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  • Benjamin Franklin Experiments With Electricity
    longer withhold their assent Repeated sparks were drawn from the key a vial was charged a shock given and all the experiments made which are usually performed with electricity About a month before this period some ingenious Frenchman had completed the discovery in the manner originally proposed by Dr Franklin The letters which he sent to Mr Collinson it is said were refused a place in the Transactions of the Royal Society of London However this may be Collinson published them in a separate volume under the title of New Experiments and Observations on Electricity made at Philadelphia in America They were read with avidity and soon translated into different languages A very incorrect French translation fell into the hands of the celebrated Buffon who notwithstanding the disadvantages under which the work labored was much pleased with it and repeated the experiments with success He prevailed on his friend M Dalibard to give his countrymen a more correct translation of the works of the American electrician This contributed much toward spreading a knowledge of Franklin s principles in France The King Louis XV hearing of these experiments expressed a wish to be a spectator of them A course of experiments was given at the seat of the Duc d Ayen at St Germain by M de Lor The applause which the King bestowed upon Franklin excited in Buffon Dalibard and De Lor an earnest desire of ascertaining the truth of his theory of thunder gusts Buffon erected his apparatus on the tower of Montbar M Dalibard at Marly la Ville and De Lor at his house in the Estrapade at Paris some of the highest ground in that capital Dalibard s machine first showed signs of electricity On May 16 1752 a thunder cloud passed over it in the absence of M Dalibard and a number of sparks were drawn from it by Coiffier joiner with whom Dalibard had left directions how to proceed and by M Paulet the prior of Marly la Ville An account of this experiment was given to the Royal Academy of Sciences by M Dalibard in a memoir dated May 13 1752 On May 18th M de Lor proved equally as successful with the apparatus erected at his own house These philosophers soon excited those of other parts of Europe to repeat the experiment among whom none signalized themselves more than Father Beccaria of Turin to whose observations science is much indebted Even the cold regions of Russia were penetrated by the ardor of discovery Professor Richmann bade fair to add much to the stock of knowledge on this subject when an unfortunate flash from his conductor put a period to his existence By these experiments Franklin s theory was established in the most convincing manner Besides these great principles Franklin s letters on electricity contain a number of facts and hints which have contributed greatly toward reducing this branch of knowledge to a science His friend Mr Kinnersley communicated to him a discovery of the different kinds of electricity excited by rubbing glass and sulphur This was first observed by M du Faye but it was for many years neglected The philosophers were disposed to account for the phenomena rather from a difference in the quantity of electricity collected and even Du Faye himself seems to have at last adopted this doctrine Franklin at first entertained the same idea but upon repeating the experiments he perceived that Mr Kinnersley was right and that the vitreous and resinous electricity of Du Faye were nothing more than the positive and negative states which he had before observed and that the glass globe charged positively or increased the quantity of electricity on the prime conductor while the globe of sulphur diminished its natural quantity or charged negatively These experiments and observations opened a new field for investigation upon which electricians entered with avidity and their labors have added much to the stock of our knowledge Franklin s letters have been translated into most of the European languages and into Latin In proportion as they have become known his principles have been adopted In speaking of the first publication of his papers on electricity Franklin himself says Obliged as we were to Mr Collinson for the present of the tube etc I thought it right he should be informed of our success in using it and wrote him several letters containing accounts of our experiments He got them read in the Royal Society where they were at first not thought worth so much notice as to be printed in their Transactions One paper which I wrote to Mr Kinnersley on the sameness of lightning with electricity I sent to Mr Mitchel an acquaintance of mine and one of the members also of that society who wrote me word that it had been read but was laughed at by the connoisseurs The papers however being shown to Dr Fothergill he thought them of too much value to be stifled and advised the printing of them Mr Collinson then gave them to Cave for publication in his Gentleman s Magazine but he chose to print them separately in a pamphlet and Dr Fothergill wrote the preface Cave it seemed judged rightly for his profession for by the additions that arrived afterward they swelled to a quarto volume which has had five editions and cost him nothing for copy money The following is an extract from the preface to the first edition of the pamphlet published by Cave as above mentioned It may be necessary to acquaint the reader that the following observations and experiments were not drawn up with the view to their being made public but were communicated at different times and most of them in letters written on various topics as matter only of private amusement But some persons to whom they were read and who had themselves been conversant in electrical disquisitions were of opinion they contained so many curious and interesting particulars