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  • World History International: Web Search Page
    History Related Essays Documents Maps and Music Oh human race born to fly upward Wherefore at but a little wind does thou so easily fall Dante World Wide Web Search Return To Home Page You may want to try finding a topic on this site using the Site Search page or Site Map Use this link to search for downloadable audio files Great Speeches External Link To A Language Translato

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  • Site Map
    Ancient Babylon Part Four Babylonia A History of Ancient Babylon Part Six Babylonia A History of Ancient Babylon Part Seven Babylonia A History of Ancient Babylon Part Seven Babylonia The Last Kings of Babylon Carthage A History Part Two Carthage A History Part Three Carthage A History Part Four Carthage Hannibal The Chaldeans Nebuchadnezzar The Chaldeans Nebuchadrezzar And His Successors The Chaldeans Babylonia Under The Kaldeans The Ancient City of Jericho The Genesis narrative in the light of recent scholarship Mesopotamia Calendar Sumeria Cosmogony and Cosmology Sumerian Culture Sumerian words and language 1 Institutions and practices Ensiand Lugal The Genesis narrative in the light of recent scholarship FLOOD LEGENDS Sumerian Flood Story Sumerian Gods and Goddesses Sumerian Homes Kish Sumerian Language Sumerian Language Sumerian Laws Literary and other historical sources For Sumeria Sumerian and Akkadian Myths Sumerian Shuruppak Sumerian Legend of Creation Sumerian Territorial States Sumeria and Ebla Sumeria and Larsa Sumeria The City Of Ur Sumerian Timeline Sumerian Wheel Ud Contract for the Sale of a Slave Gilgamesh ENKI Praise to Ishtar LAMENT FOR UR Poem of the Righteous Sufferer THE GREAT HYMN TO SHAMASH Penitential Prayer to Every God The Reforms of Urukagina Sumerian Inscription The Sumerian king list Sumerian Proverbs This is the page Harpist from Ur Spread and development of cuneiform Egypt Ancient Part Two Egypt from the predynastic through the Roman period Egypt Ancient Osiris and The history of Abydos Egypt Ancient Osiris and The history of Abydos Egypt Ancient Osiris and The history of Abydos Egypt Ancient Osiris and The history of Abydos Egypt Ancient Osiris and The history of Abydos The Art of Egypt Egypt Ancient Book Of The Dead Part One Egypt Ancient Osiris and The history of Abydos Egypt Ancient Osiris and The history of Abydos Egypt Ancient epigraphy Egypt Ancient epigraphy Egypt Ancient Hatshepsut Egypt Ancient Hieroglyphics Egypt Ancient IKHNATON Egypt Ancient Imhotep Egypt Ancient Kamose Egypt Ancient Law Egypt Ancient Menes Egypt Ancient Mythology Egypt Ancient Predynastic Egypt Egypt Ancient PYRAMIDS Egypt Ancient Relief sculpture and painting Egypt Ancient Religions Egypt Ancient legitimation of kings Egypt Ancient The recovery and study of ancient Egypt Egypt Ancient Summary of Egyptian Gods Egypt Ancient Significance of seasonal renewal in ancient Egypt Egypt Ancient CHAMPOLLION Jean Francois 1790 1832 and the Rosetta Stone Egypt Ancient Thutmose I and Thutmose II Egypt Ancient Thutmose III Etruscans Part Two Organization Etruscans Part Three Geography Etruscans Part Four Historical Periods Etruscans Part Five Expansion Etruscans Part Six Crisis and Decline Etruscans Part Seven Religion and Mythology Etruscans Part Eight Language and Writing Etruscans Part Ten Archaeolical Evidence Etruscans Part Eleven Etruscan Pottery Greece A History of Ancient Greece Greece A History of Ancient Greece Part Two Greece A History of Ancient Greece The Acropolis Greece A History of Ancient Greece AEGEAN CIVILIZATION Greece A History of Ancient Greece The Agora Greece A History of Ancient Greece ALCIBIADES Greece History of Ancient Greece Alexander The Great By Plutarch Greece A History of Ancient Greece Athens Greece A History of Ancient Greece Sparta Greece A History of Ancient Greece GREEK LITERATURE Greece A History of Ancient Greece Creativity In Culture Greece A History of Ancient Greece Draco and Solon Laws Greece A History of Ancient Greece The Dorians Greece A History of Ancient Greece Early History of the Hellenes Greece A History of Ancient Greece Economy And Society In Classical Greece Greece A History of Ancient Greece Greece and Ethics Greece A History of Ancient Greece Greek Genius Greece A History of Ancient Greece Greek Aty Greece A History of Ancient Greece Section I The Elements Of The Greek Spirit Greece A History of Ancient Greece Section II The Elements Of The Greek Spirit Greece A History of Ancient Greece Herodotus Greece A History of Ancient Greece Homer and Troy Greece A History of Ancient Greece Homeric Epics Greece A History of Ancient Greece Legacy Greece A History of Ancient Greece Marathon Greece A History of Ancient Greece Mythology Greece A History of Ancient Greece PELOPONNESIAN WAR Greece A History of Ancient Greece PERICLES Greece A History of Ancient Greece Hellenistic Politics Greece A History of Ancient Greece Religions Of Greece Greece A History of Ancient Greece Solon and Laws Greece A History of Ancient Greece Demaratus on the Spartan Way of Living Greece A History of Ancient Greece Spartan War Machine Greece A History of Ancient Greece THUCYDIDES Greece A History of Ancient Greece THUCYDIDES Aristotle Cyrenaics Diogenes of Sinope Epictetus Hippias PLATO Protagoras Pythagoras SOCRATES Stilpo Hebrews Accession Of Solomon Hebrews Judas Maccabaeus Liberates Judea Hebrews Jews Last Struggle For Freedom Their Final Dispersion Hebrews Great Jewish Revolt Siege And Destruction Of Jerusalem Hebrews Great Jewish Revolt Siege And Destruction Of Jerusalem Past Two Hebrews Great Jewish Revolt Siege And Destruction Of Jerusalem Past Three Hebrews Great Jewish Revolt Siege And Destruction Of Jerusalem Past Four Line of Hittite Kings The Hittite Gods The Hittite empire to c 1180 BC The rise and fall of the Hittites Indus River Valley Civilizations Part two Evolution Of The Dogeship In Venice State Of Italy Under The Lombards Part