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  • Martin Luther, 95 Theses
    True contrition seeks and loves penalties but liberal pardons only relax penalties and cause them to be hated or at least furnish an occasion for hating them 41 Apostolic pardons are to be preached with caution lest the people may falsely think them preferable to other good works of love 42 Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend the buying of pardons to be compared in any way to works of mercy 43 Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons 44 Because love grows by works of love and man becomes better but by pardons man does not grow better only more free from penalty 45 Christians are to be taught that he who sees a man in need and passes him by and gives his money for pardons purchases not the indulgences of the pope but the indignation of God 46 Christians are to be taught that unless they have more than they need they are bound to keep back what is necessary for their own families and by no means to squander it on pardons 47 Christians are to be taught that the buying of pardons is a matter of free will and not of commandment 48 Christians are to be taught that the pope in granting pardons needs and therefore desires their devout prayer for him more than the money they bring 49 Christians are to be taught that the pope s pardons are useful if they do not put their trust in them but altogether harmful if through them they lose their fear of God 50 Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the pardon preachers he would rather that St Peter s church should go to ashes than that it should be built up with the skin flesh and bones of his sheep 51 Christians are to be taught that it would be the pope s wish as it is his duty to give of his own money to very many of those from whom certain hawkers of pardons cajole money even though the church of St Peter might have to be sold 52 The assurance of salvation by letters of pardon is vain even though the commissary nay even though the pope himself were to stake his soul upon it 53 They are enemies of Christ and of the pope who bid the Word of God be altogether silent in some Churches in order that pardons may be preached in others 54 Injury is done the Word of God when in the same sermon an equal or a longer time is spent on pardons than on this Word 55 It must be the intention of the pope that if pardons which are a very small thing are celebrated with one bell with single processions and ceremonies then the Gospel which is the very greatest thing should be

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/Martin%20Luthur,%2095%20Theses.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • The Mayflower Compact
    for the Glory of God and Advancement of the Christian Faith and the Honour of our King and Country a Voyage to plant the first Colony in the northern Parts of Virginia Do by these Presents solemnly and mutually in the Presence of God and one another covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick for our better Ordering and Preservation and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid And by Virtue hereof do enact constitute and frame such just and equal Laws Ordinances Acts Constitutions and Officers from time to time as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general Good of the Colony unto which we promise all due Submission and Obedience IN WITNESS whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cape Cod the eleventh of November in the Reign of our Sovereign Lord King James of England France and Ireland the eighteenth and of Scotland the fifty fourth Anno Domini 1620 Mr John Carver Mr William Bradford Mr Edward Winslow Mr William Brewster Isaac Allerton Myles Standish John Alden John Turner Francis Eaton James Chilton John Craxton John Billington Joses Fletcher John Goodman Mr Samuel Fuller Mr Christopher Martin Mr William Mullins Mr William

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/mayflower_compact.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Give Me Liberty Or Give Me Death
    has been in the conduct of the British ministry for the last ten years to justify those hopes with which gentlemen have been pleased to solace themselves and the House Is it that insidious smile with which our petition has been lately received Trust it not sir it will prove a snare to your feet Suffer not yourselves to be betrayed with a kiss Ask yourselves how this gracious reception of our petition comports with those warlike preparations which cover our waters and darken our land Are fleets and armies necessary to a work of love and reconciliation Have we shown ourselves so unwilling to be reconciled that force must be called in to win back our love Let us not deceive ourselves sir These are the implements of war and subjugation the last arguments to which kings resort I ask gentlemen sir what means this martial array if its purpose be not to force us to submission Can gentlemen assign any other possible motive for it Has Great Britain any enemy in this quarter of the world to call for all this accumulation of navies and armies No sir she has none They are meant for us they can be meant for no other They are sent over to bind and rivet upon us those chains which the British ministry have been so long forging And what have we to oppose to them Shall we try argument Sir we have been trying that for the last ten years Have we anything new to offer upon the subject Nothing We have held the subject up in every light of which it is capable but it has been all in vain Shall we resort to entreaty and humble supplication What terms shall we find which have not been already exhausted Let us not I beseech you sir deceive ourselves Sir we have done everything that could be done to avert the storm which is now coming on We have petitioned we have remonstrated we have supplicated we have prostrated ourselves before the throne and have implored its interposition to arrest the tyrannical hands of the ministry and Parliament Our petitions have been slighted our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult our supplications have been disregarded and we have been spurned with contempt from the foot of the throne In vain after these things may we indulge the fond hope of peace and reconciliation There is no longer any room for hope If we wish to be free if we mean to preserve inviolate those inestimable privileges for which we have been so long contending if we mean not basely to abandon the noble struggle in which we have been so long engaged and which we have pledged ourselves never to abandon until the glorious object of our contest shall be obtained we must fight I repeat it sir we must fight An appeal to arms and to the God of hosts is all that is left us They tell us

