sympathy which their cause excited throughout South Africa would have caused Great Britain to intervene Unfortunately they had complicated matters by asking for outside help Mr Cecil Rhodes was Premier of the Cape a man of immense energy who had rendered great services to the empire The motives of his action are obscure certainly we may say that they were not sordid for his thoughts always had been large and his habits simple But whatever that may have been whether an ill regulated desire to consolidate South Africa under British rule or a burning sympathy with the Uitlanders in their fight against injustice it is certain that he allowed his lieutenant Dr Jameson to assemble the mounted police of the Chartered Company of which Rhodes was founder and director for the purpose of cooperating with the rebels at Johannesburg Moreover when the revolt at Johannesburg was postponed on account of a disagreement as to which flag they were to rise under it appears that Jameson with or without the orders of Rhodes forced the hand of the conspirators by invading the country with a company absurdly inadequate to the work he had in hand Five hundred policemen and three field guns made up the forlorn hope that set out from Mafeking and crossed the Transvaal border December 29 1895 On January 2d they were surrounded by the Boers amid the broken country near Dornkop and after losing many of their number killed or wounded without food and with spent horses they were compelled to lay down their arms Six burghers lost their lives in the skirmish On the other hand the British Government disowned Jameson entirely and did all it could to discourage the rising on the other the President had the raiders in his keeping at Pretoria and their fate depended upon the behavior of the Uitlanders They were led to believe that Jameson would be shot unless they laid down their arms though as a matter of fact Jameson and his people had surrendered upon a promise of quarter So skilfully did Kruger use his hostages that he succeeded with the help of the British Commissioner in getting the thousands of excited Johannesburgers to lay down their arms without bloodshed Completely outmanoeuvred by the astute old President the leaders of the reform movement used all their influence in the direction of peace thinking that a general amnesty would follow but the moment that they and their people were helpless the detectives and armed burghers occupied the town and sixty of their number were hurried to Pretoria jail To the raiders themselves the President behaved with

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  • Discovery Of The Canary Islands And The African Coast
    states that these captains were young men who after the ending of the Ceuta campaign were as eager for employment as the Prince for discovery and that they were ordered on a voyage having for its object the general molestation of the Moors as well as that of making discoveries beyond Cape Nam The Portuguese mariners had a proverb about this cape He who would pass Cape Not either will return or not intimating that if he did not turn before passing the cape he would never return at all On the present occasion it was not destined to be passed for these captains Joham Goncalvez Zarco and Tristam Vaz were driven out of their course by storms and accidentally discovered a little island where they took refuge and from that circumstance called the island Porto Santo They found there a race of people living in no settled polity but not altogether barbarous or savage and possessing a kindly and most fertile soil I give this description of the first land discovered by Prince Henry s captains thinking it would well apply to many other lands about to be found out by his captains and by other discoverers Joham Goncalvez Zarco and Tristam Vaz returned Their master was delighted with the news they brought him more on account of its promise than its substance In the same year he sent them out again together with a third captain named Bartholomew Perestrelo assigning a ship to each captain His object was not only to discover more lands but also to improve those which had been discovered He sent therefore various seeds and animals to Porto Santo This seems to have been a man worthy to direct discovery Unfortunately however among the animals some rabbits were introduced into the new island and they conquered it not for the Prince but for themselves Hereafter we shall find that they gave his people much trouble and caused no little reproach to him We come now to the year 1419 Perestrelo for some unknown cause returned to Portugal at that time After his departure Joham Goncalvez Zarco and Tristam Vaz seeing from Porto Santo something that seemed like a cloud but yet different the origin of so much discovery noting the difference in the likeness built two boats and making for this cloud soon found themselves alongside a beautiful island abounding in many things but most of all in trees on which account they gave it the name of Madeira Wood The two discoverers entered the island at different parts The Prince their master afterward rewarded them with the captaincies of those parts To Perestrelo he gave the island of Porto Santo to colonize it Perestrelo however did not make much of his captaincy but after a strenuous contest with the rabbits having killed an army of them died himself This captain has a place in history as being the father in law of Columbus who indeed lived at Porto Santo for some time and here on new found land meditated far bolder discoveries Joham Goncalvez Zarco and Tristam Vaz began the cultivation of their island of Madeira but met with an untoward event at