Two State Of Italy Under The Lombards Part Three Mesopotamia Emergence Of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia Literary Sources Of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia Achievements of ancient Mesopotamia Persians Conquests Of Cyrus The Great Persians Cyrus The Great Persians Cyrus conquests Persians Rise Of Persian Under Cyrus Persians Legacy Of Cyrus Persians Darius The Great Persians Darius The First Persians Darius As Administrator Persians Darius The First Persians Darius The First Pontus A History of Part Two Pontus A History of Part Three Pontus A History of Part Four Pontus A History of Part Five Rome Battle of Adrianople Ammianus Rome Assassination Of Caesar Rome Caesar Conquers Gaul Rome POMPEY Rome Roman Way of Declaring War Rome Description of the Roman Army Rome Rome Established As A Republic Rome Rome Established As A Republic Part Two Rome Tacitus Germania Rome Gladiator Rome Gracchi And Their Reforms Rome The Grandeur of Rome Rome The Siege of Masada Rome Burning Of Rome Under Nero Rome Constitution of the Roman Republic Rome The Roman Army Rome The Samnite Wars Rome Spartacus Rome The Twelve Tables c 450 BCE Rome Letter Home From A Roiman Student Rome Ancient Rome Today In Pictures Rome The Grandeur That Was Page Two Rome The Grandeur That Was Page Three Rome The Grandeur That Was Page Four Rome The Grandeur That Was Page Five Date Rome The Grandeur That Was Page Six Date Rome The Grandeur That Was Page Seven Sumeria Enki and Ninursag The Stone Age The general picture Shelter in Ancient Civilizations The Scythians Early And High Baroque In Italy The Baroque Era In Architecture Bernini Gianlorenzo The Baroque Era In The Arts Middle Ages Political Organization Middle Ages Church In The Early Middle Ages Middle Ages Conclusion to Pages 1 2 and 3 Middle Ages Making Of Modern Britain Middle Ages Beginnings Of The French Nation Middle Ages Christian Reconquista In Spain Middle Ages Government In Germany And Italy Middle Ages The Crusades Middle Ages Towns In The Middle Ages Middle Ages Church In The High Middle Ages Middle Ages The Intellectual Synthesis Of The High Middle Ages Middle Ages Conclusion Middle Ages Castle Life Middle Ages Dynamic Culture of the Middle Ages Middle Ages Influence of Christianity Middle Ages Monks and Monasticism Middle Ages Peasant s Life Middle Ages Emergence Of Towns The flying buttress Gothic Art and Architecture The Iconoclastic controversy Iconoclasts and iconodules agreed on one fundamental point Attila Description of Huns and Goths The First Indian Empire The Meeting Of East And West In Ancient Times Conclusion India India In Turmoil Islam Muhammad Prophet Of Islam Islam The Islamic Faith And Law Islam The Spread Of Islam Islam Conclusion Islam The Coming Of Islam To South Asia Islam The Spread Of Islam To Southeast Asia Islam The further spread of Islam Islam Abbasids Zenith Of Islamic Civilization Islam Islamic Culture Islam The Arab Empire Of The Umayyads Islam From Arab To Islamic Empire The Early Abbasid Era Islam The Mosque As A Symbol Of Islamic Civilization Islam An Age Of Learning And Artistic Refinement Islam Western Intrusions In The Arab Islamic Heartlands The Mongols Founding Of The Mongol Empire By Genghis Khan The Yuan Akbar Establishes The Mogul Empire In India Author Height Of The Mongol Power In China Author The Ottomans Part three The Ottomans Part three The Ottomans Part three Saracen Conquest Of Syria Part Two Saracens Conquer Egypt Destruction Of The Library At Alexandria Saracens In Spain Battle Of The Guadalete Geographical Basis Of History Part II HUME KANT KIERKEGAARD SARTRE The Battle of Hastings The Venerable Bede Castles The Franks A History of the Franks Goths Conquest Of Africa By The Vandals Byzantine Empire Part Two Byzantine Empire Part Three Byzantine Empire Part Four Byzantine Empire Byzantium including its cities kings religion and wars The religious beliefs and practices of the ancient Celts Holy Roman Empire Page Two Holy Roman Empire Page Three Holy Roman Empire Page Four Holy Roman Empire Page Five and Six Holy Roman Empire Page Six Holy Roman Empire Page Seven Holy Roman Empire Page Eight and Nine Holy Roman Empire Page Eight and Nine Holy Roman Empire Page Eleven Holy Roman Empire Page Twelve Holy Roman Empire Page Thirteen Holy Roman Empire Page Fourteen Holy Roman Empire Page Fifteen Holy Roman Empire Page Sixteen Holy Roman Empire Page Eighteen Holy Roman Empire Page Eighteen Holy Roman Empire Page Nineteen Holy Roman Empire Page Twenty Holy Roman Empire Page Twenty One Holy Roman Empire Page Twenty Two Holy Roman Empire Page Twenty Three Holy Roman Empire Page Twenty Four Holy Roman Empire Page Twenty Five Holy Roman Empire Career Of Charlemagne Crusades An Overview Crusade The First Crusade The Third Crusades Venetians And Crusaders Take Constantinople 1187 Crusades Saladin Takes Jerusalem From The Christians England A History of Kings and Queens England A History of Archbishops of Canterbury England A History of ARTHURIAN LEGEND England A History of ALFRED THE GREAT England A History of England Under The Good Saxon Alfred England A History of Bede England A History of Bede Conversion of England England A History of Canute Becomes King Of England England A History of England Breaks With The Roman Church Great Civil War In England Great Civil War In England Cromwell Edward I Conquers Wales Description Of Elizabethan England England Under Edward The First England Under Edward The Sixth Harold II Henry VIII And Anglicanism England Under Mary England Under Harefoot LOCKE John 1632 1704 DIDEROT Denis 1713 84 VOLTAIRE 1694 1778 ROUSSEAU Jean Jacques 1712 78 The Enlightenment throughout Europe Feudal System An Overview of Feudalism Feudal System An Overview of Feudalism Feudal System An Overview of Feudalism Feudal System An Overview of Feudalism Feudal System An Overview of Feudalism Feudal System An Overview of Feudalism Feudal System An Overview of Feudalism Feudal System An Overview of Feudalism