relative to this affair that it would be doing a kind of injustice to the public to confine them solely to the limits of a private acquaintance The editor was therefore prevailed upon to commit such extracts of letters and other detached pieces as were in his hands to the press without waiting for the ingenious author s permission so to do and this was done with the less hesitation as it was apprehended the author s engagements in other affairs would scarce afford him leisure to give the public his reflections and experiments on the subject finished with that care and precision of which the treatise before us shows he is alike studious and capable Dr Priestley in his History of Electricity published in the year 1767 gives a full account of Franklin s experiments and discoveries Nothing was ever written upon the subject of electricity he says which was more generally read and admired in all parts of Europe than these letters There is hardly any European language into which they have not been translated and as if this were not sufficient to make them properly known a translation of them has lately been made into Latin It is not easy to say whether we are most pleased with the simplicity and perspicuity with which these letters are written the modesty with which the author proposes every hypothesis of his own or the noble frankness with which he relates his mistakes when they were corrected by subsequent experiments Though the English have not been backward in acknowledging the great merit of this philosopher he has had the singular good fortune to be perhaps even more celebrated abroad than at home so that to form a just idea of the great and deserved reputation of Dr Franklin we must read the foreign publications on the subject of electricity in many of which the terms Franklinism Franklinist and the Franklinian System occur in almost every page In consequence of this Dr Franklin s principles bid fair to be handed down to posterity as equally expressive of the true principles of electricity as the Newtonian philosophy is of the system of nature in general The observations and theories of Franklin met with high favor in France where his experiments were repeated and the results verified to the admiration of the scientific world In the year 1753 his friend Peter Collinson wrote to him from London The King of France strictly commands the Abbe Mazeas to write a letter in the politest terms to the Royal Society to return the King s thanks and compliments in an express manner to Mr Franklin of Pennsylvania for his useful discoveries in electricity and the application of pointed rods to prevent the terrible effect of thunder storms And the same Mr Collinson wrote as follows to the Reverend Jared Eliot of Connecticut in a letter dated London November 22 1753 Our friend Franklin will be honored on St Andrew s Day the 30th instant the anniversary of the Royal Society when the Right Honorable the Earl of Macclesfield will make an oration on Mr Franklin s new discoveries in electricity and as a reward and encouragement will bestow on him a gold medal This ceremony accordingly took place and the medal was conferred Philadelphia 28 Mch 1747 To Peter Collinson Sir Your kind present of an electric tube with directions for using it has put several of us on making electrical experiments in which we have observed some particular phenomena that we look upon to be new I shall therefore communicate them to you in my next though possibly they may not be new to you as among the numbers daily employed in those experiments on your side of the water it is probable some one or other has hit upon the same observations For my own part I never was before engaged in any study that so totally engrossed my attention and my time as this has lately done for what with making experiments when I can be alone and repeating them to my friends and acquaintance who from the novelty of the thing come continually in crowds to see them I have during some months past had little leisure for anything else I am etc B Franklin Philadelphia 11 July 1747 To Peter Collinson Sir In my last I informed you that in pursuing our electrical inquiries we had observed some particular phenomena which we looked upon to be new and of which I promised to give you some account though I apprehended they might not possibly be new to you as so many hands are daily employed in electrical experiments on your side of the water some or other of which would probably hit on the same observations The first thing is the wonderful effect of pointed bodies both in drawing off and throwing off the electrical fire For example Place an iron shot of three or four inches diameter on the mouth of a clean dry glass bottle By a fine silken thread from the ceiling right over the mouth of the bottle suspend a small cork ball about the bigness of a marble the thread of such a length as that the cork ball may rest against the side of the shot Electrify the shot and the ball will be repelled to the distance of four or five inches more or less according to the quantity of electricity When in this state if you present to the shot the point of a long slender sharp bodkin at six or eight inches distance the repellency is instantly destroyed and the cork flies to the shot A blunt body must be brought within an inch and draw a spark to produce the same effect To prove that the electrical fire is drawn off by the point if you take the blade of the bodkin out of the wooden handle and fix it in a stick of sealing wax and then present it at the distance aforesaid or if you bring it very near no such effect follows but sliding one finger along the wax till you touch the blade the ball flies to the shot immediately If you present the point in the dark you will see sometimes at a foot distance and more a light gather upon it like that of a firefly or glow worm the less sharp the