first In clearing the wood they kindled a fire among it which burned for seven years we are told and in the end that which had given its name to the island and which in the words of the historian overshadowed the whole land became the most deficient commodity The captains founded churches in the island and the King of Portugal Don Duarte gave the temporalities to Prince Henry and all the spiritualities to the Knights of Christ While these things were occurring at Madeira and at Porto Santo Prince Henry had been prosecuting his general scheme of discovery sending out two or three vessels each year with orders to go down the coast from Cape Nam and make what discoveries they could but these did not amount to much for the captains never advanced beyond Cape Bojador which is situated seventy leagues to the south of Cape Nam This Cape Bojador was formidable in itself being terminated by a ridge of rocks with fierce currents running round them but was much more formidable from the fancies which the mariners had formed of the sea and land beyond it It is clear they were wont to say that beyond this cape there is no people whatever the land is as bare as Libya no water no trees no grass in it the sea so shallow that at a league from the land it is only a fathom deep the currents so fierce that the ship which passes that cape will never return and thus their theories were brought in to justify their fears This outstretcher for such is the meaning of the word bojador was therefore as a bar drawn across that advance in maritime discovery which had for so long a time been the first object of Prince Henry s life The Prince had now been working at his discoveries for twelve years with little approbation from the generality of persons the discovery of these islands Porto Santo and Madeira serving to whet his appetite for further enterprise but not winning the common voice in favor of prosecuting discoveries on the coast of Africa The people at home improving upon the reports of the sailors said that the land which the Prince sought after was merely some sandy place like the deserts of Libya that princes had possessed the empires of the world and yet had not undertaken such designs as his nor shown such anxiety to find new kingdoms that the men who arrived in those foreign parts if they did arrive turned from white into black men that the King Don John the Prince s father had endowed foreigners with land in his kingdom to break it up and cultivate it a thing very different from taking the people out of Portugal which had need of them to bring them among savages to be eaten and to place them upon lands of which the mother country had no need that the Author of the world had provided these islands solely for the habitation of wild beasts of which an additional proof was that those rabbits the discoverers themselves had introduced were now dispossessing them of the island There is much here of the usual captiousness to be found in the criticism of bystanders upon action mixed with a great deal of false assertion and premature knowledge of the ways of Providence Still it were to be wished that most criticism upon action was as wise for that part of the common talk which spoke of keeping their own population to bring out their own resources had a wisdom in it which the men of future centuries were yet to discover throughout the peninsula Prince Henry as may be seen by his perseverance up to this time was not a man to have his purposes diverted by such criticism much of which must have been in his eyes worthless and inconsequent in the extreme Nevertheless he had his own misgivings His captains came back one after another with no good tidings of discovery but with petty plunder gained as they returned from incursions on the Moorish coast The Prince concealed from them his chagrin at the fruitless nature of their attempts but probably did not feel it less on that account He began to think Was it for him to hope to discover that land which had been hidden from so many princes Still he felt within himself the incitement of a virtuous obstinacy which would not let him rest Would it not he thought be ingratitude to God who thus moved his mind to these attempts if he were to desist from his work or be negligent in it He resolved therefore to send out again Gil Eannes one of his household who had been sent the year before but had returned like the rest having discovered nothing He had been driven to the Canary Islands and had seized upon some of the natives there whom he brought back With this transaction the Prince had shown himself dissatisfied and Gil Eannes now intrusted again with command resolved to meet all dangers rather than to disappoint the wishes of his master Before his departure the Prince called him aside and said You cannot meet with such peril that the hope of your reward shall not be much greater and in truth I wonder what imagination this is that you have all taken up in a matter too of so little certainty for if these things which are reported had any authority however little I would not blame you so much But you quote to me the opinions of four mariners who as they were driven out of their way to Frandes or to some other ports to which they commonly navigated had not and could not have used the needle and the chart but do you go however and make your voyage without regard to their opinion and by the grace of God you will not bring out of it anything but honor and profit We may well imagine that these stirring words of the Prince must have confirmed Gil Eannes in his resolve to efface the stain of his former misadventure And he succeeded in doing so for he passed the dreaded Cape Bojador a great