Feudal System An Overview of Feudalism Feudal System An Overview of Feudalism Feudal System An Overview of Feudalism Feudal System An Overview of Feudalism The Beginnings Of The French Nation The History Of France The History Of France The History Of France The History Of France History Of Europe During The Middle Ages Author The History Of France The History Of France The History Of France The History Of France The History Of France The History Of France The French Revolution Agincourt Europe Transformed Italy A History Part Three Italy A History Part Four Italy A History Part Five Italy A History Part Six Italy A History Part Seven Italy A History Part Seven Saint Simon s Portrait of Louis XIV Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Two Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Three Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Three Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Four Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Five Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Six Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Seven Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Eight Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Nine Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Ten Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Tweleve Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Thirteen Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Fourteen Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Fifteen Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Sixteen Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Seventeen Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Eighteen Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Nineteen Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Twenty Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Twenty one Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Twenty Two Napoleon Bonaparte Life and History of Part Twenty Three Horatio Nelson The French Revolution and Napoleon Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences by Dr The Renaissance Civilizations Past And Present The Northern Renaissance Raphael I INTRODUCTION Leonardo da Vinci Titian I Early Life II The Florentine Republic III The Medici IV The Prince V Quotations From The Prince DONATELLO MICHELANGELO di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni RUSSIAN REVOLUTION UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS Battle Of Bannockburn Spain A History of Part One Spain A History of Part One Spain A History of Part One Spain A History of Part One Spain A History of Part One Agincourt And The Finger Baseball and the National Anthem By 1943 July 4th Main Lincoln Page Better Angels What was it like Great Men Doing Great Things An April Fool An American Song How It All Began Presidential Comments New Page 1 The Race to Build the Bomb by Tony Sakalauskas Every sailing ship had to have cannon for protection A DAY IN THE LIFE OF In the olden days in Germany and Austria The saying In 1925 Shortly after the discovery of X THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION The Code of Hammurabi Constitution of The Confederate States of America Dedication to The Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies Nicolaus Copernicus 1543 Declaration of Independence Lincoln s 2nd Inaugural Main Lincoln Page Quotations of Thomas Jefferson Jefferson on Slavery The Magna Carta of England Martin Luther 95 Theses The Mayflower Compact Give Me Liberty Or Give Me Death Resolutions of the Stamp Act Congress October 19 The Paris Peace Treaty of 1783 Treaty of Westphalia The Truman Doctrine THE FIRST THANKSGIVING PROCLAMATION The Rights of Man The Paris Peace Treaty of 1783 Washington Statutes of Willliam The Conqueror The Constitution of The United States Ancient World Maps Byzantium and Islam Europe from 400 Ad to 1700 AD Operation Barbarosa Battle of the Buldge Christianity Apostles Christianity Jesus Christianity Paul Saul Christianity REFORMED CHURCHES Christianity ROMAN CATHOLICISM DEAD SEA SCROLLS Christianity Rise And Spread Of Christianity Part Two The American Civil War From Sumter to Surrender at Appomattox Abraham Lincoln Farewell Address The American Civil War From Sumter to Surrender at Appomattox Abraham Lincoln First Inaugural Address The American Civil War From Sumter to Surrender at Appomattox Abraham Lincoln House Divided Speech Main Lincoln Page Main Lincoln Page The American Civil War Jefferson Davis Inaugural The American Civil War John B Gordon Antietam The American Civil War John B Gordon Chancellorsville The American Civil War From Sumter to Surrender at Appomattox Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain Hold The Line at All Costs Joshua Chamberlain The American Civil War From Sumter to Surrender at Appomattox Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain Report on Gettysburg The American Civil War From Sumter to Surrender at Appomattox Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain The Charge of Bayonets The American Civil War From Sumter to Surrender at Appomattox Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain The Crash of Hell The Race Up the Round Top Unforgotten Sons of God Thomas Jefferson on Slavery History of the Franks The Conversion of Clovis Two Accounts 496 Theodoric King of the Ostrogoths The Fourth Crusade and the establishment of the Latin Empire In 1195 Isaac II was deposed and blinded by his brother Alexius III Cuneiform is the system of writing used most extensively in the ancient Middle East Have you ever wondered what happened to the 56 men who signed the Declaration of Independence BOOK II Contents BOOK III Contents BOOK IV Contents BOOK V Contents An Explanation of Hieroglyphics Egyptian Hieroglyphics Free Hieroglyphics Alexander The Great Alexander the Great Unless Alexander was himself ultimately responsible for his father Greece A History of Ancient Greece Herodotus and Sparta Greece A History of