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/pathenry.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Resolutions of the Stamp Act Congress  October 19
    of his natural born subjects within the kingdom of Great Britain That it is inseparably essential to the freedom of a people and the undoubted right of Englishmen that no taxes be imposed on them but with their own consent given personally or by their representatives That the people of these colonies are not and from their local circumstances cannot be represented in the House of Commons in Great Britain That the only representatives of the people of these colonies are persons chosen therein by themselves and that no taxes ever have been or can be constitutionally imposed on them but by their respective legislatures That all supplies to the Crown being free gifts of the people it is unreasonable and inconsistent with the principles and spirit of the British Constitution for the people of Great Britain to grant to His Majesty the property of the colonists That trial by jury is the inherent and invaluable right of every British subject in these colonies That the late Act of Parliament entitled An Act for granting and applying certain Stamp Duties and other Duties in the British colonies and plantations in America etc by imposing taxes on the inhabitants of these colonies and the said Act and several other Acts by extending the jurisdiction of the courts of Admiralty beyond its ancient limits have a manifest tendency to subvert the rights and liberties of the colonists That the duties imposed by several late Acts of Parliament from the peculiar circumstances of these colonies will be extremely burthensome and grievous and from the scarcity of specie the payment of them absolutely impracticable That as the profits of the trade of these colonies ultimately center in Great Britain to pay for the manufactures which they are obliged to take from thence they eventually

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/resolutions_of_the_stamp_act_con.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • The Paris Peace Treaty of 1783
    it and the Lake of the Woods to the said Lake of the Woods thence through the said lake to the most northwesternmost point thereof and from thence on a due west course to the river Mississippi thence by a line to be drawn along the middle of the said river Mississippi until it shall intersect the northernmost part of the thirty first degree of north latitude South by a line to be drawn due east from the determination of the line last mentioned in the latitude of thirty one degrees of the equator to the middle of the river Apalachicola or Catahouche thence along the middle thereof to its junction with the Flint River thence straight to the head of Saint Mary s River and thence down along the middle of Saint Mary s River to the Atlantic Ocean east by a line to be drawn along the middle of the river Saint Croix from its mouth in the Bay of Fundy to its source and from its source directly north to the aforesaid highlands which divide the rivers that fall into the Atlantic Ocean from those which fall into the river Saint Lawrence comprehending all islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States and lying between lines to be drawn due east from the points where the aforesaid boundaries between Nova Scotia on the one part and East Florida on the other shall respectively touch the Bay of Fundy and the Atlantic Ocean excepting such islands as now are or heretofore have been within the limits of the said province of Nova Scotia Article 3 It is agreed that the people of the United States shall continue to enjoy unmolested the right to take fish of every kind on the Grand Bank and on all the other banks of Newfoundland also in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and at all other places in the sea where the inhabitants of both countries used at any time heretofore to fish And also that the inhabitants of the United States shall have liberty to take fish of every kind on such part of the coast of Newfoundland as British fishermen shall use but not to dry or cure the same on that island and also on the coasts bays and creeks of all other of his Brittanic Majesty s dominions in America and that the American fishermen shall have liberty to dry and cure fish in any of the unsettled bays harbors and creeks of Nova Scotia Magdalen Islands and Labrador so long as the same shall remain unsettled but so soon as the same or either of them shall be settled it shall not be lawful for the said fishermen to dry or cure fish at such settlement without a previous agreement for that purpose with the inhabitants proprietors or possessors of the ground Article 4 It is agreed that creditors on either side shall meet with no lawful impediment to the recovery of

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/paris_peace_treaty_of_1784.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Treaty of Westphalia
