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  • An Explanation of Hieroglyphics
    introduced into Egypt by the Greeks in the 3rd century BC Hieratic script The Egyptian cursive script called hieratic writing received its name from the Greek hieratikos priestly at a time when the script was used only for sacred texts Everyday secular documents were written in another style the demotic Greek demotikos for the people or in common use script The structure of the hieratic script corresponds with that of hieroglyphic writing Changes occurred in the characters of hieratic simply because they could be written rapidly with brush or rush and ink on papyrus In general the picture form is not or not easily recognizable Because their models were well known and in current use throughout Egyptian history the hieratic symbols never strayed too far from them Nevertheless the system differs from the hieroglyphic script in some important respects 1 Hieratic was written in one direction only from right to left In earlier times the lines had run vertically and later about 2000 BC horizontally Subsequently the papyrus scrolls were written in columns of changing widths 2 There were ligatures in hieratic so that two but no more than two signs could be written in one stroke 3 As a consequence of its decreased legibility the spelling of the hieratic script was more rigid than that of hieroglyphic writing Variations from uniformity at a given time were minor but during the course of the various periods the spelling developed and changed As a result hieratic texts do not correspond exactly to contemporary hieroglyphic texts either in the placing of signs or in the spelling of words 4 Hieratic used diacritical additions to distinguish between two signs that had grown similar to one another because of cursive writing For example the cow s leg received a supplementary distinguishing cross because in hieratic it had come to resemble the sign for the leg of a man Certain hieratic signs were taken into the hieroglyphic script All commonplace documents e g letters catalogs and official writs were written in hieratic script as were literary and religious texts In the life of the Egyptians hieratic script played a larger role than hieroglyphic writing and was also taught earlier in the schools In offices hieratic was replaced by demotic in the 7th century BC but it remained in fashion until much later for religious texts of all sorts The latest hieratic texts stem from the end of the 1st century or the beginning of the 2nd century AD Demotic script Demotic script is first encountered at the beginning of the 26th dynasty in about 660 BC The writing signs plainly demonstrate its connection with the hieratic script although the exact relationship is not yet clear The demotic characters are more cursive flowing and joined and thus more similar to one another with the result that they are more difficult to read than are the hieratic forms Countering this difficulty there is less freedom for the writer s individual variations It appears that demotic was originally

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  • Egyptian Hieroglyphics
    in rat picture of a mouth T as in two picture of a loaf L picture of a lion Egyptian Hieroglyphics In AD 391 the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius I closed all pagan temples throughout the empire This action terminated a four thousand year old tradition and the message of the ancient Egyptian language was lost for 1500 years It was not until the discovery of the Rosetta stone and the work of Jean Francois Champollion 1790 1832 that the Ancient Egyptians awoke from their long slumber Today by virtue of the vast quantity of their literature we know more about Egyptian society than most other ancient cultures The script was developed about four thousand years before Christ and there was also a decimal system of numeration up to a million Unlike other cultures the early picture forms were never discarded or simplified probably because they are so very lovely to look at Hieroglyphs were called by the Egyptians the words of God and were used mainly by the priests These painstakingly drawn symbols were great for decorating the walls of temples but for conducting day to day business there was another script known as hieratic This was a handwriting in which the picture signs were abbreviated to the point of abstraction Hieroglyphs are written in rows or columns and can be read from left to right or from right to left You can distinguish the direction in which the text is to be read because the human or animal figures always face towards the beginning of the line Also the upper symbols are read before lower Hieroglyphic signs are divided into four categories 1 Alphabetic signs represent a single sound Unfortunately the Egyptians took most vowels for granted and did not represent them So we may never know how the

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  • Free Hieroglyphics