Ancient Greece The Trojan War Greece A History of Ancient Greece Troy Heinrich Schliemann The Industrial Revolution Ragz International AEMILIUS PAULUS Agrippa Claudius Titus Augustus Caesar CONSTANTINE THE GREAT Crassus Domitian Name FLAMININUS Gaius Marius Gaius Sulla HADRIAN List of Augustus BURIALS IN THE MAUSOLEUM OF AUGUSTUS MARCELLUS by Plutarch MARCUS AURELIUS Nero NUMA POMPILIUS Plutarch Plutarch Plutarch Pompey Antony By Plutarch Romulus By Plutarch Scipio Africanus Livy Livy Livy Scipio Africanus Crushes Hannibal At Zama And Subjugates Carthage The Interview Between Hannibal And Scipio In Africa Caligula By Suetonius Tiberius By Suetonius The Great Delayer Trajan Vespasian LENIN STALIN Sumerian Language and Words Continued THE LONG MARCH OF BOB SLAUGHTER Reporting the war was old Bob Slaughter By 1943 Events Leading to the Japanese Attack of Pearl Harbor Hawaii Photos of Pearl Harbor A Day In The Life Of A Battle of Britain Pilot Battle of Britain statistics The Battle of Britain 1940 The Battle of Britain 1940 The Battle of Britain 1940 The Turning Point HOLOCAUST Literature of the Holocaust and Anne Frank World War II Casualties Egypt Ancient Book Of The Dead Part Two Egypt Ancient Book Of The Dead Part Three Egypt Ancient Book Of The Dead Part Four Egypt Ancient Book Of The Dead Part Five Egypt Ancient Book Of The Dead Part Six Egypt Ancient Book Of The Dead Part Seven Egypt Ancient Book Of The Dead Part Eight Egypt Ancient Osiris and The history of Abydos Solon Legislation Part Two Solon Legislation Part Three Greece A History of Ancient Greece Solon A Biography England England A Glimpse

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  • World History International: Alphabetical Contents, Page One
    The Americas Babylonia Babylonia Civilization And Culture In The Kassite Period Civilization And Culture In The Kassite Period Civilization And Culture In The Kassite Period Civilization And Culture In The Kassite Period Hammurabi Of Babylon Hammurabi Of Babylon The Code Of Hammurabi The Last Kings Of Babylonia Bach Johann Baptists Barbarian West A Complete History Of The European Middle Ages Castle Life Conclusion Government In Germany And Italy Influence Of Christianity Monks And Monasticism Political Organization In The Early Middle Ages Rise Of Trade And Towns The Beginnings Of The French Nation The Christian Reconquista In Spain The Church In The Early Middle Ages The Church In The High Middle Ages The Crusades The Intellectual Synthesis Of The High Middle Ages The Making Of Modern Britain The Middle Ages The Peasant The Rise Of Towns Castles Castle Life Dynamic Culture Of Medieval Europe Franks History Of The Franks The Conversion Of Clovis Two Accounts 496 The Battle Of Hastings The Goths Theodoric King Of The Ostrogoths The Vandals The Venerable Bede Baroque Era Baroque And Rococo Architecture Bernini Early And High Baroque In Italy Baroque Art Benjamin Franklin Experiments With Electricity Bible The Black Americans Black Regiments Blacks Who Fought For The South Excerpt The Black Codes The Emancipation Proclamation Slavery Laws Black Death The Boer War Bourbons Boxer wars British Dominion In The New World Buddhism Foundations Of Bulgarians Byzantine Empire Byzantium Including Its Cities Kings Religion And Wars The Iconoclastic Controversy The Fourth Crusade And The Establishment Of The Latin Empire In 1195 Isaac Ii Byzantine Empire Byz2 Byz3 Byz4 California Acquisition Of California The Discovery Of Gold Canaanite Culture And Religion Canada An Early History From Discovery To The End Of French Rule Canada Canada Canada Canada Cartier Explores Cannery Islands Discover Of Carthage A Complete History Of Ancient Carthage Hannibal The Carthaginian Carthage History Part Two Carthage History Part Four Carthage History Part Three Catherine The Great Causes Of Civilization Civilizations Past And Present Cave Art Celts The Religious Beliefs And Practices Of The Ancient Celts Charlemagne China A Brief History Of China The Beginnings Of China War With Japan China Spread Of Culture To Japan Chinese Revolution and Mao Chivalry Christianity Catholic Church From Its Beginning To The End Of The Sixteenth Christianity Calvinism Christianity Calvin Is Driven From Paris Christianity History Of Apostle Jesus Christ Paul Reformed Churches Roman Catholicism The Bible Dead Sea Scrolls Christianity Bible Christianity Bible Is Translated Into English Christianity Methodism Rise Of Christianity Modern Age Christianity Origins Of Christianity Presbyterianism Rise Of Christianity Rise And Triumph Of Christianity Rise And Spread Christianity Rise During The Middle Ages Christianity Separation Of The Greek And Roman Church Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus Extracts From Journal Letter From Columbus Civilization Civilizations An Overview Civilization Dawn Of Civilization Drawbacks and Limitations Civilization Causes Of Neolithic Civilizations Civilization Causes Of Civilization End of the Early period of Development Civilization Rise Of Civilization Rise Of In The Middle East And Africa Civilization Women In Patriarchal Societies

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  • World History International: World History Essays From Prehistory To The Present
    Documents Maps and Music Oh human race born to fly upward Wherefore at but a little wind does thou so easily fall Dante The Ancient World Byzantium Islam and the Ottomans Maps of Europe from 400 to 1700 AD World War Two History Related World Maps Return To Home Page New World Maps 1586 AD 1587 AD 1647 AD 1694 AD 1724 AD 1746 AD 1776 AD 1839 AD The

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  • Alamo, Battle of the Alamo