    immediately demonstrated shall not be esteem d wholly void but that the Effect shall be suspended until the Acts of Justice if one of the Partys demand the space of six months after the Publication of the Peace for the reviewing of his Process be review d and weigh d in a proper Court and according to the ordinary or extraordinary Forms us d in the Empire to the end that the former Judgments may be confirm d amended or quite eras d in case of Nullity XLII In the like manner if any Royal or particular Fiefs have not been renew d since the Year 1618 nor Homage paid to whom it belongs the same shall bring no prejudice and the Investiture shall be renew d the day the Peace shall be concluded XLIII Finally That all and each of the Officers as well Military Men as Counsellors and Gownmen and Ecclesiasticks of what degree they may be who have serv d the one or other Party among the Allies or among their Adherents let it be in the Gown or with the Sword from the highest to the lowest without any distinction or exception with their Wives Children Heirs Successors Servants as well concerning their Lives as Estates shall be restor d by all Partys in the State of Life Honour Renown Liberty of Conscience Rights and Privileges which they enjoy d before the abovesaid Disorders that no prejudice shall be done to their Effects and Persons that no Action or accusation shall be enter d against them and that further no Punishment be inflicted on them or they to bear any damage under what pretence soever And all this shall have its full effect in respect to those who are not Subjects or Vassals of his Imperial Majesty or of the House of Austria XLIV But for those who are Subjects and Hereditary Vassals of the Emperor and of the House of Austria they shall really have the benefit of the Amnesty as for their Persons Life Reputation Honours and they may return with Safety to their former Country but they shall be oblig d to conform and submit themselves to the Laws of the Realms or particular Provinces they shall belong to XLV As to their Estates that have been lost by Confiscation or otherways before they took the part of the Crown of France or of Swedeland notwithstanding the Plenipotentiarys of Swedeland have made long instances they may be also restor d Nevertheless his Imperial Majesty being to receive Law from none and the Imperialists sticking close thereto it has not been thought convenient by the States of the Empire that for such a Subject the War should be continu d And that thus those who have lost their Effects as aforesaid cannot recover them to the prejudice of their last Masters and Possessors But the Estates which have been taken away by reason of Arms taken for France or Swedeland against the Emperor and the House of Austria they shall be restor d in the State they are found and that without any Compensation for Profit or Damage XLVI As for the rest Law and Justice shall be administer d in Bohemia and in all the other Hereditary Provinces of the Emperor without any respect as to the Catholicks so also to the Subjects Creditors Heirs or private Persons who shall be of the Confession of Augsburg if they have any Pretensions and enter or prosecute any Actions to obtain Justice XLVII But from this general Restitution shall be exempted things which cannot be restor d as Things movable and moving Fruits gather d Things alienated by the Authority of the Chiefs of the Party Things destroy d ruin d and converted to other uses for the publick Security as publick and particular Buildings whether sacred or profane publick or private Gages which have been by surprize of the Enemys pillag d confiscated lawfully sold or voluntarily bestow d XLVIII And as to the Affair of the Succession of Juliers those concern d if a course be not taken about it may one day cause great Troubles in the Empire about it it has been agreed That the Peace being concluded it shall be terminated without any Delay either by ordinary means before his Imperial Majesty or by a friendly Composition or some other lawful ways XLIX And since for the greater Tranquillity of the Empire in its general Assemblys of Peace a certain Agreement has been made between the Emperor Princes and States of the Empire which has been inserted in the Instrument and Treaty of Peace concluded with the Plenipotentiarys of the Queen and Crown of Swedeland touching the Differences about Ecclesiastical Lands and the Liberty of the Exercise of Religion it has been found expedient to confirm and ratify it by this present Treaty in the same manner as the abovesaid Agreement has been made with the said Crown of Swedeland also with those call d the Reformed in the same manner as if the words of the abovesaid Instrument were reported here verbatim L Touching the Affair of Hesse Cassel it has been agreed as follows In the first place The House of Hesse Cassel and all its Princes chiefly Madam Emelie Elizabeth Landgravine of Hesse and her Son Monsieur William and his Heirs his Ministers Officers Vassals Subjects Soldiers and others who follow his Service in any manner soever without any Exception notwithstanding Contracts to the contrary Processes Proscriptions Declarations Sentences Executions and Transactions as also notwithstanding any Actions and Pretensions for Damages and Injuries as well from Neutrals as from those who were in Arms annull d by the General Amnesty here before establish d and to take place from the beginning of the War in Bohemia with a full Restitution except the Vassals and Hereditary Subjects of his Imperial Majesty and the House of Austria as is laid down in the Paragraph Tandemomnes c shall partake of all the Advantages redounding from this Peace with the same Rights other States enjoy as is set forth in the Article which commences Unanimi c LI In the second place the House of Hesse Cassel and its Successors shall retain and for this purpose shall demand at any time and when it shall be expir d the Investiture of his Imperial Majesty and shall take the Oath of Fidelity for the Abby of Hitsfield with all its Dependencys as well Secular as Ecclesiastical situated within or without his Territorys as the Deanery of Gellingen saving nevertheless the Rights possess d by the House of Saxony time out of mind LII In the third place the Right of a direct Signiory over the Jurisdictions and Bayliwick of Schaumburg Buckenburg Saxenhagen and Stattenhagen given heretofore and adjudged to the Bishoprick of Mindau shall for the future belong unto Monsieur William the present Landgrave of Hesse and his Successors in full Possession and for ever so as that the said Bishop and no other shall be capable of molesting him saving nevertheless the Agreement made between Christian Lewis Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg and the Landgravine of Hesse and Philip Count of Lippe as also the Agreement made between the said Landgravine and the said Count LIII It has been further agreed That for the Restitution of Places possess d during this War and for the