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  • Middle Ages, Cultural Expression During The Middle Ages
    of divine love guides him through paradise At last Dante stands before God and words fail him as he finds peace in the presence of the highest form of love Here my powers rest from their high fantasy but already I could feel my being turned instinct and intellect balanced equally 5 Footnote 5 Dante Alighieri The Paradiso Canto XXXIII lines 142 144 trans John Ciardi New York Mentor Books 1961 p 365 The Wit Of Chaucer In the Canterbury Tales Geoffrey Chaucer 1340 1400 one of the greatest figures in medieval literature reveals a cross section of contemporary English life customs and thought The twenty nine pilgrims who assembled in April 1387 at an inn before journeying to the shrine of St Thomas a Becket at Canterbury were a motley group The truly perfect gentle knight just returned from warring against the heathen in Turkey was accompanied by his son a young squire who loved so much by night that he slept no more than does a nightingale The clergy was represented by the coy prioress who would weep if she but saw a mouse caught in a trap 6 the rotund monk who loved to eat fat swan and ride good horses the friar who knew the best taverns and all the barmaids in town and the poor parish priest who was a credit to his faith Footnote 6 Geoffrey Chaucer Canterbury Tales trans J U Nicolson New York Crown Publishers 1936 pp 3 5 Chaucer s fame rests securely upon his keen interest in human nature and his skill as a storyteller The Midland dialect he used was the linguistic base for the language of future English literature just as Dante s use of the Tuscan dialect fixed the Italian tongue Artistic Correlation The Summa Theologica of St Thomas Aquinas and the Divine Comedy of Dante represent 40 07the best intellectual expressions of the medieval spirit Similarly the Gothic cathedral is the ultimate artistic expression of the age Each of these masterpieces represents a different aspect of the attempt to organize everything into an overall pattern that would glorify God The order and form of scholastic thought find their counterparts in the structure and style of the Gothic edifices A scholastic treatise was systematically arranged in logical parts the cathedral was similarly articulated in space The main sections the nave transept and apse were individually distinctive yet integrated into a coherent structure Cathedral Architecture In the eleventh century a tremendous architectural revival occurred marked by the recovery of the art of building in stone rather than in wood as was common during the early Middle Ages At a much later date the name Romanesque came to be applied to this new style because like early Christian architecture it was based largely on Roman models Although details of structure and ornamentation differed with locality the round arch was a standard Romanesque feature Both barrel and cross vaults were used particularly in northern Europe where the need to build

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  • Life and History of Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France
    have done as much in his native Italian A preparatory school was necessary then for a time The place settled on was Autun where Joseph was to enter college and there in January 1779 Charles Bonaparte arrived with the two boys Napoleon was nine and a half years old when he entered the school at Autun He remained three months and in that time made sufficient progress to fulfil the requirements at Brienne The principal record of the boy s conduct at Autun comes from Abbe Chardon who was at the head of the primary department He says of his pupil Napoleon brought to Autun a sombre thoughtful character He was interested in no one and found his amusements by himself He rarely had a companion in his walks He was quick to learn and quick of apprehension in all ways When I gave him a lesson he fixed his eyes upon me with parted lips but if I recapitulated anything I had said his interest was gone as he plainly showed by his manner When reproved for this he would answer coldly I might almost say with an imperious air I know it already sir When he went to Brienne Napoleon left his brother Joseph behind at Autun The boy had not now one familiar feature in his life The school at Brienne was made up of about one hundred and twenty pupils half of whom were supported by the government They were sons of nobles who generally had little but their great names and whose rule for getting on in the world was the rule of the old regime secure a powerful patron and by flattery and servile attentions continue in his train Young Bonaparte heard little but boasting and saw little but vanity His first lessons in French society were the doubtful ones of the parasite and courtier The motto which he saw everywhere practised was The end justifies the means His teachers were not strong enough men to counteract this influence The military schools of France were at this time in the hands of religious orders and the Minim Brothers who had charge of Brienne were principally celebrated