    toward Bexar with his thirty troopers Reinforcements began to trickle into Bexar On February 3 Travis and his cavalry contingent reached the Alamo The twenty six year old cavalry officer had traveled to his new duty station under duress Yet like Bowie he soon became committed to Neill and the fort which he began to describe as the key to Texas About February 8 David Crockett arrived with a group of American volunteers On February 14 Neill departed on furlough He learned that illness had struck his family and that they desperately needed him back in Bastrop While on leave Neill labored to raise funds for his Bexar garrison He promised that he would resume command when circumstances permitted certainly within twenty days and left Travis in charge as acting post commander Neill had not intended to slight the older and more experienced Bowie but Travis like Neill held a regular army commission For all of his notoriety Bowie was still just a volunteer colonel The Alamo s volunteers accustomed to electing their officers resented having this regular officer foisted upon them Neill had been in command since January his maturity judgment and proven ability had won the respect of both regulars and volunteers Travis however was unknown The volunteers insisted on an election and their acting commander complied with their wishes The garrison cast its votes along party lines the regulars voted for Travis the volunteers for Bowie In a letter to Smith Travis claimed that the election and Bowie s subsequent conduct had placed him in an awkward situation The night following the balloting Bowie dismayed Bexar residents with his besotted carousal He tore through the town confiscating private property and releasing convicted felons from jail Appalled by this disorderly exhibition Travis assured the governor that he refused to assume responsibility for the drunken irregularities of any man not even the redoubtable Jim Bowie Fortunately this affront to Travis s sense of propriety did not produce a lasting breach between the two commanders They struck a compromise Bowie would command the volunteers Travis the regulars Both would co sign all orders and correspondence until Neill s return There was no more time for personality differences They had learned that Santa Anna s Centralist army had reached the Rio Grande Though Travis did not believe that Santa Anna could reach Bexar until March 15 his arrival on February 23 convinced him otherwise As Texans gathered in the Alamo Travis dispatched a hastily scribbled missive to Gonzales The enemy in large force is in sight We want men and provisions Send them to us We have 150 men and are determined to defend the garrison to the last Travis and Bowie understood that the Alamo could not hold without additional forces Their fate now rested with the General Council in San Felipe Fannin at Goliad and other Texan volunteers who might rush to assist the beleaguered Bexar garrison Santa Anna sent a courier to demand that the Alamo surrender Travis

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  • The Peoples And Civilizations Of The Americas
    migrants to the Americas continued to occupy large portions of the continents dividing in small bands and moving seasonally to take advantage of the resources These peoples sometimes were organized in larger tribes and might recognize a chief but generally their societies were organized around family groups or clans and there was little hierarchy or specialization of skills With some exceptions the material culture of these people tended to be relatively simple Peoples who had made a partial transition to agriculture lived in larger and more complex societies Here the village of 100 or 200 rather than the band of 25 was more common Men often continued to hunt or make war but women tilled the fields Agricultural techniques tended to be simple and often necessitated periodic migration when soils played out The villages of these tribes of semisedentary farmers and hunters have been found on the Brazilian coast and in the woodlands of eastern North America It was among peoples who had made a full transition to sedentary agriculture that the complex societies emerged most clearly for it was here that surplus production was most firmly established These populations could reach the millions Men shifted into agriculture forming a peasant base for a hierarchical society that might have included classes of nobles merchants and priests Strong states and even empires could result and the extraction of tribute from subject peoples and redistribution by central authority formed the basis of rule Chiefdoms And States Sedentary peoples and hunters often lived near each other and shared mutual hostility and disregard but in fact the categories of sedentary semisedentary and hunter gatherers were never clear cut and many aspects of life were shared by them all To some extent the large imperial states with highly developed religious and political systems and monumental architecture which we call civilizations such as Teotihuacan in Mexico or Chimor in Peru were variants of a widely diffused pattern the chiefdom From the Amazon to the Mississippi valley populations sometimes in the tens of thousands were governed by hereditary chieftains who ruled from central towns over a large territory including smaller towns or villages that paid tribute to the ruler The predominant town often had a ceremonial function with large temples and a priest class Beautiful pottery and other goods indicate specialization The existence of social hierarchy with a class of nobles and commoners was also a characteristic of many of the chiefdoms It is sometimes argued that in the state building societies ceremonial centers became true cities and clan or family relations were replaced by social classes The scale of the society was greater but the differences are not always so obvious Both the Aztecs and the Incas with their complex social hierarchies maintained aspects of earlier clan organization In fact in terms of social organization warfare and ceremonialism there seems to be little that differentiates the Maya city states from some of the chiefdoms in South America or southeastern North America Cahokia near St Louis an important town of the Mississippian culture c A D 1050 1200 with its great earthen