    The vbrun file is require for older Windows systems for the Hieroglyphic Word Processor Hieroglyphic Word Processor Hieroglyphic Fonts for Windows VBRun 40032 dll Free Hieroglyphics

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  • Alexander The Great
    sale of the women and children into slavery Leaving Parmenio in Syria Alexander advanced south without opposition until he reached Gaza on its high mound there bitter resistance halted him for two months and he sustained a serious shoulder wound during a sortie There is no basis for the tradition that he turned aside to visit Jerusalem In November 332 he reached Egypt The people welcomed him as their deliverer and the Persian satrap Mazaces wisely surrendered At Memphis Alexander sacrificed to Apis the Greek term for Hapi the sacred Egyptian bull and was crowned with the traditional double crown of the pharaohs the native priests were placated and their religion encouraged He spent the winter organizing Egypt where he employed Egyptian governors keeping the army under a separate Macedonian command He founded the city of Alexandria near the western arm of the Nile on a fine site between the sea and Lake Mareotis protected by the island of Pharos and had it laid out by the Rhodian architect Deinocrates He is also said to have sent an expedition to discover the causes of the flooding of the Nile From Alexandria he marched along the coast to Paraetonium and from there inland to visit the celebrated oracle of the god Amon at Siwah the difficult journey was later embroidered with flattering legends On his reaching the oracle in its oasis the priest gave him the traditional salutation of a pharaoh as son of Amon Alexander consulted the god on the success of his expedition but revealed the reply to no one Later the incident was to contribute to the story that he was the son of Zeus and thus to his deification In spring 331 he returned to Tyre appointed a Macedonian satrap for Syria and prepared to advance into Mesopotamia His conquest of Egypt had completed his control of the whole eastern Mediterranean coast In July 331 Alexander was at Thapsacus on the Euphrates Instead of taking the direct route down the river to Babylon he made across northern Mesopotamia toward the Tigris and Darius learning of this move from an advance force sent under Mazaeus to the Euphrates crossing marched up the Tigris to oppose him The decisive battle of the war was fought on the plain of Gaugamela between Nineveh and Arbela Alexander pursued the defeated Persian forces for 35 miles to Arbela but Darius escaped with his Bactrian cavalry and Greek mercenaries into Media Alexander now occupied Babylon city and province Mazaeus who surrendered it was confirmed as satrap in conjunction with a Macedonian troop commander and quite exceptionally was granted the right to coin As in Egypt the local priesthood was encouraged Susa the capital also surrendered releasing huge treasures amounting to 50 000 gold talents here Alexander established Darius family in comfort Crushing the mountain tribe of the Ouxians he now pressed on over the Zagros range into Persia proper and successfully turning the Pass of the Persian Gates held by the satrap Ariobarzanes he entered Persepolis and Pasargadae At Persepolis he ceremonially burned down the palace of Xerxes as a symbol that the Panhellenic war of revenge was at an end for such seems the probable significance of an act that tradition later explained as a drunken frolic inspired by Thaïs an Athenian courtesan In spring 330 Alexander marched north into Media and occupied its capital Ecbatana The Thessalians and Greek allies were sent home henceforward he was waging a purely personal war As Mazaeus appointment indicated Alexander s views on the empire were changing He had come to envisage a joint ruling people consisting of Macedonians and Persians and this served to augment the misunderstanding that now arose between him and his people Before continuing his pursuit of Darius who had retreated into Bactria he assembled all the Persian treasure and entrusted it to Harpalus who was to hold it at Ecbatana as chief treasurer Parmenio was also left behind in Media to control communications the presence of this older man had perhaps become irksome In midsummer 330 Alexander set out for the eastern provinces at a high speed via Rhagae modern Rayy near Tehran and the Caspian Gates where he learned that Bessus the satrap of Bactria had deposed Darius After a skirmish near modern Shahrud the usurper had Darius stabbed and left him to die Alexander sent his body for burial with due honours in the royal tombs at Persepolis Campaign eastward to Central Asia Darius death left no obstacle to Alexander s claim to be Great King and a Rhodian inscription of this year 330 calls him lord of Asia i e of the Persian Empire soon afterward his Asian coins carry the title of king Crossing the Elburz Mountains to the Caspian he seized Zadracarta in Hyrcania and received the submission of a group of satraps and Persian notables some of whom he confirmed in their offices in a diversion