Indemnity of Madam the Landgravine of Hesse who is the Guardian the Sum of Six Hundred Thousand Rixdollars shall be given to her and her Son or his Successors Princes of Hesse to be had from the Archbishopricks of Mayence and Cologne from the Bishopricks of Paderborn and Munster and the Abby of Fulden which Sum shall be paid at Cassel in the term of eight Months to reckon from the Day of the Ratification of the Peace at the peril and charge of the Solvent and no Exception shall be used to evade this promis d Payment on any Pretence much less shall any Seizure be made of the Sum agreed on LIV And to the end that Madam the Landgravine may be so much the more assur d of the Payment she shall retain on the Conditions following Nuys Cuesfeldt and Newhaus and shall keep Garisons in those Places which shall depend on her alone but with this Limitation That besides the Officers and other necessary Persons in the Garisons those of the three above nam d Places shall not exceed the number of Twelve Hundred Foot and a Hundred Horse leaving to Madam the Landgravine the Disposition of the number of Horse and Foot she shall be pleas d to put in each of these Places and whom she will constitute Governor LV The Garisons shall be maintain d according to the Order which has been hitherto usually practis d for the Maintenance of the Hessian Soldiers and Officers and the things necessary for the keeping of the Forts shall be furnish d by the Arch bishopricks and Bishopricks in which the said Fortresses are situated without any Diminution of the Sum above mention d It shall be allow d the Garisons to exact the Money of those who shall retard Payment too long or who shall be refractory but not any more than what is due The Rights of Superiority and Jurisdiction as well Ecclesiastical as Secular and the Revenues of the said Castles and Towns shall remain in the Arch bishop of Cologne LVI As soon as after the Ratification of Peace Three Hundred Thousand Rixdollars shall be paid to Madam the Landgravine she shall give up Nuys and shall only retain Cuesfeldt and Newhaus but yet so as that the Garison of Nuys shall not be thrown into the other two Places nor nothing demanded on that account and the Garisons of Cuesfeldt shall not exceed the Number of Six Hundred Foot and Fifty Horse That if within the term of nine Months the whole Sum be not paid to Madam the Landgravine not only Cuesfeldt and Newhaus shall remain in her Hands till the full Payment but also for the remainder she shall be paid Interest at Five per Cent and the Treasurers and Collectors of the Bayliwicks appertaining to the abovesaid Arch bishopricks Bishopricks and Abby bordering on the Principality of Hesse shall oblige themselves by Oath to Madam the Landgravine that out of the annual Revenues they shall yearly pay the Interest of the remaining Sum notwithstanding the Prohibitions of their Masters If the Treasurers and Collectors delay the Payment or alienate the Revenues Madam the Landgravine shall have liberty to constrain them to pay by all sorts of means always saving the Right of the Lord Proprietor of the Territory LVII But as soon as Madam the Landgravine has receiv d the full Sum with all the Interest she shall surrender the said Places which she retain d for her Security the Payments shall cease and the Treasurers and Collectors of which mention has been made shall be freed from their Oath As for the Bayliwicks the Revenues of which shall be assign d for the Payment of the Sum that shall be adjusted before the Ratification of the Peace and that Convention shall be of no less Force than this present Treaty of Peace LVIII Besides the Places of Surety which shall be left as aforesaid to Madam the Landgravine which she shall restore after the Payment she shall restore after the Ratification of the Peace all the Provinces and Bishopricks as also all their Citys Bayliwicks Boroughs Fortresses Forts and in one word all immoveable Goods and all Rights seiz d by her during this War So nevertheless that as well in the three Places she shall retain as Cautionary as the others to be restor d the said Lady Landgravine not only shall cause to be convey d away all the Provisions and Ammunitions of War she has put therein for as to those she has not sent thither and what was found there at the taking of them and are there still they shall continue but also the Fortifications and Ramparts rais d during the Possession of the Places shall be destroy d and demolish d as much as possible without exposing the Towns Borroughs Castles and Fortresses to Invasions and Robberys LIX And tho Madam the Landgravine has only demanded Restitution and Reparation of the Arch bishopricks of Mayence Cologne Paderborn Munster and the Abby of Fulden and has not insisted that any besides should contribute any thing for this Purpose nevertheless the Assembly have thought fit according to the Equity and Circumstances of Affairs that without prejudice to the Contents of the preceding Paragraph which begins Conventum praterea est c IT HAS BEEN FURTHER AGREED the other States also on this and the other side the Rhine and who since the first of March of this present Year have paid Contributions to the Hessians shall bear their Proportion pro Rata of their preceding Contributions to make up the said Sum with the Arch bishopricks Bishopricks and Abby above named and forward the Payments of the Garisons of the Cautionary Towns If any has suffer d Damage by the delay of others who are to pay their share the Officers or Soldiers of his Imperial Majesty of the most Christian King and of the Landgravine of Hesse shall not hinder the forcing of those who have been tardy and the Hessian Soldiers shall not pretend to except any from this Constraint to the prejudice of this Declaration but those who have duly paid their Proportion shall thereby be freed from all Charges LX As to the Differences arisen between the Houses of Hesse Cassel and of Darmstadt touching the Succession of Marburg since they have been adjusted at Cassel the 14th of April the preceding Year by the mutual Consent of the Interested Partys it has been thought good that that Transaction with all its Clauses as concluded and sign d at Cassel by both Partys should be intimated to this Assembly and that by virtue