point the nearer you must bring it to observe the light and at whatever distance you see the light you may draw off the electrical fire and destroy the repellency If a cork ball so suspended be repelled by the tube and a point be presented quick to it though at a considerable distance it is surprising to see how suddenly it flies back to the tube Points of wood will do near as well as those of iron provided the wood is not dry for perfectly dry wood will no more conduct electricity than sealing wax To show that points will throw off as well as draw off the electrical fire lay a long sharp needle upon the shot and you cannot electrize the shot so as to make it repel the cork ball Or fix a needle to the end of a suspended gun barrel or iron rod so as to point beyond it like a little bayonet and while it remains there the gun barrel or rod cannot by applying the tube to the other end be electrized so as to give a spark the fire continually running out silently at the point In the dark you may see it make the same appearance as it does in the case before mentioned The repellency between the cork ball and the shot is likewise destroyed 1st by sifting fine sand on it this does it gradually 2dly by breathing on it 3dly by making a smoke about it from burning wood 4thly by candle light even though the candle is at a foot distance these do it suddenly The light of a bright coal from a wood fire and the light of a red hot iron do it likewise but not at so great a distance Smoke from dry rosin dropped on hot iron does not destroy the repellency but is attracted by both shot and cork ball forming proportionable atmospheres round them making them look beautifully somewhat like some of the figures in Burnet s or Whiston s Theory of the Earth N B This experiment should be made in a closet where the air is very still or it will be apt to fail The light of the sun thrown strongly upon both cork and shot by a looking glass for a long time together does not impair the repellency in the least This difference between firelight and sunlight is another thing that seems new and extraordinary to us We had for some time been of opinion that the electrical fire was not created by friction but collected being really an element diffused among and attracted by other matter particularly by water and metals We had even discovered and demonstrated its afflux to the electrical sphere as well as its efflux by means of little light windmill wheels made of stiff paper vanes fixed obliquely and turning freely on fine wire axes also by little wheels of the same matter but formed like water wheels Of the disposition and application of which wheels and the various phenomena resulting I could if I had time fill you a sheet The impossibility of electrizing one s self though standing on wax by rubbing the tube and drawing the fire from it and the manner of doing it by passing it near a person or thing standing on the floor etc had also occurred to us some months before Mr Watson s ingenious Sequel came to hand and these were some of the new things I intended to have communicated to you But now I need only mention some particulars not hinted in that piece with our reasonings thereupon though perhaps the latter might well enough be spared 1 A person standing on wax and rubbing the tube and another person on wax drawing the fire they will both of them provided they do not stand so as to touch one another appear to be electrized to a person standing on the floor that is he will perceive a spark on approaching each of them with his knuckle 2 But if the persons on wax touch one another during the exciting of the tube neither of them will appear to be electrized 3 If they touch one another after exciting the tube and drawing the fire as aforesaid there will be a stronger spark between them than was between either of them and the person on the floor 4 After such strong spark neither of them discover any electricity These appearances we attempt to account for thus We suppose as aforesaid that electrical fire is a common element of which every one of the three persons above mentioned has his equal share before any operation is begun with the tube A who stands on wax and rubs the tube collects the electrical fire from himself into the glass and his communication with the common stock being cut off by the wax his body is not again immediately supplied B who stands on wax likewise passing his knuckle along near the tube receives the fire which was collected by the glass from A and his communication with the common stock being likewise cut off he retains the additional quantity received To C standing on the floor both appear to be electrized for he having only the middle quantity of electrical fire receives a spark upon approaching B who has an over quantity but gives one to A who has an under quantity If A and B approach to touch each other the spark is stronger because the difference between them is greater After such touch

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  • Recantation Of Galileo Author