for their ignorance They certainly could not change the arrogant and false notions of their aristocratic young pupils It was a dangerous experiment to place in such surroundings a boy like the young Napoleon proud ambitious jealous lacking any healthful moral training possessing an Italian indifference to truth and the rights of others already conscious that he had his own way to make in the world and inspired by a determination to do it From the first the atmosphere at Brienne was hateful to the boy His comrades were French and it was the French who had subdued Corsica They taunted him with it sometimes and he told them that had there been but four to one Corsica would never have been conquered but that the French came ten to one When they said But your father submitted

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  • Newton, The European Dream Of Progress And Enlightenment
    that are sensible therefore we ascribe it universally to all others also That abundance of bodies are hard we learn by experience and because the hardness of the whole arises from the hardness of the parts we therefore justly infer the hardness of the undivided particles not only of the bodies we feel but of all others That all bodies are impenetrable we gather not from reason but from sensation The bodies which we handle we find impenetrable and thence conclude impenetrability to be a universal property of all bodies whatsoever That all bodies are movable and endowed with certain powers which we call the inertia of persevering in their motion or in their rest we only infer from the like properties observed in the bodies which we have seen The extension hardness impenetrability mobility and inertia of the whole result from the extension hardness impenetrability mobility and inertia of the parts and hence we conclude the least particles of all bodies to be also all extended and hard and impenetrable and movable and endowed with their proper inertia And this is the foundation of all philosophy Moreover that the divided but contiguous particles of bodies may be separated from one another is a matter of observation and in the particles that remain undivided our minds are able to distinguish yet lesser parts as is mathematically demonstrated But whether the parts so distinguished and not yet divided may by the powers of Nature be actually divided and separated from one another we cannot certainly determine Yet had we the proof of but one experiment that any undivided particle in breaking a hard and solid body suffered a division we might by virtue of this rule conclude that the undivided as well as the divided particles may be divided and actually

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  • Poland, First Partition Of
    village in Posnania was taxed at a stated number of marriageable girls who were sent to stock the districts of the Prussian dominions depopulated by the long wars Each girl s portion was to be a bed two pigs a cow and three ducats of gold It is said that one town alone was obliged to furnish the Prussian general Belling with fifty girls Under pretence that the magistrates of Dantzic prevented the levies troops were marched into the territories of the city a contribution of one hundred thousand ducats was exacted and one thousand young men were pressed for the Prussian service Frederick s military possession of Posnania as well as the greater part of Polish Prussia seemed to be but too consonant with his hinted claims and his arbitrary levies evinced not merely intended but actual possession Austria too was playing a similar part on the south In the spring of 1769 Birzynski at the head of a small troop of confederates entered Lubowla one of the towns in the starosty or district of Zips or Spiz with the intention of levying contributions as he was accustomed in a disorderly manner This little district is situated to the south of the palatinate of Cracow among the Carpathian Mountains and has been originally a portion of the kingdom of Hungary The confederates were followed by the Russians and took refuge in Hungary as was their custom This near approach of the Russians to the imperial frontiers was made a pretext by the court of Vienna for concentrating a body of troops there and at the same time hints were thrown out of Austria s claims not only to this but some of the adjacent districts Researches were ordered to be made into old records to establish these pretensions the Austrian troops seized the territory of Zips and engineers were employed by the Empress to mark out the frontier They advanced the boundary line along the districts of Sandecz Nowitarg and Czorsztyn and marked it out with posts furnished with the imperial eagle Stanislaus had complained of this proceeding in a letter of October 28 1770 to which the Empress returned for answer in January 1771 that she would willingly make an amicable arrangement after peace was established to settle the disputed frontier but that she was determined to claim her right to the district of Zips and that for the present it was requisite to pursue the operation of demarcation The Empress seems to have been