event in the history of African discovery and one that in that day was considered equal to a labor of Hercules Gil Eannes returned to a grateful and most delighted master He informed the Prince that he had landed and that the soil appeared to him unworked and fruitful and like a prudent man he could not tell of foreign plants but had brought some of them home with him in a barrel of the new found earth plants much like those which bear in Portugal the roses of Santa Maria The Prince rejoiced to see them and gave thanks to God as if they had been the fruit and sign of the promised land and besought Our Lady whose name the plants bore that she would guide and set forth the doings in this discovery to the praise and glory of God and to the increase of his holy faith After passing the Cape of Bojador there was a lull in Portuguese discovery the period from 1434 to 1441 being spent in enterprises of very little distinctness or importance Indeed during the latter part of this period the Prince was fully occupied with the affairs of Portugal In 1437 he accompanied the unfortunate expedition to Tangier in which his brother Ferdinand was taken prisoner who afterward ended his days in slavery to the Moor In 1438 King Duarte dying the troubles of the regency occupied Prince Henry s attention In 1441 however there was a voyage which led to very important consequences In that year Antonio Goncalvez master of the robes to Prince Henry was sent out with a vessel to load it with skins of sea wolves a number of them having been seen during a former voyage in the mouth of a river about fifty four leagues beyond Cape Bojador Goncalvez resolved to signalize his voyage by a feat that should gratify his master more than the capture of sea wolves and he accordingly planned and executed successfully an expedition for capturing some Azeneghi Moors in order as he told his companions to take home some of the language of that country Nuno Tristam another of Prince Henry s captains afterward falling in with Goncalvez a further capture of Moors was made and Goncalvez returned to Portugal with his spoil In the same year Prince Henry applied to Pope Martin V praying that his holiness would grant to the Portuguese crown all that it could conquer from Cape Bojador to the Indies together with plenary indulgence for those who should die while engaged in such conquests The Pope granted these requests And now says a Portuguese historian with this apostolic grace with the breath of royal favor and already with the applause of the people the Prince pursued his purpose with more courage and with greater outlay In 1442 the Moors whom Antonio Goncalvez had captured in the previous year promised to give black slaves in ransom for themselves if he would take them back to their own country and the Prince approving of this ordered Goncalvez to set sail immediately insisting as the foundation of the matter that if Goncalvez should not be able to obtain so many negroes as had been mentioned in exchange for the three Moors yet that he should take them for whatever number he should get he would gain souls because the negroes might be converted to the faith which could not be managed with the Moors Goncalvez obtained ten black slaves some gold dust a target of buffalo hide and some ostrich eggs in exchange for two of the Moors and returning with his cargo excited general wonderment on account of the color of the slaves These then we may presume were the first black slaves that had made their appearance in the peninsula since the extinction of the old slavery I am not ignorant that there are reasons for alleging that negroes had before this era been seized and carried to Seville The Ecclesiastical and Secular Annals of that city under the date 1474 record that negro slaves abounded there and that the fifths levied on them produced considerable gains to the royal revenue it is also mentioned that there had been traffic of this kind in the days of Don Enrique III about 1399 but that it had since then fallen into the hands of the Portuguese The chronicler states that the negroes of Seville were treated very kindly from the time of King Enrique being allowed to keep their dances and festivals and that one of them was named mayoral of the rest who protected them against their masters and before the courts of law and also settled their own private quarrels There is a letter from Ferdinand and Isabella in the year 1474 to a celebrated negro Juan de Valladolid commonly called the Negro Count nominating him to this office of mayoral of the negroes which runs thus For the many good loyal and signal services which you have done us and do each day and because we know your sufficiency ability and good disposition we constitute you mayoral and judge of all the negroes and mulattoes free or slaves which are in the very loyal and noble city of Seville and throughout the whole archbishopric thereof and that the said negroes and mulattoes may not hold any festivals nor pleadings among themselves except before you Juan de Valladolid negro our judge and mayoral of the said negroes and mulattoes and we command that you and you only should take cognizance of the disputes pleadings marriages and other things which may take place among them forasmuch as you are a person sufficient for that office and deserving of your power and you know the laws and ordinances which ought to be kept and we are informed that you are of noble lineage among the said negroes But the above merely shows that in the year 1474 there were many negroes in Seville and that laws and ordinances had been made about them These negroes might all however have been imported into Seville since the