    on this absurdity of mine It is true that when I sketched this little work I did hope that Copernicus would not after eighty years be convicted of error and I had intended to develop and amplify it further but a voice from heaven suddenly awakened me and at once annihilated all my confused and entangled fancies This sarcasm if it had been in print would probably have been dangerous It was safe in a private letter but it shows us his real feelings However he was left comparatively quiet for a time He was getting an old man now and passed the time studiously enough partly at his house in Florence partly at his villa in Arcetri a mile or so out of the town Here was a convent and in it his two daughters were nuns One of them who passed under the name of Sister Maria Celeste seems to have been a woman of considerable capacity certainly she was of a most affectionate disposition and loved and honored her father in the most dutiful way This was a quiet period of his life spoiled only by occasional fits of illness and severe rheumatic pains to which the old man was always liable Many little circumstances are known of this peaceful time For instance the convent clock won t go and Galileo mends it for them He is always doing little things for them and sending presents to the lady superior and his two daughters He was occupied now with problems in hydrostatics and on other matters unconnected with astronomy a large piece of work which I must pass over Most interesting and acute it is however In 1623 when the old Pope died there was elected to the papal throne as Urban VIII Cardinal Barberino a man of very considerable enlightenment and a personal friend of Galileo s so that both he and his daughters rejoice greatly and hope that things will come all right and the forbidding edict be withdrawn The year after this election he manages to make another journey to Rome to compliment his friend on his elevation to the pontifical chair He had many talks with Urban and made himself very agreeable Encouraged doubtless by marks of approbation and reposing too much confidence in the individual good will of the Pope without heeding the crowd of half declared enemies who were seeking to undermine his reputation he set about after his return to Florence his greatest literary and most popular work Dialogues on the Ptolemaic and Copernican Systems This purports to be a series of four conversations between three characters Salviati a Copernican philosopher Sagredo a wit and scholar not specially learned but keen and critical and who lightens the talk with chaff Simplicio an Aristotelian philosopher who propounds the stock absurdities which served instead of arguments to the majority of men The Aristotelians were furious and represented to the Pope that he himself was the character intended by Simplicio the philosopher whose opinions get alternately refuted and ridiculed by the other two till he is reduced to an abject state of impotence The infirm old man was instantly summoned to Rome His friends pleaded his age he was now seventy his ill health the time of year the state of the roads the quarantine existing on account of the plague It was all of no avail to Rome he must go and on February 14th he arrived His daughter at Arcetri was in despair and anxiety and fastings and penances self inflicted on his account dangerously reduced her health At Rome he was not imprisoned but he was told to keep indoors and show himself as little as possible He was allowed however to stay at the house of the Tuscan ambassador instead of in jail By April he was removed to the chambers of the Inquisition and examined several times Here however the anxiety was too much and his health began to give way seriously so before long he was allowed to return to the ambassador s house and after application had been made was allowed to drive in the public garden in a half closed carriage Thus in every way the Inquisition dealt with him as leniently as they could He was now their prisoner and they might have cast him into their dungeons as many another had been cast By whatever they were influenced perhaps the Pope s old friendship perhaps his advanced age and infirmities he was not so cruelly used Still they had their rules he must be made to recant and abjure his heresy and if necessary torture must be applied This he knew well enough and his daughter knew it and her distress may be imagined Moreover it is not as if they had really been heretics as if they hated or despised the Church of Rome On the contrary they loved and honored the Church They were sincere and devout worshippers and only on a few scientific matters did Galileo presume to differ from his ecclesiastical superiors his disagreement with them occasioned him real sorrow and his dearest hope was that they could be brought to his way of thinking and embrace the truth This condition of things could not go on From February to June the suspense lasted On June 20th he was summoned again and told he would be wanted all next day for a rigorous examination Early in the morning of the 21st he repaired thither and the doors were shut Out of those chambers of horror he did not reappear till the 24th What went on all those three days no one knows He himself was bound to secrecy No outsider was present The records of the Inquisition are jealously guarded That he was technically tortured is certain that he actually underwent the torment of the rack is doubtful Much learning has been expended upon the question especially in Germany Several eminent scholars have held the fact of actual torture

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/Galileo,%20recantation_of.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Harvey Discovers The Circulation Of The Blood
    at the College of Physicians commenced six years before Spieghel s death was likely in those days of slow communication and in the absence of periodical publications to have reached Italy Now let anyone familiar with the pages of Spigelius take up Harvey s treatise and mark the contrast The main object of the Exercitatio is to put forth and demonstrate by direct experimental and other accessory evidence a proposition which is far from being hinted at either by Spigelius or by any of his contemporaries or predecessors and which is in diametrical contradiction to the views respecting the course of the blood in the veins which are expounded in their works From Galen to Spigelius they one and all believed that the blood in the vena cava and its branches flows from the main trunk toward the smaller ramifications There is a similar consensus in the doctrine that the greater part if not the whole of the blood thus distributed by the veins is