of this present Treaty it shall be of the same force as if inserted word by word and the same shall never be infring d by the Partys nor any other whatsoever under any pretence either by Contract Oath or otherways but ought to be most exactly kept by all tho perhaps some of the Partys concern d may refuse to confirm it LXI As also the Transaction between the Deceas d monsieur William Landgrave of Hesse and Messieurs Christian and Wolrad Counts of Waldeck made the 11th of April 1635 and ratify d to Monsieur George Landgrave of Hesse the 14th of April 1648 shall no less obtain a full and perpetual force by virtue of this Pacification and shall no less bind all the Princes of Hesse and all the Counts of Waldeck LXII That the Birth right introduc d in the House of Hesse Cassel and in that of Darmstadt and confirm d by His Imperial Majesty shall continue and be kept firm and inviolable LXIII And as His Imperial Majesty upon Complaints made in the name of the City of Basle and of all Switzerland in the presence of their Plenipotentiarys deputed to the present Assembly touching some Procedures and Executions proceeding from the Imperial Chamber against the said City and the other united Cantons of the Swiss Country and their Citizens and Subjects having demanded the Advice of the States of the Empire and their Council these have by a Decree of the 14th of May of the last Year declared the said City of Basle and the other Swiss Cantons to be as it were in possession of their full Liberty and Exemption of the Empire so that they are no ways subject to the Judicatures or Judgments of the Empire and it was thought convenient to insert the same in this Treaty of Peace and confirm it and thereby to make void and annul all such Procedures and Arrests given on this Account in what form soever LXIV And to prevent for the future any Differences arising in the Politick State all and every one of the Electors Princes and States of the Roman Empire are so establish d and confirm d in their antient Rights Prerogatives Libertys Privileges free exercise of Territorial Right as well Ecclesiastick as Politick Lordships Regales by virtue of this present Transaction that they never can or ought to be molested therein by any whomsoever upon any manner of pretence LXV They shall enjoy without contradiction the Right of Suffrage in all Deliberations touching the Affairs of the Empire but above all when the Business in hand shall be the making or interpreting of Laws the declaring of Wars imposing of Taxes levying or quartering of Soldiers erecting new Fortifications in the Territorys of the States or reinforcing the old Garisons as also when a Peace of Alliance is to be concluded and treated about or the like none of these or the like things shall be acted for the future without the Suffrage and Consent of the Free Assembly of all the States of the Empire Above all it shall be free perpetually to each of the States of the Empire to make Alliances with Strangers for their Preservation and Safety provided nevertheless such Alliances be not against the Emperor and the Empire nor against the Publick Peace and this Treaty and without prejudice to the Oath by which every one is bound to the Emperor and the Empire LXVI That the Diets of the Empire shall be held within six Months after the Ratification of the Peace and after that time as often as the Publick Utility or Necessity requires That in the first Diet the Defects of precedent Assemblys be chiefly remedy d and that then also be treated and settled by common Consent of the States the Form and Election of the Kings of the Romans by a Form and certain Imperial Resolution the Manner and Order which is to be observ d for declaring one or more States to be within the Territorys of the Empire besides the Manner otherways describ d in the Constitutions of the Empire that they consider also of re establishing the Circles the renewing the Matricular Book the re establishing suppress d States the moderating and lessening the Collects of the Empire Reformation of Justice and Policy the taxing of Fees in the Chamber of Justice the Due and requisite instructing of ordinary Deputys for the Advantage of the Publick the true Office of Directors in the Colleges of the Empire and such other Business as could not be here expedited LXVII That as well as general as particular Diets the free Towns and other States of the Empire shall have decisive Votes they shall without molestation keep their Regales Customs annual Revenues Libertys Privileges to confiscate to raise Taxes and other Rights lawfully obtain d from the Emperor and Empire or enjoy d long before these Commotions with a full Jurisdiction within the inclosure of their Walls and their Territorys making void at the same time annulling and for the future prohibiting all Things which by Reprisals Arrests stopping of Passages and other prejudicial Acts either during the War under what pretext soever they have been done and attempted hitherto by private Authority or may hereafter without any preceding formality of Right be enterpris d As for the rest all laudable Customs of the sacred Roman Empire the fundamental Constitutions and Laws shall for the future be strictly observ d all the Confusions which time of War have or could introduce being remov d and laid aside LXVIII As for the finding out of equitable and expedient means whereby the Prosecution of Actions against Debtors ruin d by the Calamitys of the War or charg d with too great Interests and whereby these Matters may be terminated with moderation to obviate greater inconveniences which might arise and to provide for the publick Tranquillity His Imperial Majesty shall take care to hearken as well to the Advices of his Privy Council as of the Imperial Chamber and the States which are to be assembled to the end that certain firm and invariable Constitutions may be made about this Matter And in the mean time the alledg d Reasons and Circumstances of the Partys shall be well weigh d in Cases brought before the Sovereign Courts of the Empire or Subordinate ones of States and no body shall be oppress d by immoderate Executions and ail this without prejudice to the Constitution of Holstein LXIX And since it much concerns the Publick that upon the Conclusion of