westward perhaps to modern Amol he reduced the Mardi a mountain people who inhabited the Elburz Mountains He also accepted the surrender of Darius Greek mercenaries His advance eastward was now rapid In Aria he reduced Satibarzanes who had offered submission only to revolt and he founded Alexandria of the Arians modern Herat At Phrada in Drangiana either near modern Nad e Ali in Seistan or farther north at Farah he at last took steps to destroy Parmenio and his family Philotas Parmenio s son commander of the elite Companion cavalry was implicated in an alleged plot against Alexander s life condemned by the army and executed and a secret message was sent to Cleander Parmenio s second in command who obediently assassinated him This ruthless action excited widespread horror but strengthened Alexander s position relative to his critics and those whom he regarded as his father s men All Parmenio s adherents were now eliminated and men close to Alexander promoted The Companion cavalry was reorganized in two sections each containing four squadrons now known as hipparchies one group was commanded by Alexander s oldest friend Hephaestion the other by Cleitus an older man From Phrada Alexander pressed on during the winter of 330 329 up the valley of the Helmand River through Arachosia and over the mountains past the site of modern Kabul into the country of the Paropamisadae where he founded Alexandria by the Caucasus Bessus was now in Bactria raising a national revolt in the eastern satrapies with the usurped title of Great King Crossing the Hindu Kush northward over the Khawak Pass 11 650 feet Alexander brought his army despite food shortages to Drapsaca sometimes identified with modern Banu Andarab probably farther north at Qunduz outflanked Bessus fled beyond the Oxus modern Amu Darya and Alexander marching west to Bactra Zariaspa modern Balkh Wazirabad in Afghanistan appointed loyal satraps in Bactria and Aria Crossing the Oxus he sent his general Ptolemy in pursuit of Bessus who had meanwhile been overthrown by the Sogdian Spitamenes Bessus was captured flogged and sent to Bactra where he was later mutilated after the Persian manner losing his nose and ears in due course he was publicly executed at Ecbatana From Maracanda modern Samarkand Alexander advanced by way of Cyropolis to the Jaxartes modern Syrdarya the boundary of the Persian Empire There he broke the opposition of the Scythian nomads by his use of catapults and after defeating them in a battle on the north bank of the river pursued them into the interior On the site of modern Leninabad Khojent on the Jaxartes he founded a city Alexandria Eschate the farthest Meanwhile Spitamenes had raised all Sogdiana in revolt behind him bringing in the Massagetai a people of the Saka confederacy It took Alexander until the autumn of 328 to crush the most determined opponent he encountered in his campaigns Later in the same year he attacked Oxyartes and the remaining barons who held out in the hills of Paraetacene modern Tadzhikistan volunteers seized the crag on which Oxyartes had his stronghold and among the captives was his daughter Roxana In reconciliation Alexander married her and the rest of his opponents were either won over or crushed An incident that occurred at Maracanda widened the breach between Alexander and many of his Macedonians He murdered Cleitus one of his most trusted commanders in a drunken quarrel but his excessive display of remorse led the army to pass a decree convicting Cleitus posthumously of treason The event marked a step in Alexander s progress toward Eastern absolutism and this growing attitude found its outward expression in his use of Persian royal dress Shortly afterward at Bactra he attempted to impose the Persian court ceremonial involving prostration proskynesis on the Greeks and Macedonians too but to them this custom habitual for Persians entering the king s presence implied an act of worship and was intolerable before a man Even Callisthenes historian and nephew of Aristotle whose ostentatious flattery had perhaps encouraged Alexander to see himself in the role of a god refused to abase himself Macedonian laughter caused the experiment to founder and Alexander abandoned it Shortly afterward however Callisthenes was held to be privy to a conspiracy among the royal pages and was executed or died in prison accounts vary resentment of this action alienated sympathy from Alexander within the Peripatetic school of philosophers with which Callisthenes had close connections Invasion of India In early summer 327 Alexander left Bactria with a reinforced army under a reorganized command If Plutarch s figure of 120 000 men has any reality however it must include all kinds of auxiliary services together with muleteers camel drivers medical corps peddlers entertainers women and children the fighting strength perhaps stood at about 35 000 Recrossing the Hindu Kush probably by Bamian and the Ghorband Valley Alexander divided his forces Half the army with the baggage under Hephaestion and Perdiccas both cavalry