derived from the liver in which organ it is generated out of the materials brought from the alimentary canal by means of the vena portae And all Harvey s predecessors further agree in the belief that only a small fraction of the total mass of the venous blood is conveyed by the vena arteriosa to the lungs and passes by the arteria venosa to the left ventricle thence to be distributed over the body by the arteries Whether some portion of the refined and pneumatic arterial blood traversed the anastomotic channels the existence of which was assumed and so reached the systemic veins or whether on the contrary some portion of the venous blood made its entrance by the same passages into the arteries depended upon circumstances Sometimes the current might set one way sometimes the other In direct opposition to these universally received views Harvey asserts that the natural course of the blood in the veins is from the peripheral ramifications toward the main trunk that the mass of the blood to be found in the veins at any moment was a short time before contained in the arteries and has simply flowed out of the latter into the veins and finally that the stream of blood which runs from the arteries into the veins is constant continuous and rapid According to the view of Harvey s predecessors the veins may be compared to larger and smaller canals fed by a spring which trickles into the chief canals whence the water flows to the rest The heart and lungs represent an engine set up in the principal canal to aerate some of the water and scatter it all over the garden Whether any of this identical water came back to the engine or not would be a matter of chance and it would certainly have no sensible effect on the motion of the water in the canals In Harvey s conception of the matter on the other hand the garden is watered by channels so arranged as to form a circle two points of which are occupied by propulsive engines The water is kept moving in a continual round within its channels as much entering the engines on one side as leaves them on the other and the motion of the water is entirely due to the engines It is in conceiving the motion of the blood as a whole to be circular and in ascribing that circular motion simply and solely to the contractions of the walls of the heart that Harvey is so completely original Before him no one that I can discover had ever so much as dreamed that a given portion of blood contained for example in the right ventricle of the heart may by the mere mechanical operation of the working of that organ be made to return to the very place from which it started after a long journey through the lungs and through the body generally And it should be remembered that it is to this complete circuit of the blood alone that the term circulation can in strictness be applied It is of the essence of a circular motion that that which moves returns to the place from whence it started Hence the discovery of the course of the blood from the right ventricle through the lungs to the left ventricle was in no wise an anticipation of the discovery of the circulation of the blood For the blood which traverses this part of its course no more describes a circle than the dweller in a street who goes out of his own house and enters his next door neighbor s does so Although there may be nothing but a party wall between him and the room he has just left it constitutes an efficient defense de circuler Thus whatever they may have known of the so called pulmonary circulation to say that Servetus or Columbus or Caesalpinus deserves any share of the credit which attaches to Harvey appears to me to be to mistake the question at issue It must further be borne in mind that the determination of the true course taken by the whole mass of the blood is only the most conspicuous of the discoveries of Harvey and that his analysis of the mechanism by which the circulation is brought about is far in advance of anything which had previously been published For the first time it is shown that the walls of the heart are active only during its systole or contraction and that the dilatation of the heart in the diastole is purely passive Whence it follows that the impulse by which the blood is propelled is a vis a lergo and that the blood is not drawn into the heart by any such inhalent or suctorial action as not only the predecessors but many of the successors of Harvey imagined it to possess Harvey is no less original in his view of the cause of the arterial pulse In

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  • First Circumnavigation Of The Globe
    when it was night and he sent the boats and the ships went after the boats and they brought news that there was an outlet for they already saw the great sea on the other side on which account Ferdinand Magellan ordered artillery to be fired for rejoicing and before they set forth from this strait they found two islands the first one larger and the other nearer toward the outlet is the smaller one and they went out between these islands and the coast on the southern side as it was deeper than on the other side This strait is a hundred leagues in length to the outlet that outlet and the entrance are in 52 degrees latitude They made a stay in this strait from October 21st to November 26th which makes thirty six days of the said year of 1520 and as soon as they went out from the strait to the sea they made their course for the most part to west northwest when they found that their needles varied to the northwest almost one half and after they had navigated thus for many days they found an island in a little more or less than 18 degrees or 19 degrees and also another which was in from 13 degrees to 14 degrees and this in south latitude they are uninhabited They ran on until they reached the line when Ferdinand Magellan said that now they were in the neighborhood