instigated not only by the characteristic avidity of Austrian policy but by jealousies awakened by the near approaches of the Russian troops Besides it is a point of some consequence to be remembered though it seems to have escaped the observation of most historians that she had before her eyes a fearful proof of the danger of an uncertain frontier in the affair of Balta which was the ostensible cause of the war between Turkey and Russia This open encroachment on the Polish territory however was a fatal precedent Catharine and Frederick could advance as excuses for their proceedings that they were solely intended to restore tranquillity to Poland and that their possession was only temporary whereas Theresa s was a permanent seizure Frederick therefore endeavors strenuously in his writings to exonerate his intentions from censure and shifts the odium of this step on Austria but whether he is absolutely innocent of the injustice as he himself calls it or adds to his guilt by the height of hypocrisy and cant is a question not very difficult of solution The three powers could now readily understand each other s designs but the first communication which took place between them on the subject occurred in December 1770 and January 1771 In the former month Catharine invited Prince Henry Frederick s brother who had before been a personal acquaintance to her court and the wily despot of Prussia urged him earnestly to accept the invitation He reached St Petersburg in the midst of the festivities and rejoicings for the victories over the Turks and having like his brother abundant flattery at will he seized the opportunity of loading Catharine with compliments It would be absurd to suppose that the Empress masculine as her mind was could be insensible to this species of attack she like all other followers of ambition and conquest made the applause and admiration even of the vulgar the aim of her life and it can only be affectation in those who pretend to despise the adulation which they so eagerly labor for Henry was admitted to confidential conferences and so well did he avail himself of his opportunities and influence that he succeeded in persuading the Empress to accept the mediation of Austria between Turkey and Russia a commission with which he was charged by his brother It was in these conferences that the fate of Poland was decided While Catharine was hesitating about accepting the terms Austria proposed which were that she should renounce her design upon Moldavia and Wallachia the news arrived at St Petersburg that the Austrian troops had taken possession of Zips Catharine was much astonished at the proceeding and remarked that if Austria seized the Polish territory the two other neighboring powers must imitate her example until she desisted This hint suggested to Henry a mode of removing those objections of Austria which impeded the negotiation He knew that the court of Vienna was as eager for aggrandizement as Russia and that all her jealousies would be allayed by a similar accession of territory that at the same time she would never consent to have the Russians as her neighbors in Moldavia and Wallachia but would have no objection to their making an equal increase to that immense empire elsewhere Frederick s consent also must be purchased by an equal allotment where then he thought were there three such portions to be found but where Austria pointed out Catharine approved of the plan after a few moments reflection but mentioned two impediments first that when her troops had entered Poland she had solemnly declared that she would maintain the integrity of the kingdom the next that Austria would not receive such a proposal from her without suspicion These difficulties were readily removed the first by breaking the engagement and the second by making Frederick the negotiator with the court of Vienna Frederick s admirers pretend that he was unacquainted with this intrigue and when the plan was made known to him opposed it strenuously but that on the following day having reflected on the misfortunes of the Poles and on the impossibility of reestablishing their liberty he showed himself more tractable It is to be hoped that for the sake of Frederick s remnant of character that is not true after the singular manner in which he had evinced his concern for the misfortunes of the Poles and his solicitude for their liberty in Polish Prussia such pretensions would have been the very height of hypocrisy His scruples at any rate if any such existed were soon dispelled and he exerted himself in persuading the court of Vienna to enter into the plot Austria was but too ready to fall into the design the conflicting views indeed between Maria Theresa Joseph and their minister Kaunitz gave rise to some complication of politics and consequent delay Frederick strongly as he is said to have disclaimed the plan in the present instance was now the only party impatient to conclude it The slowness and irresolution of the Russians he says in his Memoires protracted the conclusion of the treaty of partition the negotiation hung chiefly on the possession of the city of Dantzic The Russians