the Peace Commerce be re establish d for that end it has been agreed that the Tolls Customs as also the Abuses of the Bull of Brabant and the Reprisals and Arrests which proceeded from thence together with foreign Certifications Exactions Detensions Item The immoderate Expences and Charges of Posts and other Obstacles to Commerce and Navigation introduc d to its Prejudice contrary to the Publick Benefit here and there in the Empire on occasion of the War and of late by a private Authority against its Rights and Privileges without the Emperor s and Princes of the Empire s consent shall be fully remov d and the antient Security Jurisdiction and Custom such as have been long before these Wars in use shall be re establish d and inviolably maintain d in the Provinces Ports and Rivers LXX The Rights and Privileges of Territorys water d by Rivers or otherways as Customs granted by the Emperor with the Consent of the Electors and among others to the Count of Oldenburg on the Viserg and introduc d by a long Usage shall remain in their Vigour and Execution There shall be a full Liberty of Commerce a secure Passage by Sea and Land and after this manner all and every one of the Vassals Subjects Inhabitants and Servants of the Allys on the one side and the other shall have full power to go and come to trade and return back by Virtue of this present Article after the same manner as was allowed before the Troubles of Germany the Magistrates on the one side and on the other shall be oblig d to protect and defend them against all sorts of Oppressions equally with their own Subjects without prejudice to the other Articles of this Convention and the particular laws and Rights of each place And that the said Peace and Amity between the Emperor and the Most Christian King may be the more corroborated and the publick Safety provided for it has been agreed with the Consent Advice and Will of the Electors Princes and States of the Empire for the Benefit of Peace LXXI First That the chief Dominion Right of Sovereignty and all other Rights upon the Bishopricks of Metz Toul and Verdun and on the Citys of that Name and their Diocesses particularly on Mayenvick in the same manner they formerly belong d to the Emperor shall for the future appertain to the Crown of France and shall be irrevocably incorporated therewith for ever saving the Right of the Metropolitan which belongs to the Archbishop of Treves LXXII That Monsieur Francis Duke of Lorain shall be restor d to the possession of the Bishoprick of Verdun as being the lawful Bishop thereof and shall be left in the peaceable Administration of this Bishoprick and its Abbys saving the Right of the King and of particular Persons and shall enjoy his Patrimonial Estates and his other Rights wherever they may be situated and as far as they do not contradict the present Resignation his Privileges Revenues and Incomes having previously taken the Oath of Fidelity to the King and provided he undertakes nothing against the Good of the State and the Service of his Majesty LXXIII In the second place the Emperor and Empire resign and transfer to the most Christian King and his Successors the Right of direct Lordship and Sovereignty and all that has belong d or might hitherto belong to him or the sacred Roman Empire upon Pignerol LXXIV In the third place the Emperor as well in his own behalf as the behalf of the whole most Serene House of Austria as also of the Empire resigns all Rights Propertys Domains Possessions and Jurisdictions which have hitherto belong d either to him or the Empire and the Family of Austria over the City of Brisac the Landgraveship of Upper and Lower Alsatia Suntgau and the Provincial Lordship of ten Imperial Citys situated in Alsatia viz Haguenau Calmer Sclestadt Weisemburg Landau Oberenheim Rosheim Munster in the Valley of St Gregory Keyerberg Turingham and of all the villages or other Rights which depend on the said Mayoralty all and every of them are made over to the most Christian King and the Kingdom of France in the same manner as the City of Brisac with the Villages of Hochstet Niederrimsing Hartem and Acharren appertaining to the Commonalty of Brisac with all the antient Territory and Dependence without any prejudice nevertheless to the Priviliges and Libertys granted the said Town formerly by the House of Austria LXXV Item The said Landgraveship of the one and the other Alsatia and Suntgau as also the Provincial Mayoralty on the ten Citys nominated and their Dependencys LXXVI Item All the Vassals Subjects People Towns Boroughs Castles Houses Fortresses Woods Coppices Gold or Silver Mines Minerals Rivers Brooks Pastures and in a word all the Rights Regales and Appurtenances without any reserve shall belong to the most Christian King and shall be for ever incorporated with the Kingdom France with all manner of Jurisdiction and Sovereignty without any contradiction from the Emperor the Empire House of Austria or any other so that no Emperor or any Prince of the House of Austria shall or ever ought to usurp nor so much as pretend any Right and Power over the said Countrys as well on this as the other side the Rhine LXXVII The most Christian King shall nevertheless be oblig d to preserve in all and every one of these Countrys the Catholick Religion as maintain d under the Princes of Austria and to abolish all Innovations crept in during the War LXXVIII Fourthly By the Consent of the Emperor and the whole Empire the most Christian King and his Successors shall have perpetual Right to keep a Garison in the Castle of Philipsburg but limited to such a number of Soldiers as may not be capable to give any Umbrage or just Suspicion to the Neighbourhood which Garison shall be maintain d at the Expences of the Crown of France The Passage also shall be open for the King into the Empire by Water when and as often as he shall send Soldiers Convoys and bring necessary things thither LXXIX Nevertheless the King shall pretend to nothing more than the Protection and safe Passage of his Garison into the Castle of Philipsburg but the Property of the Place all Jurisdiction Possession all its Profits Revenues Purchases Rights Regales Servitude People Subjects Vassals and every thing that of old in the Bishoprick of Spire and the Churches incorporated