commanders was sent through the Khyber Pass while he himself led the rest together with his siege train through the hills to the north His advance through Swat and Gandhara was marked by the storming of the almost impregnable pinnacle of Aornos the modern Pir Sar a few miles west of the Indus and north of the Buner River an impressive feat of siegecraft In spring 326 crossing the Indus near Attock Alexander entered Taxila whose ruler Taxiles furnished elephants and troops in return for aid against his rival Porus who ruled the lands between the Hydaspes modern Jhelum and the Acesines modern Chenab In June Alexander fought his last great battle on the left bank of the Hydaspes He founded two cities there Alexandria Nicaea to celebrate his victory and Bucephala named after his horse Bucephalus which died there and Porus became his ally How much Alexander knew of India beyond the Hyphasis probably the modern Beas is uncertain there is no conclusive proof that he had heard of the Ganges But he was anxious to press on farther and he had advanced to the Hyphasis when his army mutinied refusing to go farther in the tropical rain they were weary in body and spirit and Coenus one of Alexander s four chief marshals acted as their spokesman On finding the army adamant Alexander agreed to turn back On the Hyphasis he erected 12 altars to the 12 Olympian gods and on the Hydaspes he built a fleet of 800 to 1 000 ships Leaving Porus he then proceeded down the river and into the Indus with half his forces on shipboard and half marching in three columns down the two banks The fleet was commanded by Nearchus and Alexander s own captain was Onesicritus both later wrote accounts of the campaign The march was attended with much fighting and heavy pitiless slaughter at the storming of one town of the Malli near the Hydraotes Ravi River Alexander received a severe wound which left him weakened On reaching Patala located at the head of the Indus delta he built a harbour and docks and explored both arms of the Indus which probably then ran into the Rann of Kutch He planned to lead part of his forces back by land while the rest in perhaps 100 to 150 ships under the command of Nearchus a Cretan with naval experience made a voyage of exploration along the Persian Gulf Local opposition led Nearchus to set sail in September 325 and he was held up for three weeks until he could pick up the northeast monsoon in late October In September Alexander too set out along the coast through Gedrosia modern Baluchistan but he was soon compelled by mountainous country to turn inland thus failing in his project to establish food depots for the fleet Craterus a high ranking officer already had been sent off with the baggage and siege train the elephants and the sick and wounded together with three battalions of the phalanx by way of the Mulla Pass Quetta and Kandahar into the Helmand Valley from there he was to march through Drangiana to rejoin the main army on the Amanis modern Minab River in Carmania Alexander s march through Gedrosia proved disastrous waterless desert and shortage of food and fuel caused great suffering and many especially women and children perished in a sudden monsoon flood while encamped in a wadi At length at the Amanis he was rejoined by Nearchus and the fleet which also had suffered losses Consolidation of the empire Alexander now proceeded farther with the policy of replacing senior officials and executing defaulting governors on which he had already embarked before leaving India Between 326 and 324 over a third of his satraps were superseded and six were put to death including the Persian satraps of Persis Susiana Carmania and Paraetacene three generals in Media including Cleander the brother of Coenus who had died a little earlier were accused of extortion and summoned to Carmania where they were arrested tried and executed How far the rigour that from now onward Alexander displayed against his governors represents exemplary punishment for gross maladministration during his absence and how far the elimination of men he had come to distrust as in the case of Philotas and Parmenio is debatable but the ancient sources generally favourable to him comment adversely on his severity In spring 324 he was back in Susa capital of Elam and administrative centre of the Persian Empire the story of his journey through Carmania in a drunken revel dressed as Dionysus is embroidered if not wholly apocryphal He found that his treasurer Harpalus evidently fearing punishment for peculation had absconded with 6 000 mercenaries and 5 000 talents to Greece arrested in Athens he escaped and later was murdered in Crete At Susa Alexander held a feast to celebrate the seizure of the Persian Empire at which in furtherance of his policy of fusing Macedonians and Persians into one master race he and 80 of his officers took Persian wives he and Hephaestion married Darius daughters Barsine also called Stateira and Drypetis respectively and 10 000 of his soldiers with native wives were given generous dowries This