of Molucca and that he would go in a northerly direction as far as 10 degrees or 12 degrees and they reached to as far as 13 degrees north and in this latitude they navigated to the west and a quarter southwest a matter of a hundred leagues where on March 6 1521 they fetched two islands inhabited by many people of little truth and they did not take precautions against them until they saw that they were taking away the skiff of the flag ship and they cut the rope with which it was made fast and took it ashore without their being able to prevent it They gave this island the name of Thieves Island dos Ladroes Ferdinand Magellan seeing that the skiff was lost set sail it being already night tacking about until the next day as soon as it was morning they anchored at the place where they had seen the skiff carried to and he ordered two boats to be got ready with a matter of fifty or sixty men and he went ashore in person and burned the whole village and they killed seven or eight persons between men and women and recovered the skiff and returned to the ships and while they were there they saw forty or fifty paraos come from the same land and which brought much refreshments Ferdinand Magellan would not make any further stay and at once set sail and ordered the course to be steered west and a quarter southwest and so they made land which is in barely 11 degrees This land is an island but he would not touch at this one and they went to touch at another farther on which appeared first Ferdinand Magellan sent a boat ashore to observe the nature of the island when the boat reached land they saw from the ships paraos come out from behind the point then they called back their boat The people of the paraos seeing that the boat was returning to the ships turned back the parols and the boat reached the ships which at once set sail for another island very near to this island which is 10 degrees and they gave it the name of the Island of Good Signs because they observed some gold in it While they were thus anchored at this island there came to them two paraos and brought them fowls and cocoanuts and told them they had already seen there other men like them from which they presumed that these might be Lequios or Mogores a nation of people who have this name or Chiis and thence they set sail and navigated farther on among many islands to which they gave the name of Valley without Peril and also St Lazarus and they ran on to another island twenty leagues from that from which they sailed which is in 10 degrees and came to anchor at another island which is named Macangor which is in 9 degrees and in this island they were very well received and they placed a cross in it This King conducted them thence a matter of thirty leagues to another island named Cabo which is in 10 degrees and in this island Ferdinand Magellan did what he pleased with the consent of the country and in one day eight hundred people became Christian on which account Ferdinand Magellan desired that the other kings neighbors to this one should become subject to this one who had become Christian and these did not choose to yield to such obedience Ferdinand Magellan seeing that got ready one night with his boats and burned the villages of those who would not yield the said obedience and a matter of ten or twelve days after this was done he sent to a village about half a league from that which he had burned which is named Matam and which is also an island and ordered them to send him at once three goats three pigs three loads of rice and three loads of millet for provisions for the ship They replied that of each article which he sent to ask them three of they would send him by twos and if he was satisfied with this they would at once comply if not it might be as he pleased but that they would not give it Because they did not choose to grant what he demanded of them Ferdinand Magellan ordered three boats to be equipped with a matter of fifty or sixty men and went against the said place which was on April 28th in the morning there they found many people who might well be as many as three thousand or four thousand men who fought with such will that the said Ferdinand Magellan was killed there with six of his men in the year 1521 When Ferdinand Magellan was dead the Christians got back to the ships where they thought fit to make two captains and governors whom they should obey and having done this they took counsel and decided that the captains should go ashore where the people had turned Christians to ask for pilots to take them to Borneo and this was on May 1st of the said year When the two captains went being agreed upon what had been said the same people of the country who had become Christians armed themselves against them and killed the two captains and twenty six gentlemen and the other people who remained got back to the boats and returned to the ships and finding themselves again without captains they agreed inasmuch as the principal persons were killed that one Joan Lopez who was the chief treasurer should be captain major of the fleet and the chief constable of the fleet should be captain of one of the ships He was named Gonzalo Vas Despinosa Having done this they set sail and ran about twenty five leagues with three ships which they still possessed they then mustered and found that they were altogether one hundred eight men in all these three ships and many of them were wounded and sick on which account they did not venture to navigate the three ships and thought it would be well to burn one of them the one that should be most suitable for that purpose and to take into the two ships those that remained this they did out at sea out of sight of any land While they did this many paraos came to speak to them and navigating among the islands for in that neighborhood there are a great many They did not understand one another for