Portuguese discoveries True it is that in the times of Don Enrique III and during Bethencourt s occupation of the Canary Islands slaves from thence had been brought to France and Spain but these islanders were not negroes and it certainly may be doubted whether any negroes were imported into Seville previous to 1443 Returning to the course of Portuguese affairs a historian of that nation informs us that the gold obtained by Goncalvez awakened as it always does covetousness and there is no doubt that it proved an important stimulus to further discovery The next year Nuno Tristam went farther down the African coast and off Adeget one of the Arguim Islands captured eighty natives whom he brought to Portugal These however were not negroes but Azeneghis The tide of popular opinion was now not merely turned but was rushing in full flow in favor of Prince Henry and his discoveries The discoverers were found to come back rich in slaves and other commodities whereas it was remembered that in former wars and undertakings those who had been engaged in them had generally returned in great distress Strangers too now came from afar scenting the prey A new mode of life as the Portuguese said had been found out and the greater part of the kingdom was moved with a sudden desire to follow this way to Guinea In 1444 a company was formed at Lagos who received permission from the Prince to undertake discovery along the coast of Africa paying him a certain portion of any gains which they might make This has been considered as a company founded for carrying on the slave trade but the evidence is by no means sufficient to show that its founders meant such to be its purpose It might rather be compared to an expedition sent out as we should say in modern times with letters of marque in which however the prizes chiefly hoped for were not ships nor merchandise but men The only thing of any moment however which the expedition accomplished was to attack successfully the inhabitants of the islands Nar and Tider and to bring back about two hundred slaves I grieve to say that there is no evidence of Prince Henry s putting a check to any of these proceedings but on the contrary it appears that he rewarded with large honors Lancarote one of the principal men of

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  • Livingstone's African Discoveries
    pedestrian powers kept remarking Manenko is a soldier and we were all glad when she proposed a halt for the night Shinte received them in his town the largest and best laid out that Livingstone had seen in Central Africa on a sort of throne covered with leopard skin The kotla or place of audience was one hundred yards square Though in the sweating stage of an intermittent fever Livingston held his own with the chief gave him an ox as his mouth was bitter from want of flesh advised him to open a trade in cattle with the Makololo and to put down the slave trade and after spending more than a week with him left amid the warmest professions of friendship Shinte found him a guide of his tribe Intemese by name who was to stay by them till they reached the sea and at a last interview hung round his neck a conical shell of such value that two of them so his men assured him would purchase a slave Soon they were out of Shinte s territory and Intemese became the plague of the party though unluckily they could not dispense with him altogether in crossing the great flooded plains of Lebala They camped at night on mounds where they had to trench round each hut and use the earth to raise their sleeping places My men turned out to work most willingly and I could not but contrast their conduct with that of Intemese who was thoroughly imbued with the slave spirit and lied on all occasions to save himself trouble He lost the pontoon too thereby adding greatly to their troubles They now came to the territory of another great chief Katema who received them hospitably sending food and giving them solemn audience in his kotla surrounded by his tribe A tall man of forty dressed in a snuff brown coat with a broad band of tinsel down the arms and a helmet of beads and feathers He carried a large fan with charms attached which he waved constantly during the audience often laughing heartily a good sign for a man who shakes his sides with mirth is seldom difficult to deal with I am the great Moene Katema was his address I and my fathers have always lived here and there is my father s house I never killed any of the traders they all come to me I am the great Moene Katema of whom you have heard On hearing Livingstone s object he gave him three guides who would take him by a northern route along which no traders had passed to avoid the plains impassable from the floods He accepted Livingstone s present of a shawl a razor some beads and buttons and a powder horn graciously laughing at his apologies for its smallness and asking him to bring a coat from Loanda as the one he was wearing was old From this point troubles multiplied and they began to be seriously pressed for food The big game had disappeared and they were glad to catch moles and mice Every chief demanded a present for allowing them to pass and the people of the villages charged exorbitantly for all supplies On they floundered however through flooded forests In crossing the river Loka Livingstone s ox got away from him and he had to strike out for the farther bank My poor fellows were dreadfully alarmed and about twenty of them made a simultaneous rush into the water for my rescue and just as I reached the opposite bank one seized me by the arms and another clasped me round the body When I stood up it was most gratifying to see them all struggling