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  • The Rights of Man
    the freedom to do everything which injures no one else hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights These limits can only be determined by law Law can only prohibit such actions as are hurtful to society Nothing may be prevented which is not forbidden by law and no one may be forced to do anything not provided for by law Law is the expression of the general will Every citizen has a right to participate personally or through his representative in its foundation It must be the same for all whether it protects or punishes All citizens being equal in the eyes of the law are equally eligible to all dignities and to all public positions and occupations according to their abilities and without distinction except that of their virtues and talents No person shall be accused arrested or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the forms prescribed by law Any one soliciting transmitting executing or causing to be executed any arbitrary order shall be punished But any citizen summoned or arrested in virtue of the law shall submit without delay as resistance constitutes an offense The law shall provide for such punishments only as are strictly and obviously necessary and no one shall suffer punishment except it be legally inflicted in virtue of a law passed and promulgated before the commission of the offense As all persons are held innocent until they shall have been declared guilty if arrest shall be deemed indispensable all harshness not essential to the securing of the prisoner s person shall be severely repressed by law No one shall be disquieted on account of his opinions including his religious

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/rights_of_man.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Washington
    amendment has a just claim to your confidence and your support Respect for its authority compliance with its laws acquiescence in its measures are duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true liberty The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and to alter their constitutions of government But the constitution which at any time exists till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole people is sacredly obligatory upon all The very idea of the power and the right of the people to establish government presupposes the duty of every individual to obey the established government Toward the preservation of your government and the permanency of your present happy state it is requisite not only that you steadily discountenance irregular oppositions to its acknowledged authority but also that you resist with care the spirit of innovation upon its principles however specious the pretexts One method of assault may be to effect in the forms of the Constitution alterations which will impair the energy of the system and thus to undermine what cannot be directly overthrown In all the changes to which you may be invited remember that time and habit are at least as necessary to fix the true character of governments as of other human institutions that experience is the surest standard by which to test the real tendency of the existing constitution of a country that facility in changes upon the crdit of mere hypothesis and opinion exposes to perpetual change from the endless variety of hypothesis and opinion and remember especially that for the efficient management of your common interests in a country so extensive as ours a government of as much vigor as is consistent with the perfect security of liberty is indispensable Liberty itself will find in such a government with powers properly distributed and adjusted its surest guardian It is indeed little else than a name where the government is too feeble to withstand the enterprises of faction to confine each member of the society within the limits prescribed by the laws and to maintain all in the secure and tranquil enjoyment of the rights of person and property I have already intimated to you the danger of parties in the State with particular reference to the founding of them on geographical discriminations Let me now take a more comprehensive view and warn you in the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the spirit of party generally This spirit unfortunately is inseparable from our nature having its root in the strongest passions of the human mind It exists under different shapes in all governments more or less stifled controlled or repressed but in those of the popular form it is seen in its greatest rankness and is truly their worst enemy It serves always to distract the public councils and enfeeble the public administration It agitates the community with illfounded jealousies and false alarms kindles the animosity of one part against another foments occasionally riot and insurrection It opens the door to foreign influence and corruption which find a facilitated access to the government itself through the channels of party passion Thus the policy and the will of one country are subjected to the policy and will of another There is an opinion that parties in free countries are useful checks upon the administration of government and serve to keep alive the spirit of liberty This within certain limits is probably true and in governments of a monarchial cast patriotism may look with indulgence if not with favor upon the spirit of party But in those of the popular character in governments purely elective it is a spirit not to be encouraged From their natural tendency it is certain there will always be enough of that spirit for every salutary purpose and there being constant danger of excess the effort ought to be by force of public opinion to mitigate and assuage it A fire not to be quenched it demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its bursting into a flame lest instead of warming it should consume It is important likewise that the habits of thinking in a free country should inspire caution in those intrusted with its administration to confine themselves within their respective constitutional spheres avoiding in the exercise of the powers of one department to encroach upon another The spirit of encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of all the departments in one and thus to create whatever the form of government a real despotism If in the opinion of the people the distribution or modification of the constitutional powers be in any particular wrong let it be corrected by an amendment in the way which the Constitution designates But let there be no change by usurpation for though this in one instance may be the instrument of good it is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed The precedent must always greatly overbalance in permanent evil any partial or transient benefit which the use can at any time yield Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity religion and morality are indispensable supports In vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness these firmest props of the duties of men and citizens The mere politician equally with the pious man ought to respect and to cherish them A volume could not trace all their connections with private and public felicity Let it simply be asked Where is the security for property for reputation for life if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths which are the instruments of investigation in courts of justice And let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/washingtonfarewell.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Statutes of Willliam The Conqueror
    of the English shall pay according to the law of the English what they themselves call onhlote and anscote This decree has been confirmed in the city of Gloucester 5 We forbid also that any live cattle be sold or bought for money except within the cities and this before three faithful witnesses nor even anything old without a surety and warrant But if he do otherwise he shall pay and shall afterwards pay a fine 6 It was also decreed there that if a Frenchman summon an Englishman for perjury or murder theft homicide or ran as the English call evident rape which can not be denied the Englishman shall defend himself as he prefers either through the ordeal of iron or through wager of battle But if the Englishman be infirm he shall find another who will do it for him If one of them shall be vanquished he shall pay a fine of forty shillings to the king If an Englishman summon a Frenchman and be unwilling to prove his charge by judgment or by wager of battle I will nevertheless that the Frenchman purge himself by an informal oath 7 This also I command and will that all shall hold and keep the law of Edward the king with regard to their lands and with regard to all their possessions those provisions being added which I have made for the utility of the English people 8 Every man who wishes to be considered a freeman shall have a surety that his surety may hold him and hand him over to justice if he offend in any way And if any such one escape his sureties shall see to it that without making difficulties they pay what is charged against him and that they clear themselves of