pretended they had guaranteed the liberty of this little republic but it was in fact the English who jealous of the Prussians protected the liberty of this maritime town and who prompted the Empress of Russia not to consent to the demands of his Prussian majesty It was requisite however for the King to determine and as it was evident that the master of the Vistula and the port of Dantzic would in time subject that city he decided that it was not necessary to stop such an important negotiation for an advantage which in fact was only deferred therefore his majesty relaxed in this demand After so many obstacles had been removed this secret contract was signed at St Petersburg February 17 1772 The month of June was fixed on for taking possession and it was agreed that the Empress Queen should be invited to join the two contracting powers and share in the partition It now remained to persuade Austria to join the coalition Joseph and Kaunitz were soon won over but Maria Theresa s conscience made a longer resistance The fear of hell she said restrained her from seizing another s possessions It was represented to her however that her resistance could not prevent the other two powers from portioning out Poland but might occasion a war which would cost the valuable lives of many whereas the peaceable partition would not spill a drop of blood She was thus she imagined placed in a dilemma between two sins and forgetting the command Do not evil that good may come she endeavored to persuade herself that she was doing her duty in choosing the least She yielded at length with the air of some religious devotee who exclaims to her artful seducer May God forgive you and at the same time sinks into his arms The contract was signed between Prussia and Austria on March 4th and the definite treaty of partition which regulated the three portions was concluded on August 5 1772 Russia was to have by this first partition the palatinates of Polotsk Vitebsk and Mstislavl as far as the rivers of Dwina and Dnieper more than three thousand square leagues Austria had for her share Red Russia Galicia and a portion of Podolia and Little Poland as far as the Vistula about twenty five hundred square leagues and Prussia was to be contented with Polish Prussia excepting Dantzic and Thorn with their territory and part of Great Poland as far as the river Notec or Netze comprising about nine hundred square leagues All the rest of the kingdom was to be insured to Stanislaus under the old constitution All the three powers thought it necessary to publish some defence of their conduct and in separate pamphlets they attempted to prove that they had legitimate claims on Poland and that their present violent seizures were only just resumptions of their own territory or equivalent to it Rulhiere says that Catharine only made her claim as a just indemnification for the trouble and expense which she had devoted to Poland this however it will be found by referring to her defence is not the case She sets forth the great kindness she had shown the republic by insuring the election of a Piast Stanislaus and uses these remarkable words on the subject That event was necessary to restore the Polish liberty to its ancient lustre to insure the elective right of the monarchy and to destroy foreign influence which was so rooted in the state and which was the continual source of trouble and contest She then exclaims against the confederates Their ambition and cupidity veiled under the phantom of religion and the defence of their laws pervade and desolate this vast kingdom without the prospect of any termination of this madness but its entire ruin She then proceeds with her Deduction endeavoring to prove from old authors that it was not till 1686 that the Polish limits were extended beyond the mouth of the Dwina and the little town of Stoika on the Dnieper five miles below Kiow The following is a specimen of the lawyer like sophistry which the Empress employs to establish her claim to the Russian territory which remained in the hands of the Poles after the treaty in 1686 The design of such a concession being only to put an end to a bloody war more promptly and by a remedy as violent as a devastation aussi violent qu une devastation to insure tranquility of neighborhood between two rival and newly reconciled nations it necessarily follows that every act on the part of the subjects of the republic of Poland contrary to such intention has ipso facto revived Russia s indisputable and unalienated right to all that extent of territory It must be observed also that this arrangement about the frontier was only provisional and temporary since it is expressly said that it shall only remain so until it has been otherwise amicably settled The object was therefore to give the nations time to lay aside their inveterate hatred and to remove immediate causes of dispute between the different subjects and consequent rupture between the two states Russia sacrificed for a time the possession of the territory which extends from the fertile town of Stoika to the river Tecmine and from the right bank of the Dnieper fifty versts in breadth along the