toward me Part of my goods were brought up from the bottom when I was safe Great was their pleasure when they found I could swim like themselves and I felt most grateful to those poor heathens for the promptitude with which they dashed in to my rescue Farther on the people tried to frighten them with the account of the deep rivers they had yet to cross but his men laughed We can all swim they said who carried the white man across the river but himself I felt proud of their praise On March 4th they reached the country of the Chiboques a tribe in constant contact with the slave dealers Next day their camp was surrounded by the nearest chief and his warriors evidently bent on plunder They paused when they saw Livingstone seated on his camp stool with his double barrelled gun across his knees and his Makololos ready with their javelins The chief and his principal men sat down in front at Livingstone s invitation to talk over the matter and a palaver began as to the fine claimed by the Chiboque The more I yielded the more unreasonable they became and at every fresh demand a shout was raised and a rush made round us with brandished weapons One young man even made a charge at my head from behind but I quickly brought round the muzzle of my gun to his mouth and he retreated My men behaved with admirable coolness The chief and his counsellors by accepting my invitation to be seated had placed themselves in a trap for my men had quietly surrounded them and made them feel that there was no chance of escaping their spears I then said that as everything had failed to satisfy them they evidently meant to fight and if so they must begin and bear the blame before God I then sat silent for some time It was certainly rather trying but I was careful not to seem flurried and having four barrels ready for instant action looked quietly at the savage scene around The palaver began again and ended in the exchange of an ox for a promise of food in which he was wofully cheated It was impossible to

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/LIVING.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Mamelukes Usurp Power In Egypt
    Amalrich both turned a longing eye toward Egypt where in the decrepitude of the Fatimites dissension and misrule prevailed The Caliph in alarm sought aid first from one and then from the other and each in turn entered Egypt ostensibly for its defence but in reality for its possession A friendly treaty was at last concluded with both but it was broken by Amalrich who invaded the country and demanded a heavy ransom In this extremity the Caliph again appealed to Nureddin sending locks of his ladies hair in token of alarm Glad of the opportunity Nureddin despatched his general Shirkoh to the rescue before whom Amalrich crestfallen retired Shirkoh having thus delivered the Caliph gained his favor and as vizier assumed the administration Soon after he died and his nephew Saladin succeeded to the vizierate The following year the Caliph also died and now Saladin who had by vigorous measures put down all opposition himself as sultan took possession of the throne Thus the Fatimite dynasty which had for two centuries ruled over Egypt came to an end Saladin was son of a Kurdish chief called Eyyub and hence the dynasty is termed Eyyubite His capital was Cairo He fortified the city using the little pyramid for material and abandoning the luxurious palace of the Fatimites laid the foundations of the Citadel on the nearest crest of the Mokattam range and to it transferred his residence After a prosperous rule over Egypt and Syria of above twenty years he died and his numerous family fell into dissension At last his brother Adlil gaining the ascendency achieved a splendid reign not only at home but also in the East from Georgia to Aden He died of grief at the taking of Damietta by the crusaders and his grandson Eyyub succeeded to the throne It was now that the Charizmian hordes fell upon Syria and with horrible atrocities sacked the holy city Forming an alliance with these barbarians the Sultan sent the mameluke general Beibars to join them against his uncle the Syrian prince Ismail between whom and the crusaders an unholy union had prevailed Near Joppa the combined army of Franks and Moslems met at the hands of Beibars and the eastern hordes with a bloody overthrow and thus all Syria again fell under Egypt To establish his power both at home and abroad the Sultan bought vast numbers of Turkish mamelukes and it was he who first established them as Baharites on the Nile His son Turan was the last Eyyubite sultan In his reign Louis IX of France invaded Egypt and advancing upon Cairo was defeated and taken prisoner Turan allowed him to go free and for this act of kindness as well as for attempts to curb their outlawry he was pursued and slain by the Baharite mamelukes who thereupon seized the government The leading mamelukes chose one of themselves the emir Eibek to be head of the administration He contended himself at first to govern in

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  • The Spread Of Peoples And Civilizations, New Zealand