mounds covering an area of five square miles probably supported a population of over 30 000 as large as the great cities of the Maya civilization A distinction between sedentary agriculturists and nomadic hunters may be more useful than the distinctions between civilized and uncivilized Building and carving in stone and thus the ability of archaeologists to reconstruct a culture seem to have become a major feature in determining the difference between a state or chiefdom and by extension between civilizations and societies that do not seem to merit the title At the same time we should recognize that the settled peoples and the hunters recognized the difference between their ways of life and when they were in contact they often shared a mutual jealousy and a hostility toward each other The Incas looked down on the peoples of the Amazonian rain forest and referred to them as chunchos or barbarians but they could never conquer these peoples They traded with them from time to time and sometimes used them as mercenaries The Aztecs called the nomads who lived to the north chichimecs which came to mean uncivilized but the Aztecs themselves may have originated as one of these groups which were constantly pushing in on the wealthier and better fed settled areas To some extent the pattern of tension between the nomad and the civilized Old World was reproduced in the Americas Mesoamerica Geographically the region of Mesoamerica is a complex patchwork of zones that is also divided vertically into cooler highlands tropical lowlands and coasts and an intermediate temperate zone These variations created a number of environments with different possibilities for human exploitation They also created a basis for trade as peoples sought to acquire goods not available locally Much trade flowed from the tropical lowlands to the cooler central plateau The long slow process of change by which the hunters and gatherers of Mexico began to settle into small villages and domesticate certain plants is poorly known Human beings were probably in Mesoamerica by 20 000 B C with men hunting the large game animals and most likely women involved in the gathering activities Beginning around 5000 B C gathering and an increasing use of plant foods eventually led to the domestication of certain plants Beans peppers avocados squash and eventually maize served as the basis of agriculture in the region Later innovations such as the introduction or development of pottery took place around 2000 B C but there was little to differentiate one small village from the next As the Shang dynasty ruled in China permanent sedentary villages based to some extent on agriculture were first beginning to appear in Mesoamerica These were small and modest settlements The lack of elaborate burials indicates that these were societies without much hierarchy or social differentiation and the uniform and simple nature of pottery and other material goods indicates a lack of craft specialization But the number of these Archaic period villages proliferated and population densities rose The Olmec Mystery Quite suddenly a new phenomenon appeared On the southeastern coast of Mesoamerica Veracruz and Tabasco without much evidence of gradual development in the archeological record a cultural tradition emerged that included irrigated agriculture monumental sculpture urbanism an elaborate religion and the beginnings of calendrical and writing systems The origin of the Olmecs remains unknown but their impressive sites at La Venta and Tres Zapotes attest to a high degree of social organization and artistic skill The major Olmec sites at San Lorenzo 1200 900 B C and La Venta 900 500 B C are in the wet tropical forests of the Gulf coast of eastern Mexico but Olmec objects and art style spread to the drier highlands of central Mexico and toward the Pacific coast to the south The Olmecs have been called the mother civilization of Mesoamerica Maize cultivation especially along the rivers provided the basis for a state ruled by a hereditary elite and in which the ceremonialism of a complex religion dominated much of life At about the time that Tutankhamen ruled in Egypt the Olmec civilization flourished in Mesoamerica The Olmecs remain a mystery Some of their monumental sculptures seem to bear Negroid features others appear to be representations of humans with feline attributes They were great carvers of jade and traded or conquered to obtain it They developed a vigesimal numerical system based on 20 and a calendar that combined a 365 day year with a 260 day ritual cycle This became the basis of all Mesoamerican calendar systems What language they spoke and what became of their civilization remain unknown but some scholars believe that they were the ancestors of the great Maya civilization that followed Olmec objects and probably Olmec influence and religious ideas spread into many areas of the highlands and lowlands creating the first generalized culture in the region By 900 B C Olmec style and symbols were widely diffused in Mesoamerica During this preclassic period c 2000 300 B C other civilizations were developing elsewhere in middle America At Monte Alban in the valley of Oaxaca the Zapotec people created a large hilltop center based on terraced and irrigated agriculture in the surrounding valley A writing system and calendar are also apparent here perhaps borrowed from the Olmecs as is considerable evidence of warfare and conquest By about A D 500 Monte Alban had become a chief ceremonial center covering over 15 square miles and including some 30 000 people Farther to the south some early Maya centers began to appear In the central valley of Mexico Olmec artistic influence could be seen in expanding communities Much of what we know about these cultures must be interpreted from their architecture and art and the symbols these contain Art and especially public art was both decorative and functional It defined the place of the individual in society and in the universe It had political and religious