frontiers of Poland There is no idea of cession here on the part of Russia it is a pledge gage which she advances for the solidity of the peace which ought to be returned to her when the object of it is effected This is the only reasonable construction which can be put upon the stipulation until it has been otherwise amicably settled Russia is not to be a loser because the confusion of the internal affairs of Poland has never allowed that country to come to a definite agreement on this subject notwithstanding the requests of Russia It does not demand much acumen to unveil such impudent sophistry as this The assertion that the arrangement was only provisional and temporary is false the treaty indeed left the detail of the boundary line to be drawn out by commissioners as must always be the case in arrangements of this kind and as was meant to be implied by the words which the Russian minister transforms into until it has been otherwise amicably arranged Such was the weak manner in which the Russian diplomatists imagined to deceive Europe their defence indeed is as triumphant a proof of the badness of their cause as the most earnest friend of Poland could desire Our surprise may well be excited at the weakness of the argument particularly when we remember that Catharine s servants had long been trained in glossing over the basest and most shameful transactions The ministers of St Petersburg said a contemporary writer are accustomed to appear without blushing at the tribunal of the public in defence of any cause the death of Peter and assassination of Prince John inured them to it Such a work hardly requires refutation Every sophism and every falsehood is a damning argument against the Russian cause Truth in fact is outraged in every page of the writing and one striking instance will suffice Catharine states that the Polish Government would never make any arrangement about the frontier but the fact is that even as late as 1764 commissioners were appointed at the diet of coronation for this very purpose but the Russians refused to nominate theirs again in 1766 when Count Rzewinski Polish ambassador to St Petersburg made a similar application he was answered that the affairs of the dissidents must be first settled The Austrian pretensions were even more elaborately drawn up than those of Russia In the first place the district of Zips the first sacrifice to Austrian rapacity came under consideration Sigismund who came to the Hungarian throne in 1387 mortgaged this district to Wladislas II Jagello King of Poland in 1412 for a stipulated sum of money It is commonly called the Thirteen Towns of Zips but the district contains sixteen No reclamation of it had been made till the present time it had then been in the undisputed possession of Poland nearly three hundred sixty years The chief demur which the Austrians now made to the mortgage was that the King of Hungary was restricted by the constitution as expressed in the coronation oath from alienating any portion of the kingdom But even this plea weak as it is under such circumstances is not available since it is proved that this article was never made a part of the coronation oath until the accession of Ferdinand I in 1527 The Austrian minister endeavored also to establish the right of his mistress to Galicia and Podolia as Queen of Hungary and the duchies of Oswiecim and Zator as Queen of Bohemia What lastly establishes indisputably the ancient claim of Hungary to the provinces in question is that in several seals and documents of the ancient kings of Hungary preserved in our archives the titles and arms of Galicia are always used After exhausting the records and stating that the crown of Hungary has never in any way renounced its rights and pretensions the author modestly winds up his arguments in the following way Consequently after such a long delay the house of Austria is well authorized in establishing and reclaiming the lawful rights and pretensions of her crowns of Hungary and Bohemia and to obtain satisfaction by the means which she now employs in the use of which she has exhibited the greatest moderation possible by confining herself to a very moderate equivalent for her real pretensions to the best provinces of Poland such as Podolia etc Frederick argues his cause on the general principles of civil law Since then he says the crown of Poland cannot prove express cessions which are the only good titles between sovereigns to confer a legitimate possession of disputed provinces it will perhaps have recourse to prescription and immemorial possession We all know the famous dispute among the learned on the question of prescription and natural right whether it obtains between sovereigns and free nations The affirmative

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  • Prussia