    the fortieth paral el toward the South Pole Consequently Maori tribes numbering in the thousands warred over control of the forests and croplands on the north island Long before the arrival of the Europeans tribal territories with clearly defined boundaries had been established throughout most of the north island Maori Culture And Society Maori tribes were given the names of the semimythical canoes that were believed to have carried their ancestors to the islands Each tribe was divided into subgroups called hapu the primary unit of identity and community Within hapu villages the Maori lived in extended families which included up to five generations in large elaborately carved wooden houses All the land the Maoris farmed for their subsistence was owned by the hapu village and allotted by a communal council to each of the extended families for their support Each hapu was led by a male chief who was not a specialized political leader but rather a particularly skillful warrior Chieftainships were hereditary although weak leaders were soon displaced by more able warriors Despite the magical aura associated with the hapu and tribal chieftains their actual power was limited by village and tribal councils made up of the free males of a given group Virtually all hapu communities also included slaves who were usually prisoners of war or their descendants Though they had a s rong voice within the family women were clearly subordinated to men Male dominance was evidenced by the monopoly they enjoyed with regard to positions of leadership and to highly prestigious activities such as making war and wood carving Maori society had not reached the level of development where full time specialists could be supported but many kinds of religious and craft experts were recognized Several kinds of priests varied according to social status and functions The most esteemed were the chiefs who were also trained as priests The chief priest presided over communal ceremonies and knew the special prayers designed to protect the tribe or hapu from human or supernatural enemies The Maori world was alive with spirits gods and goddesses who intervened constantly in human affairs At the other end of the social scale were shamans who specialized in healing and served as the mediums by which gods and spirits made their desires known to humans A Society Oriented To War In addition to priests there was a wide variety of experts in Maori society ranging from those who built canoes and made the ornate wood carvings that decorated Maori homes to those who tattooed the men s faces thighs and buttocks and women s lips and chins The most important experts however were those with skills relating to making war Maori society was obsessed with war During the appropriate season tribes and hapus fought regularly with their neighbors or distant confederations Young males proved their worth as warriors and leaders could not long maintain their positions without demonstrating their martial prowess Much of the time and energy of Maori males was devoted

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  • Agriculture And The Origins Of Civilization:
    legumes such as peas and beans various fruits and olives the effort they expended on activities outside agriculture diminished It is probable that the earliest farmers broadcast wild seeds a practice that cut down on labor but sharply reduced the potential yield Over the centuries more and more care was taken to select the best grain for seed and to mix different strains in ways that improved both crop yields and resistance to plant diseases As the time required to tend growing plants and the dependence on agricultural production for subsistence increased some roving bands chose to settle down while others practiced a mix of hunting and shifting cultivation that allowed them to continue to move about Though several animals may have been domesticated before the discovery of agriculture the two processes combined to make up the critical transformation in human culture called the Neolithic New Stone Age revolution Different animal species were tamed in different ways that reflected both their own natures and the ways in which they interacted with humans Dogs for example were originally wolves that hunted humans or scavenged at their campsites As early as 12 000 B C Stone Age peoples found that wolf pups could be tamed and trained to track and corner game The strains of dogs that gradually developed proved adept at controlling herd animals like sheep Relatively docile and defenseless herds of sheep could be controlled once their leaders had been captured and tamed Sheep goats and pigs which also were scavengers at human campsites were first domesticated in the Middle East between 8500 and 7000 B C Horned cattle which were faster and better able to defend themselves than wild sheep were not tamed until about 6500 B C The central place of bull and cattle symbolism in the sacrificial and fertility cults of many early peoples has led some archeologists to argue that their domestication was originally motivated by religious sentiments rather than a desire for new sources of food and clothing Domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep provided New Stone Age humans with additional sources of protein rich meat and in some cases milk Animal hides and wool greatly expanded the materials from which clothes containers shelters and crude boats could be crafted Animal horns and bones could be carved or used for needles and other utensils Because plows and wheels did not come into use until the Bronze Age c 4000 3500 B C most Neolithic peoples made little use of animal power for farming transportation or travel There is evidence however that peoples in northern areas used tamed reindeer to pull sledges and those farther South used camels for transporting goods More importantly the Neolithic peoples used domesticated herd animals as a steady source of manure to enrich the soil and thus improve the yield of the crops that were gradually becoming the basis of their livelihood The Spread Of The Neolithic Revolution The greater labor involved in cultivation and the fact that it did

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