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/statutes_of_willliam_the_conquer.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • The Constitution of The United States
    States Article 2 Constitution of the United States Article 3 Constitution of the United States Article 4 Constitution of the United States Article 5 Constitution of the United States Article 6 Constitution of the United States Article 7 Constitution of

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/constitution.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Ancient World Maps
    2500 BC 2250BC Sargon s Empire 2050 BC 1850 BC 1300BC 1200BC Ancient Egypt Assyria 850 BC 733 BC 650 BC India 550 BC Persia 529 BC 480 BC at the time of Persia 480 BC 323 BC Greece 300

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/maps%20ancientworld.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Byzantium and Islam
    Byzantium and Islam Back To Maps Page Byzantium 395 Byzantium at the death of Justinian Byzantium 1000 AD Constantinople Islam at its Height Ottoman Empire 1450 1700 World History Project

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/Mideasternmap.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Operation Barbarosa      Battle of the Buldge
    World War Two Maps Back To Maps Page Operation Barbarossa Battle of the Buldge Falaise Gap Market Garden March to the Seine Invasion of USSR Pearl Harbor Normandy World History

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/mapsww2.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Christianity, Apostles
    the early Christian church is so fragmentary that there is no full or certain knowledge of the lives of the apostles A mass of tradition has thus grown up around these men who by their teaching and martyrdom established Christianity Typical of this tradition is the Apostles Creed a short three part profession of faith ascribed to them which began to be used in the Roman church in the 3rd century Peter the fisherman whom Jesus had called to be a fisher of men was apparently the leader of the apostles He witnessed most of the incidents in the life of Jesus recorded in the New Testament With James the Elder and John Peter formed an inner circle within the Twelve This favored group was present at such miracles as the raising of the daughter of Jairus and the Transfiguration A widespread tradition holds that Peter went to Rome where he was crucified in AD 64 Andrew it is said was crucified at Patras Greece on an X shaped cross hence the term St Andrew s cross What is believed to be part of his cross is today enclosed in one of the four great piers supporting the dome of St Peter s in Rome John the beloved disciple is represented throughout the Gospels as fiery but charming After the Crucifixion he was associated with the other apostles in making converts in Jerusalem After Peter he was the most prominent of those who bore witness to the Resurrection James the Elder was a steadfast worker in the early church and is said to have carried the Gospel as far west as Spain The first martyr among the apostles he was slain by order of Herod Agrippa I king of Judea in about AD 44 Acts xii 1 2 Thomas was

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/apostle.htm (2016-02-11)
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