    Soviet Socialist Republics USSR The northeastern part of East Prussia was annexed by the USSR and the remainder was put under Polish administration Berlin was the capital of Prussia prior to World War II and the principal cities included Frankfurt am Main Cologne Essen Dortmund Düsseldorf Magdeburg Stettin now Szczecin and Königsberg now Kaliningrad EARLY HISTORY The people from whom the name Prussia is derived were usually called Prussi or Borussi in the earliest sources They were related to the Lithuanians and inhabited the region between the Wis³a Vistula and lower Niemen rivers The Saxons a Teutonic people entered eastern Europe in the 10th century and failed in their attempts to convert the Prussians to Christianity In 997 the Bohemian bishop and saint Adalbert was martyred as a missionary in Prussia The Christian faith was not established until about the middle of the 13th century when the Teutonic Knights subdued the country and brought German and Dutch settlers into the conquered territory By the end of the century the region was completely subjugated Thereafter it was ruled by the Teutonic Knights as a papal fief During the second half of the 14th century strong opposition to the Germans developed in eastern Europe In 1386 Poland and Lithuania entered into a dynastic union and in 1410 a Polish and Lithuanian army defeated the Teutonic Knights in the Battle of Tannenberg After a further period of warfare the terms of the second Peace of Thorn in 1466 left the Knights in possession of the eastern part of Prussia which it held as a fief of the Polish crown Western Prussia was ceded to Poland becoming known as Polish Royal Prussia Eastern Prussia became a secular duchy known as East Prussia or Ducal Prussia under the last grand master of the Teutonic Knights Albert of Hohenzollern a Lutheran who created himself 1st duke of Prussia in 1525 In 1618 the duchy still a vassal state of Poland passed to John Sigismund a Hohenzollern his grandson Frederick William elector of Brandenburg secured ducal Prussia s independence of Poland at the Peace of Oliva in 1660 Frederick William centralized the administration of the duchy and assumed governing powers that were formerly exercised by the nobility and the town oligarchies KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA Frederick William s son Frederick I became king of Prussia in 1701 receiving royal recognition in exchange for a promise of military aid to Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I Frederick s son Frederick William I greatly increased the size of the Prussian army and rebuilt the organization of the state around the military establishment To his son Frederick II the Great he left enormous financial reserves and the best army in Europe Through the military genius of Frederick the Great Prussia became a major power in Europe In 1740 he invaded the Austrian province of Silesia and precipitated the War of the Austrian Succession By the end of the Seven Years War in 1763 Prussian territory included Silesia and in 1772 Frederick annexed

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  • The European Age Of Reason
    classicism of his time Reflections Of The Age In Literature More than in art neoclassicism in literature came closer to voicing the eighteenth century s fascination with reason and scientific law Indeed the verbal media of poetry drama prose and exposition were commonly used to convey the new philosophic principles A typical poetic voice of the Age of Reason in England was Alexander Pope 1688 1744 In his most famous work An Essay on Man 1733 Pope expressed the optimism and respect for reason that marked the era He described a Newtonian universe in the following often quoted lines All are but parts of one stupendous whole Whose body nature is and God the soul All nature is but art unknown to thee All chance direction which thou cannot see All discord harmony not understood All partial evil universal good And spite of pride in erring reason s spite One truth is clear Whatever is is right 5 Footnote 5 Quoted in G K Anderson and W E Buckler eds The Literature of England 2 vols Glenview IL Scott Foresman 1958 vol 1 p 1568 Two other poetic voices deserve mention here One belonged to the English Countess of Winchelsea 1661 1720 who extolled reason and feminine equality in her verse The other was that of a Massachusetts slave girl Phyllis Wheatley 1753 1784 whose rhyming couplets in the style of Pope pleaded the cause of freedom for the American colonies and for her race Reflecting the common disdain for irrational customs and outworn institutions were such masterpieces of satire as Candide 1759 by the French man of letters Francois Marie Arouet better known as Voltaire 1694 1778 Another famous satirist England s Jonathan Swift 1667 1745 ridiculed the pettiness of human concerns in Gulliver s Travels 1726 wherein Captain Gulliver in visiting the fictitious land of Lilliput found two opposing factions the Big endians who passionately advocated opening eggs at the big end and the Little endians who vehemently proposed an opposite procedure The novel became a major literary vehicle in this period It caught on first in France during the preceding century and was then popularized in England Robinson Crusoe 1719 by Daniel Defoe 1659 1731 is often called the first modern English novel The straight prose of the novel satisfied a prevailing demand for clarity and simplicity but the tendency in this period to focus on