policy of racial fusion brought increasing friction to Alexander s relations with his Macedonians who had no sympathy for his changed concept of the empire His determination to incorporate Persians on equal terms in the army and the administration of the provinces was bitterly resented This discontent was now fanned by the arrival of 30 000 native youths who had received a Macedonian military training and by the introduction of Orientals from Bactria Sogdiana Arachosia and other parts of the empire into the Companion cavalry whether Orientals had previously served with the Companions is uncertain but if so they must have formed separate squadrons In addition Persian nobles had been accepted into the royal cavalry bodyguard Peucestas the new governor of Persis gave this policy full support to flatter Alexander but most Macedonians saw it as a threat to their own privileged position The issue came to a head at Opis 324 when Alexander s decision to send home Macedonian veterans under Craterus was interpreted as a move toward transferring the seat of power to Asia There was an open mutiny involving all but the royal bodyguard but when Alexander dismissed his whole army and enrolled Persians instead the opposition broke down An emotional scene of reconciliation was followed by a vast banquet with 9 000 guests to celebrate the ending of the misunderstanding and the partnership in government of Macedonians and Persians but not as has been argued the incorporation of all the subject peoples as partners in the commonwealth Ten thousand veterans were now sent back to Macedonia with gifts and the crisis was surmounted In summer 324 Alexander attempted to solve another problem that of the wandering mercenaries of whom there were thousands in Asia and Greece many of them political exiles from their own cities A decree brought by Nicanor to Europe and proclaimed at Olympia September 324 required the Greek cities of the Greek League to receive back all exiles and their families except the Thebans a measure that implied some modification of the oligarchic regimes maintained in the Greek cities by Alexander s governor Antipater Alexander now planned to recall Antipater and supersede him by Craterus but he was to die before this could be done In autumn 324 Hephaestion died in Ecbatana and Alexander indulged in extravagant mourning for his closest friend he was given a royal funeral in Babylon with a pyre costing 10 000 talents His post of chiliarch grand vizier was left unfilled It was probably in connection with a general order now sent out to the Greeks to honour Hephaestion as a hero that Alexander linked the demand that he himself should be accorded divine honours For a long time his mind had dwelt on ideas of godhead Greek thought drew no very decided line of demarcation between god and man for legend offered more than one example

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  • Alexander the Great Unless Alexander was himself ultimately responsible for his father
    conquest was a relative term when there were large tracts of Anatolia such as Cappadocia that Alexander had scarcely touched not to mention the mixed achievement at Pisidia A more obvious way of achieving conquest was to defeat the king in open battle The time had come to face Darius whose army was already in Cilicia In fact Darius got ahead of Alexander occupying after a protracted delay a position to the north of the Macedonians The numerical advantage at the ensuing Battle of Issus fought toward the end of 333 was heavily with the Persians but they were awkwardly squeezed between the sea and the foothills of a mountain range close by Alexander s Companion cavalry punched a hole in the Persian infantry making straight for Darius himself who took flight The Persian mercenaries were routed by the Macedonian phalanx After the battle Darius wife and mother both fell into Alexander s hands In an exchange of letters Alexander grandly offered that Darius could have them back mother wife children whatever you like if he recognized his own claim to be lord of Asia and addressed him as such for the future Darius of course refused the offer Alexander did not immediately follow Darius eastward instead he continued southward in the direction of Phoenicia and eventually Egypt The Phoenician cities of Byblos and Sidon submitted willingly but Tyre was a major obstacle Its walls were not finally breached until summer 332 after various contrivances had been tried including a huge and elaborate siege mole The siege of Gaza occupied much of the autumn when the city at last surrendered Alexander dishonoured the corpse of Batis its commander in the way that Achilles in the Iliad had treated the corpse of Hector Alexander s imitation of Homeric heroes had its less attractive side This was the part of the world in which the Jews might have encountered Alexander No doubt there was some contact but virtually all the available evidence is unreliable and romantic or even fabricated to give substance to later Jewish claims to political