functions in the Americas as in many civilizations these aspects were usually united Interpreting artistic styles and symbols presents a variety of problems in the absence of written sources The diffusion of Olmec symbols is a good example of the problem Did the use of these symbols among other peoples in distant places indicate trade networks missionary activity colonies conquest or aesthetic appreciation We do not know but clearly Olmec influence was widely felt throughout the region The Classic Era After the Olmec initiative the period from about A D 150 to 900 was a great age of cultural achievement in Mesoamerica Archeologists refer to it as the classic period and during it great civilizations flourished in a number of places The two main centers of civilization were the high central valley of Mexico and the more humid tropical lands of southern Mexico Yucatan and Guatemala The Valley Of Mexico Teotihuacan In central Mexico the city of Teotihuacan near modern Mexico City emerged as an enormous urban center with important religious functions It was supported by intensive agriculture in the surrounding region and probably by crops planted around the great lake in the central valley of Mexico Teotihuacan s enormous temple pyramids rival those of ancient Egypt and suggest a considerable state apparatus with the power to mobilize large numbers of workers Population estimates for this city which covered nine square miles are as high as 200 000 This would make it greater than the cities of ancient Egypt or Mesopotamia and probably second only to ancient Rome of the cities of classical antiquity There were residential districts for certain trades and ethnic groups and there is considerable evidence of wide social distinctions between the priests nobles and the common folk The many gods of Mesoamerica still worshiped when the Europeans arrived in the 16th century were already honored at Teotihuacan The god of rain the feathered serpent the goddess of corn and the goddess of waters are all apparent in the murals and decorations that adorned the palaces and temples In fact almost all Teotihuacan art seems to be religious in nature The influence of Teotihuacan extended as far to the south as Guatemala and tribute was probably exacted from many regions Teotihuacan objects such as pottery and finely worked obsidian and Teotihuacan artistic style are found in many other areas Teotihuacan influence was strong at Monte Alban in Oaxaca Warriors dressed in the style of Teotihuacan can be found far to the south in the Maya region Teotihuacan represented either a political empire or a dominant cultural and ideological style that spread over much of central Mexico The lack of battle scenes on the walls of Teotihuacan have led some scholars to believe that the dominance of Teotihuacan led to a long period of peace maintained by the authority and power of the great city Internally the fact that the later buildings tend to be secular palaces rather than temple pyramids perhaps indicates a shift in power and orientation from religious to civil authority The Classic Maya Between about A D 300 and 900 at roughly the same time that Teotihuacan dominated the central plateau the Maya peoples were developing Mesoamerican civilization to its highest point in southern Mexico and Central America While the Tang dynasty ruled China Charlemagne created his domain in Europe and Islam spread its influence from Spain to India after the classical period had ended in the Old World a great civilization flourished in the American tropics The American classic period launched as the Old World classical civilizations were coming to an end lasted well into the next period of world history Because of the richness of the archeological records and because Maya peoples still retained many aspects of the classic period when the Spanish arrived and observed them it is possible to reconstruct the world of the classic Maya in some detail We can use the Maya as an example of the classic period in Mesoamerican development for while their civilization was distinctive it was based on some principles common to the area The Maya culture extended over a broad region that now includes parts of five different countries Mexico Guatemala Belize Honduras and El Salvador It included a number of related languages and it had considerable regional variation as can be seen in its art styles The whole region shared a common culture that included monumental architecture a written language a calendrical and mathematical system a highly developed religion and concepts of statecraft and social organization With an essentially Neolithic technology in an area of dense forests plagued by insects and often poor soils as many as 50 city states flourished How did the large classic Maya urban religious centers such as Tikal Copan Quirigua and Palenque with populations between 30 000 and 80 000 support themselves Slash and burn agriculture as practiced today in the region was not enough The classic Maya used a number of agricultural systems Evidence of irrigation swamp drainage and a system of artificially constructed ridged fields at river mouths where intensive agriculture was practiced has now appeared and seems to explain the Maya ability to support large urban centers and a total population of perhaps five million While some authorities still believe that the Maya centers were essentially ceremonial and were occupied primarily by rulers artisans and an elite it seems clear that populations concentrated in and around these centers to create a densely occupied landscape The Maya cities vary in size and layout but almost all include large pyramids surmounted by temples complexes of masonry buildings that served administrative or religious purposes elite residences a ritual ball court and often a series of altars and memorial pillars These memorial monuments or stelae were erected to commemorate triumphs and events in the lives of the Maya rulers or to mark ceremonial occasions The stelae were