middle class values heroic struggle and sentimental love foreshadowed the coming romantic movement Writing along these lines Samuel Richardson 1689 1761 produced Pamela 1740 1741 the story of a virtuous servant girl and Henry Fielding 1707 1754 wrote the equally famous Tom Jones 1749 the rollicking tale of a young man s deep pleasures and superficial regrets Each novel in its own way defined a natural human morality In both France and England women found a uniquely promising outlet for their long ignored talents in the romantic novel with its accent on personal feminine concerns and domestic problems Two among the multitude of able French women novelists were Madame de Graffigny 1695 1758 whose Lettres D Une Peruvienne 1730 became a best seller and Madame de Tencin 1682 1749 who wrote The Siege of Calais a historical novel of love and danger In England Fanny Burney 1753 1840 was universally acclaimed after publication of her first novel Eveline 1778 about a young lady s entrance into the world Aphra Behn 1640 1689 was an early playwright whose novel Oroonoko 1688 was a plea for the natural person long before the works of Defoe and Rousseau The Enlightenment And The Age Of Reason In Philosophy Western Europe s worship of reason reflected only vaguely in art and literature was precisely expressed in a set of philosophic ideas known collectively as the Enlightenment It was not originally a popular movement Catching on first among scientists philosophers and some theologians it was then taken up by literary figures who spread its message among the middle classes Ultimately it reached the common people in simplified terms associated with popular grievances The most fundamental concept of the Enlightenment were faith in nature and belief in human progress Nature was seen as a complex of interacting laws governing the universe The individual human being as part of that system was designed to act rationally If free to exercise their reason people were naturally good and would act to further the happiness of others Accordingly both human righteousness and happiness required freedom from needless restraints such as many of those imposed by the state or the church The Enlightenment s uncompromising hostility towards organized religion and established monarchy reflected a disdain for the past and an inclination to favor utopian reform schemes Most of its thinkers believed passionately in human progress through education They thought society would become perfect if people were free to use their reason Before the eighteenth century the Enlightenment was confined to Holland and England Its earlier Dutch spokesmen were religious refugees like the French Huguenot Pierre Bayle 1674 1706 whose skepticism and pleas for religious toleration were widely known in France Baruch Spinoza 1632 1687 a Jewish intellectual and Holland s greatest philosopher was a spokesman for pantheism the belief that God exists in all of nature Spinoza s influence along with Newton s profoundly affected English thinkers Mary Astell 1666 1731 perhaps the earliest influential English feminist lauded rational thinking and cited Newton as proof of an ordered universe Such ideas were given more credibility by John Locke 1632 1704 the famous English philosopher Back home from exile in Holland after the Glorious Revolution of the 1680s Locke applied Newton s recently published principles to psychology economics and political theory With Locke the Enlightenment came to maturity and began to spread abroad After the Peace of Utrecht 1713 the Enlightenment was largely a French Phenomenon Its leading proponents were known as the philosophes although the term cannot in this instance be translated literally as philosophers The philosophes were mostly writers and intellectuals

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  • The Reaction Against Reason
    be developed or be crippled by experience but it originated in the person s thinking nature Abstract reason apart from science and its laws was a valid source of moral judgment and religious interpretation Thus Kant used reason to give a philosophic base back to mystical religion 10 Footnote 10 See Immanuel Kant The Critique of Pure Reason New York Collier 1902 The Religious Reaction Religious rationalism despite its appeal to intellectuals provoked considerable religious reaction Part of this came from theologians such as Bishop Joseph Butler 1692 1752 and William Paley 1743 1805 in England both of whom defended Christianity and challenged deism on its own rational grounds Even more significant was a widespread emotional revival stressing religion of the heart rather than the mind The new movement known as pietism began in England after 1738 when the brothers John 1703 1791 and Charles 1708 1788 Wesley began a crusade of popular preaching in the Church of England The Anglican pietists discarded traditional formalism and stilted sermons in favor of a glowing religious fervor producing a vast upsurge of emotional faith among the English lower classes Methodist at first a term of derision came to be the respected and official name for the new movement After John