privileges Alexander s effect on the Jews was indirect but no less important for that he surrounded them with a Greek speaking world Alexander in Egypt Alexander the Great Alexander s empire at its greatest extent Egypt was taken without a struggle an indication of the dislike the subject population felt toward Persia Even though Egypt had been reconquered by Persia hardly more than a decade before it is possible that there had been yet another revolt since 343 Alexander s period in Egypt was marked by two major events the founding of Alexandria and the visit to the oracle of the god Ammon at Siwah in the Western Desert Although the sources disagree about which event came first the foundation probably preceded the visit to the oracle The new city of Alexandria the first as well as the most famous and successful of many new Alexandrias was formed by joining a number of Egyptian villages April 331 Alexander supervised the religious ceremonies of foundation including Greek style athletic and musical games an indication of his intentions to Hellenize these foundations at least as far as their cultural life was concerned he thought that the site was an excellent one and hoped for its commercial prosperity It is quite certain from an inscription that early Hellenistic Alexandria possessed a civic council this and other self governing institutions such as an assembly probably go back to Alexander s time Not all Alexander s foundations were run on this liberal model though some were inaugurated with similar symbolic gestures in the direction of Hellenism One hears of satraps and generals of the newly founded cities a phrase that does not imply much self government No doubt some of Alexander s new foundations were little more than military camps and one should assume that in all the far eastern Alexandrias the native population was forced to perform menial or agricultural tasks The oracle of Ammon at Siwah to which Alexander now made a pilgrimage was already well known in the Greek world Pindar had equated Ammon with Zeus the oracle had been consulted by Croesus in the 6th century and Lysander in the 5th and there was a sanctuary to Ammon at Athens in the first half of the 4th Alexander had a pothos or yearning to visit Ammon the word pothos is often used by the sources to describe his motives and is appropriately suggestive of far horizons even if it does not reflect a usage of Alexander s own He wanted to find out more about his own divinity the implication being that he already had an inkling of it He was told what he wanted to hear more than that some sources offer a great deal more was probably speculation to fill a gap To the Persian Gates Alexander then crossed Phoenicia again to meet Darius for the second and last time in the open field at Gaugamela between Nineveh and Arbela at the beginning of October 331 The tactic was to be the usual one a leftward charge by Alexander from the right wing toward the centre while Parmenio held the left wing firm Parmenio seems however to have encountered unusual difficulties and had to summon help from Alexander who was already in victorious pursuit of Darius The mechanics of this summons are not clear and the story may be a fabrication intended to discredit Parmenio Alexander and his troops won the battle sealing the fate of the Persian empire but Darius managed to escape Alexander then moved to Babylon where in another gesture of conciliation toward the Iranian ruling class he reappointed Mazaeus as satrap with Macedonians to supervise the garrison and the finances This kind of gesture has been much discussed it can be both overinterpreted and unduly minimized Ideas that Alexander then or ever planned to forge a harmony between nations at a mystical level have no solid basis in

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  • Greece, A History of Ancient Greece, Herodotus and Sparta
    the king called his Immortals they it was thought would soon finish the business But when they joined battle with the Greeks twas with no better success than the Median detachment things went much as before the two armies fighting in a narrow space and the barbarians using shorter spears than the Greeks and having no advantage from their numbers The Lacedaemonians fought in a way worthy of note and showed themselves far more skilful in fight than their adversaries often turning their backs and making as though they were all flying away on which the barbarians would rush after them with much noise and shouting when the Spartans at their approach would wheel round and face their pursuers in this way destroying vast numbers of the enemy Some Spartans likewise fell in these encounters but only a very few At last the Persians finding that all their efforts to gain the pass availed nothing and that whether they attacked by divisions or in any other way it was to no purpose withdrew to their own quarters 7 212 During these assaults it is said that Xerxes who was watching the battle thrice leaped from the throne on which he sate in terror for his