therein had appertain d to the Chapter of Spire or might have appertain d thereto shall appertain and be intirely and inviolably preserv d to the same Chapter saving the Right of Protection which the King takes upon him LXXX The Emperor Empire and Monsieur the Arch Duke of Insprug Ferdinand Charles respectively discharge the Communitys Magistrates Officers and Subjects of each of the said Lordships and Places from the Bonds and Oaths which they were hitherto bound by and ty d to the House of Austria and discharge and assign them over to the Subjection Obedience and Fidelity they are to give to the King and Kingdom of France and consequently confirm the Crown of France in a full and just Power over all the said Places renouncing from the present and for ever the Rights and Pretensions they had thereunto Which Cession the Emperor the said Arch Duke and his Brother by reason the said Renunciation concerns them particularly shall confirm by particular Letters for themselves and their Descendants and shall so order it also that the Catholick King of Spain shall make the same Renunciation in due and authentick form which shall be done in the name of the whole Empire the same Day this present Treaty shall be sign d LXXXI For the greater Validity of the said Cessions and Alienations the Emperor and Empire by virtue of this present Treaty abolish all and every one of the Decrees Constitutions Statutes and Customs of their Predecessors Emperors of the sacred Roman Empire tho they have been confirm d by Oath or shall be confirm d for the future particularly this Article of the Imperial Capitulation by which all or any Alienation of the Appurtenances and Rights of the Empire is prohibited and by the same means they exclude for ever all Exceptions hereunto on what Right and Titles soever they may be grounded LXXXII Further it has been agreed That besides the Ratification promis d hereafter in the next Diet by the Emperor and the States of the Empire they shall ratify anew the Alienations of the said Lordships and Rights insomuch that if it shou d be agreed in the Imperial Capitulation or if there shou d be a Proposal made for the future in the Diet to recover the Lands and Rights of the Empire the abovenam d things shall not be comprehended therein as having been legally transfer d to another s Dominion with the common Consent of the States for the benefit of the publick Tranquillity for which reason it has been found expedient the said Seigniorys shou d be ras d out of the Matricular Book of the Empire LXXXIII Immediately after the Restitution of Benfield the Fortifications of that Place shall be ras d and of the Fort Rhinau which is hard by as also of Tabern in Alsatia of the Castle of Hohember and of Newburg on the Rhine and there shall be in none of those Places any Soldiers or Garison LXXXIV The Magistrates and the Inhabitants of the said City of Tabern shall keep an exact Neutrality and the King s Troops shall freely pass thro there as often as desir d No Forts shall be erected on the Banks of this side the Rhine from Basle to Philipsburg nor shall any Endeavours be made to divert the Course of the River neither on the one side or the other LXXXV As for what concerns the Debts wherewith the Chamber of Ensisheim is charg d the Arch Duke Ferdinand Charles shall undertake with that part of the Province which the most Christian King shall restore him to pay one third without distinction whether they be Bonds or Mortgages provided they are in authentick form and that they have a particular Mortgage either on the Provinces to be restor d or on them which are to be transfer d or if there be none provided they be found on the Books of Accounts agreeing with those of Receipts of the Chamber of Ensisheim until the Expiration of the year 1632 and have been inserted amonst the Debts of the publick Chamber and the said Chamber having been oblig d to pay the Interests the Arch Duke making this Payment shall keep the King exempt from the same LXXXVI And as for those Debts which the Colleges of the States have been charg d with by the Princes of the House of Austria pursuant to particular Agreements made in their Provincial Assemblys or such as the said States have contracted in the name of the Publick and to which they are liable a just distribution of the same shall be made between those who are to transfer their Allegiance to the King of France and them that continue under the Obedience of the House of Austria that so either Party may know what proportion of the said Debt he is to pay LXXXVII The most Christian King shall restore to the House of Austria and particularly to the Arch Duke Ferdinand Charles eldest Son to Arch Duke Leopold four Forest Towns viz Rheinselden Seckingen Laussenberg and Waltshutum with all their Territorys and Bayliwicks Houses Villages Mills Woods Forests Vassals Subjects and all Appurtenances on this or the other side the Rhine LXXXVIII Item The County of Hawenstein the Black Forest the Upper and Lower Brisgaw and the Towns situate therein appertaining of Antient Right to the House of Austria viz Neuburg Friburg Edingen Renzingen Waldkirch Willingen Bruenlingen with all their Territorys as also the Monasterys Abbys Prelacys Deaconrys Knight Fees Commanderships with all their Bayliwicks Baronys Castles Fortresses Countys Barons Nobles Vassals Men Subjects Rivers Brooks Forests Woods and all the Regales Rights Jurisdictions Fiefs and Patronages and all other things belonging to the Sovereign Right of Territory and to the Patrimony of the House of Austria in all that Country LXXXIX All Ortnaw with the Imperial Citys of Ossenburg Gengenbach Cellaham and Harmospach forasmuch as the said Lordships depend on that of Ortnaw so that no King of France can or ought ever to pretend to or usurp any Right or Power over the said Countrys situated on this and the other side the Rhine nevertheless in such a manner that by this present Restitution the Princes of Austria shall acquire no new Right that for the future the Commerce and Transportation shall be free to the Inhabitants on both sides of the Rhine and the adjacent Provinces Above all the Navigation of the Rhine be free and none of the partys shall be permitted to hinder Boats going up or coming down detain stop or