Wesley s death in 1791 the Methodists officially left the Anglican church to become a most important independent religious force in England On the continent Lutheran pietism led by Philipp J Spener 1635 1705 and Emanuel Swedenborg 1688 1772 followed a pattern similar to Methodism Swedenborg s movement in Sweden began as an effort to reconcile science and revelation after Swedenborg s death it became increasingly emotional and mystical Spener in Germany stressed Bible study hymn singing and powerful preaching The Moravian movement sprang from his background Under the sponsorship of Count Nicholaus von Zinzendorf 1700 1760 it spread to the frontiers of Europe and to the English colonies in America The Great Awakening a tremendous emotional revival sustained by Moravians Methodsts Baptists and Quakers swept the colonial frontier areas from Georgia to New England in the late eighteenth century Women played prominent roles in this activity organizing meetings and providing auxiliary services such as charities and religious instruction Among the Quakers women were often ministers and itinerant preachers One was Jemima Wilkinson 1752 1819 leader of the Universal Friends another was Ann Lee 1736 1784 who founded Shaker colonies in New York and New England By the 1780s religious rationalism and pietism stood in opposition to each other Proponents of each disagreed passionately on religious principles though they agreed on the issue of religious freedom Both rationalists and pietists were outside the state churches both feared persecution and both recognized the flagrant abuses of religious establishments The two movements were therefore almost equally threatening to state churches and the old regimes The New Humanitarianism One dominant characteristic of the early Enlightenment the concern for individual human worth received new impetus from religion in the reaction against reason The demand for reform

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  • THE REFORMATION
    X condemned Luther s teachings in a bull or papal decree Luther subsequently burned the document and a copy of the church s canon law Charles V the Holy Roman emperor ordered him to recant in 1521 Luther declared he would not do so until he was convinced by the testimony of the Scriptures Other scholars helped to spread the Reformation Philipp Melanchthon Luther s colleague at the University of Wittenberg became the chief theologian of the Reformation in Germany Johannes Reuchlin of Heidelberg enlarged the field of ideas by fostering the study of Hebrew and Greek Knowledge of these ancient languages enabled people to read the Bible in its original forms From Johannes Tauler of Strasbourg had come the mystic idea of heart religion which had led to Luther s doctrine of justification by faith Reformers in other lands were also zealous Erasmus of Rotterdam the great Dutch forerunner of Luther spurred the study of the early church through his printed editions of the Greek New Testament and writings of the church fathers Lefevre d Etaples of France and Huldrych Zwingli of Switzerland held views similar to Luther s In England John Colet worked for reform within the church John Calvin made Geneva the world center of the Presbyterian and Reformed churches Other Reasons for the Reformation The Reformation was partly an outgrowth of the Renaissance The uneasy political situation in Europe also helped to extend the religious revolt because many local rulers wanted their independence from the emperor Charles V Finally many tradesmen and peasants were seeking more rights from rulers and landlords and resented the church because they believed that it favored their oppressors Throughout Western Europe there was unrest Luther s challenge of old religious doctrines and traditions became a rallying point for these forces of discontent and provided a motive for breaking established ties Widely different groups from princes to peasants hailed him as their own special leader Gradually however they all saw that he was not working for any special group and so by 1530 many of his followers had drifted away from him By that time however the Reformation had spread beyond the control even of Luther Memorable Events in the Reformation Although the Reformation swept through all Western Europe the most dramatic events of this great religious revolt took place in Germany It was in Wittenberg Saxony that Luther posted his list of propositions 95 theses in 1517 and burned the papal bull in 1520 A year later he was condemned by the Diet of Worms In 1525 German nobles encouraged by Luther put down the Peasants Revolt Another great event in the Reformation occurred in 1529 when the word Protestant was first used formally In Germany the Diet of Speyer decreed that changes of religion must stop and that the authority of the Catholic church be restored The Lutheran minority in the Diet signed a protest against that decree however From this protest comes the modern term for the religious denominations

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/reformation.htm (2016-02-11)
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