army Next day the combat was renewed but with no better success on the part of the barbarians The Greeks were so few that the barbarians hoped to find them disabled by reason of their wounds from offering any further resistance and so they once more attacked them But the Greeks were drawn up in detachments according to their cities and bore the brunt of the battle in turns all except the Phocians who had been stationed on the mountain to guard the pathway So when the Persians found no difference between that day and the preceding they again retired to their quarters 7 213 Now as the king was in great strait and knew not how he should deal with the emergency Ephialtes the son of Eurydemus a man of Malis came to him and was admitted to a conference Stirred by the hope of receiving a rich reward at the king s hands he had come to tell him of the pathway which led across the mountain to Thermopylae by which disclosure he brought destruction on the band of Greeks who had there withstood the barbarians This Ephialtes afterwards from fear of the Lacedaemonians fled into Thessaly and during his exile in an assembly of the Amphictyons held at Pylae a price was set upon his head by the Pylagorae When some time had gone by he returned from exile and went to Anticyra where he was slain by Athenades a native of Trachis Athenades did not slay him for his treachery but for another reason which I shall mention in a later part of my history yet still the Lacedaemonians honoured him none the less Thus then did Ephialtes perish a long time afterwards 7 214 Besides this there is another story told which I do not at all believe to wit that Onetas the son of Phanagoras a native of Carystus and Corydallus a man of Anticyra were the persons who spoke on this matter to the king and took the Persians across the mountain One may guess which story is true from the fact that the deputies of the Greeks the Pylagorae who must have had the best means of ascertaining the truth did not offer the reward for the heads of Onetas and Corydallus but for that of Ephialtes of Trachis and again from the flight of Ephialtes which we know to have been on this account Onetas I allow although he was not a Malian might have been acquainted with the path if he had lived much in that part of the country but as Ephialtes was the person who actually led the Persians round the mountain by the pathway I leave his name on record as that of the man who did the deed 7 215 Great was the joy of Xerxes on this occasion and as he approved highly of the enterprise which Ephialtes undertook to accomplish he forthwith sent upon the errand Hydarnes and the Persians under him The troops left the camp about the time of the lighting of the lamps The pathway along which they went was first discovered by the Malians of these parts who soon afterwards led the Thessalians by it to attack the Phocians at the time when the Phocians fortified the pass with a wall and so put themselves under covert from danger And ever since the path has always been put to an ill use by the Malians 7 216 The course which it takes is the following Beginning at the Asopus where that stream flows through the cleft in the hills it runs along the ridge of the mountain which is called like the pathway over it Anopaea and ends at the city of Alpenus the first Locrian town as you come from Malis by the stone called Melampygus and the seats of the Cercopians Here it is as narrow as at any other point 7 217 The Persians took this path and crossing the Asopus continued their march through the whole of the night having the mountains of Oeta on their right hand and on their left those of Trachis At dawn of day they found themselves close to the summit Now the hill was guarded as I have already said by a thousand Phocian men at arms who were placed there to defend the pathway and at the same time to secure their own country They had been given the guard of the mountain path while the other Greeks defended the pass below because they had volunteered for the service and had pledged themselves to Leonidas to maintain the post 7 218 The ascent of the Persians became known to the Phocians in the following manner During all the time that they were making their

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  • Greece, A History of Ancient Greece, The Trojan War