usually dated and inscribed with hieroglyphic script A complex calendar and a sophisticated writing system were two of the greatest Maya achievements Religion Writing And Society The calendar system and sophisticated astronomical observations were made possible by a vigesimal system of mathematics The Maya knew the concept of zero and used it in conjunction with the concept of place value or position With elegant simplicity and only signs for one five and zero they could make complex calculations As among all the Mesoamerican peoples the Maya calendar was based on a concept of recurring cycles of different length They had a sacred cycle of 260 days divided into months of 20 days within which there was a cycle of 13 numbers This ritual calendar meshed with a solar calendar of 365 days or 18 months of 20 days with a remainder of 5 dead or inauspicious days at the end of the year The two calendars operated simultaneously so any day would have two names but the particular combination of those two days would reoccur only once every 52 years Thus among the Maya and most Mesoamericans cycles of 52 years were sacred The classic Maya however differed from their neighbors in that they also kept a long count or a system of dating from a fixed date in the past This date 3114 B C by our calendar probably marked the beginning of a great cycle of 5200 years since the world was created Like other Mesoamericans and the ancient Peruvians the Maya believed in great cycles of creation and destruction of the universe The long count enabled the Maya to date events with precision The earliest recorded Maya date that survives is A D 292 and the last is A D 928 A second great Maya accomplishment was the creation of a writing system The Maya wrote on stone monuments murals and ceramics and in books of folded bark paper and deerskin only four of which survive Scribes were honored and held an important place in society Although we still cannot read many inscriptions recent advances now permit the reading of many texts The Maya written language was like Chinese and Sumerian a logographic system that combined phonetic and semantic elements With this system and about 287 symbols they were able to record and transmit complex concepts and ideas The few remaining books are religious and astronomical texts and many inscriptions on ceramics deal with the cult of the dead and with the complex Maya cosmology The Maya view of the universe was a flat earth whose cardinal points and center were each dominated by a god who supported the sky Above the sky extended 13 levels of heavens and below nine underworlds each dominated by a god Through these levels the sun and the moon also conceived as deities passed each day A basic concept of Mesoamerican dualism male and female good and bad day and night emphasized the unity of all things similar to that found in some Asian religions Thus each god often had a parallel female consort or feminine form and often an underworld

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/early%20america.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • First American Legislature
    Friday July 30 1619 upward of a year before the Mayflower left England with the Pilgrims A record of the proceedings is preserved in the London State Paper Office in the form of a report from the speaker John Pory John Pory secretary of the colony was chosen speaker and John Twine clerk The Assembly sat in the choir of the church the members of the council sitting on either side of the Governor and the speaker right before him the clerk next the speaker and Thomas Pierse the sergeant standing at the bar Before commencing business prayer was said by Mr Bucke the minister Each burgess then as called on took the oath of supremacy When the name of Captain Ward was called the speaker objected to him as having seated himself on land without authority Objections were also made to the burgesses appearing to represent Captain Martin s patent because they were by its terms exempted from any obligation to obey the laws of the colony Complaint was made by Opochancano that corn had been forcibly taken from some of his people in the Chesapeake by Ensign Harrison commanding a shallop belonging to this Captain John Martin master of the Ordinance The speaker read the commission for establishing the council of state and the General Assembly and also the charter brought out by Sir Thomas Yeardley This last was referred to several committees for examination so that if they should find anything not perfectly squaring with the state of the colony or any law pressing or binding too hard they might by petition seek to have it redressed especially because this great charter is to bind us and our heirs forever Mr Abraham Persey was the Cape merchant The price at which he was to receive tobacco either for commodities or upon bills was fixed at three shillings for the best and eighteen pence for the second rate After inquiry the burgesses from Martin s patent were excluded and the Assembly humbly demanded of the Virginia Company an explanation of that clause in his patent entitling him to enjoy his lands as amply as any lord of a manor in England adding the least the Assembly can allege against this clause is that it is obscure and that it is a thing impossible for us here to know the prerogatives of all the manors in England And they prayed that the clause in the charter guaranteeing equal liberties and immunities to grantees might not be violated so as to divert out of the true course the free and public current of justice Thus did the first Assembly of Virginia insist upon the principle of the Declaration of Rights of 1776 that no man or set of men are entitled to exclusive or separate emoluments or privileges from the community but in consideration of public services Certain instructions sent out from England were drawn into laws for protection of the Indians from injury and regulating intercourse with them and

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