molest them under any pretence whatsoever except the Inspection and Search which is usually done to Merchandizes And it shall not be permitted to impose upon the Rhine new and unwonted Tolls Customs Taxes Imposts and other like Exactions but the one and the other Party shall contented with the Tributes Dutys and Tolls that were paid before these Wars under the Government of the Princes of Austria XC That all the Vassals Subjects Citizens and Inhabitants as well on this as the other side the Rhine who were subject to the House of Austria or who depended immediately on the Empire or who acknowledg d for Superiors the other Orders of the Empire notwithstanding all Confiscations Transferrings Donations made by any Captains or Generals of the Swedish Troops or Confederates since the taking of the Province and ratify d by the most Christian King or decreed by his own particular Motion immediately after the Publication of Peace shall be restor d to the possession of their Goods immovable and stable also to their Farms Castles Villages Lands and Possessions without any exception upon the account of Expences and Compensation of Charges which the modern Possessors may alledge and without Restitution of Movables or Fruits gather d in XCI As to Confiscations of Things which consist in Weight Number and Measure Exactions Concussions and Extortions made during the War the reclaiming of them is fully annull d and taken away on the one side and the other in order to avoid Processes and litigious Strifes XCII That the most Christian King shall be bound to leave not only the Bishops of Strasburg and Basle with the City of Strasburg but also the other States or Orders Abbots of Murbach and Luederen who are in the one and the other Alsatia immediately depending upon the Roman Empire the Abess of Andlavien the Monastery of St Bennet in the Valley of St George the Palatines of Luzelstain the Counts and Barons of Hanaw

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  • The Truman Doctrine
    made mistakes The extension of aid by this country does not mean that the United States condones everything that the Greek Government has done or will do We have condemned in the past and we condemn now extremist measures of the right or the left We have in the past advised tolerance and we advise tolerance now Greece s neighbor Turkey also deserves our attention The future of Turkey as an independent and economically sound state is clearly no less important to the freedom loving peoples of the world than the future of Greece The circumstances in which Turkey finds itself today are considerably different from those of Greece Turkey has been spared the disasters that have beset Greece And during the war the United States and Great Britain furnished Turkey with material aid Nevertheless Turkey now needs our support Since the war Turkey has sought financial assistance from Great Britain and the United States for the purpose of effecting that modernization necessary for the maintenance of its national integrity That integrity is essential to the preservation of order in the Middle East The British government has informed us that owing to its own difficulties can no longer extend financial or economic aid to Turkey As in the case of Greece if Turkey is to have the assistance it needs the United States must supply it We are the only country able to provide that help I am fully aware of the broad implications involved if the United States extends assistance to Greece and Turkey and I shall discuss these implications with you at this time One of the primary objectives of the foreign policy of the United States is the creation of conditions in which we and other nations will be able to work out a way of life free from coercion This was a fundamental issue in the war with Germany and Japan Our victory was won over countries which sought to impose their will and their way of life upon other nations To ensure the peaceful development of nations free from coercion the United States has taken a leading part in establishing the United Nations The United Nations is designed to make possible lasting freedom and independence for all its members We shall not realize our objectives however unless we are willing to help free peoples to maintain their free institutions and their national integrity against aggressive movements that seek to impose upon them totalitarian regimes This is no more than a frank recognition that totalitarian regimes imposed on free peoples by direct or indirect aggression undermine the foundations of international peace and hence the security of the United States The peoples of a number of countries of the world have recently had totalitarian regimes forced upon them against their will The Government of the United States has made frequent protests against coercion and intimidation in violation of the Yalta agreement in Poland Rumania and Bulgaria I must also state that in a number of other countries

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  • THE FIRST THANKSGIVING PROCLAMATION
    his judgements he hath remembered mercy having remembered his Footstool in the day of his sore displeasure against us for our sins with many singular Intimations of his Fatherly Compassion and regard reserving many of our Towns from Desolation Threatened and attempted by the Enemy and giving us especially of late with many of our Confederates many signal Advantages against them without such Disadvantage to ourselves as formerly we have been sensible of if it be the Lord s mercy that we are not consumed It certainly bespeaks our positive Thankfulness when our Enemies are in any measure disappointed or destroyed and fearing the Lord should take notice under so many Intimations of his returning mercy we should be found an Insensible people as not standing before Him with Thanksgiving as well as lading him with our Complaints in the time of pressing Afflictions The Council has thought meet to appoint and set apart the 29th day of this instant June as a day of Solemn Thanksgiving and praise to God for such his Goodness and Favour many Particulars of which mercy might be Instanced but we doubt not those who are sensible of God s Afflictions have been as

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