    command of his father s men the Myrmidons They set an example of bravery for the other Greeks Then he quarreled with Agamemnon the leader of the Greeks over a captive whom he loved When she was taken from him he withdrew his followers from the fight and sulked in his tent As a result the Greek armies were driven back to their ships by the Trojans At last moved by the plight of the Greeks Achilles entrusted his men and his armor to Patroclus his best friend Thus when Patroclus led the Myrmidons into battle the Trojans mistook him for Achilles and fled in panic Patroclus however was killed by Hector the leader of the Trojans Achilles armor became the prize of Hector Angered and stricken by grief Achilles vowed to kill Hector Meanwhile his mother hastened to Olympus to beg a new suit of armor from Hephaestus god of the forge Clad in his new armor Achilles again went into battle He slew many Trojans and the rest except for Hector fled within their city Achilles then killed Hector Although the Trojans had now lost their leader they were able to continue fighting with the help of other nations Achilles broke the strength of these allies by killing Memnon prince of the Ethiopians and Penthesilea queen of the Amazons Achilles was now weary of war and moreover had fallen in love with Polyxena sister of Hector To win her in marriage he consented to ask the Greeks to make peace He was in the temple arranging for the marriage when Hector s brother Paris shot him with a poisoned arrow in the only vulnerable part of his body the heel AGAMEMNON Most of what is known of the ancient Greek hero Agamemnon is narrated in the Homeric legend of the Iliad and in the dramas of Aeschylus The son of Atreus who was the king of Mycenae in Greece Agamemnon was probably a historical personage a king who ruled either at Mycenae or at nearby Argos during the Trojan War From the mythic tales of the ancient Greeks however it is impossible to separate fact from legend The stories relate that Agamemnon was the brother of Menelaus king of Sparta whose wife Helen was carried off to Troy by Paris a prince of that city in Asia Minor This event led Agamemnon to muster the military might of the Greek city states in a war of revenge After the long war and the eventual destruction of Troy he sailed home to his wife Clytemnestra and his family Upon arriving he was murdered either by his wife or by her lover Aegisthus To avenge this treachery Agamemnon s son Orestes killed both Clytemnestra and Aegisthus The story of this revenge and its outcome is told in three plays by Aeschylus Agamemnon Choephoroi and Eumenides It is also the basis of the plot in the Electra of Sophocles and the Electra of Euripides All three of these playwrights lived in

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  • Greece, A History of Ancient Greece, Troy
    perhaps 20 rectangular houses Troy II was twice as large and had higher sloping stone walls protecting an acropolis on which stood the king s palace and other princely residences which were built of brick in a megaron plan This city came to an end through fire and Schliemann mistakenly identified it with Homer s Troy In the burnt layer s debris were found a trove of gold jewelry and ornaments and gold silver copper bronze and ceramic vessels that Schliemann named Priam s treasure The burning of Troy II seems to have been followed by an economic decline each of the citadels of Troy III IV and V was fortified and somewhat larger than its predecessor but the houses inside the walls were much smaller and more closely packed than in Troy II Troy VI and VII may be assigned to the Middle and Late Bronze Ages c 1900 to 1100 BC Troy at this time had new and vigorous settlers who introduced domesticated horses to the Aegean area They further enlarged the city and erected a magnificent circuit of cut limestone walls that were 15 feet 4 5 m thick at the base rose to a height of more than 17 feet 5 m and had brick ramparts and watchtowers Inside the citadel which was now about 650 feet 200 m long and 450 feet 140 m wide great houses were laid out on ascending concentric terraces Troy VI was destroyed by a violent earthquake a little after 1300 BC Dörpfeld had identified this stage as Homeric Troy but its apparent destruction by an earthquake does not agree with the realistic account of the sack of Troy in Greek tradition Moreover the city s date as indicated by imported Mycenaean pottery found in the earthquake debris is too early for the Trojan War The survivors of the earthquake quickly rebuilt the town thus inaugurating the short lived Troy VIIa The ruins were leveled and covered over by new buildings which were set close together and filled all available space inside the fortress Almost every house was provided with one or several huge storage jars that were sunk deep into the ground with only their mouths above the level of the floor Troy VIIa probably lasted little more than a generation The crowding together of houses and the special measures to store up food supplies suggest that preparations had been made to withstand a siege The town was destroyed in a devastating fire and remnants of human bones found in some houses and streets strengthen the impression that the town was captured looted and burnt by enemies Based on the evidence of imported Mycenaean pottery the end of Troy VIIa can be dated to between 1260 and 1240 BC The Cincinnati expedition under Blegen concluded that Troy VIIa was very likely the capital of King Priam described in Homer s Iliad which was destroyed by the Greek armies of Agamemnon The partly rebuilt Troy VIIb shows evidence of new

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/troy.htm (2016-02-11)
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