they had no interpreter for he had been killed with Ferdinand Magellan Sailing farther on among islets they came to anchor at an island which is named Carpyam where there is gold enough and this island is in fully 8 degrees While at anchor in this port of Carpyam they had speech with the inhabitants of the island and made peace with them and Carvalho who was captain major gave them the boat of the ship which had been burned this island has three islets in the offing Here they took in refreshments and sailed farther on to the west southwest and fell in with another island which is named Caram and is in 11 degrees from this they went on farther to west southwest and fell in with a large island and ran along the coast of this island to the northeast and reached as far as 9 degrees where they went ashore one day with the boats equipped to seek for provisions for in the ships there was now not more than eight days food On reaching shore the inhabitants would not suffer them to land and shot at them with arrows of cane hardened in fire so that they returned to the ships Seeing this they agreed to go to another island where they had had some dealings to see if they could get some provisions Then they met with a contrary wind and going about in the direction in which they wished to go they anchored and while at anchor they saw people on shore hailing them to go thither they went there with the boats and as they were speaking to those people by signs for they did not understand each other otherwise a man at arms named Joan de Campos told them to let him go on shore since there were no provisions in the ships and it might be that they would obtain some means of getting provisions and that if the people killed him they would not lose much with him for God would take thought of his soul and also if he found provisions and if they did not kill him he would find means for bringing them to the ships and they thought well of this So he went on shore and as soon as he reached it the inhabitants received him and took him into the interior the distance of a league and when he was in the village all the people came to see him and they gave him food and entertained him well especially when they saw that he ate pigs flesh because in this island they had dealings with the Moors of Borneo and because the country people were greedy they made them neither eat pigs nor bring them up in the country The country is called Dyguacam and is in 9 degrees The said Christian seeing that he was favored and well treated by the inhabitants gave them to understand by his signs that they should carry provisions to the ships which would be well paid for In the country there was nothing except rice not pounded Then the people set to pounding rice all the night and when it was morning they took the rice and the said Christian and came to the ships where they did them great honor and took in the rice and paid them and they returned on shore This man being already set on shore inhabitants of another village a little farther on came to the ships and told them they would give them much provisions for their money and as soon as the said man whom they had sent arrived they set sail and went to anchor at the village of those who had come to call them which was named Vay Palay Cucar a Canbam where Carvalho made peace with the King of the country and they settled the price of rice and they gave them two measures of rice which weighed one hundred fourteen pounds for three fathoms of linen stuff of Britanny they took there as much rice as they wanted and goats and pigs and while they were at this place there came a Moor who had been in the village of Dyguacam which belongs to the Moors of Borneo as had been said above and after that he went to his country While they were at anchor at this village of Dyguacam there came to them a parao in which there was a negro named Bastiam who asked for a flag and a passport for the Governor of Dyguacam and they gave him all this and other things for a present They asked the said Bastiam who spoke Portuguese sufficiently well since he had been in Molucca where he had become a Christian if he would go with them and show them Borneo he said he would be very willing and when the departure arrived he did himself and seeing that he did not come they set sail from this port of Dyguacam on July 21st to seek for Borneo As they set sail there came to them a parao which was coming to the port of Dyguacam and they took it and in it they took three Moors who said they were pilots and that they would take them to Borneo Having got these Moors they steered along this island to the southwest and fell in with two islands at its extremity and passed between them that on the north side is named Bolyna and that on the south Bamdym Sailing to the west southwest a matter of fourteen leagues they fell in with a white bottom which was a shoal below the water and the black men they carried with them told them to draw near to the coast of the island as it was deeper there and that was more in the direction of Borneo for from that neighborhood the island of Borneo could already be sighted This same day they reached and anchored at some islands to which they gave the name of islets of St Paul which was a matter of two and a half or three leagues from the great island of Borneo and they were in about 7 degrees at the south side of these islands In the island of Borneo there is an exceedingly big mountain to which they gave the name of Mount St Paul and from thence they navigated along the coast of Borneo to the southwest between an island and the island of Borneo itself and they went forward on the same course and reached the neighborhood of Borneo and the Moors they had with them told them that there was no Borneo and the wind did not suffer them to arrive thither as it was contrary They anchored at an island which is there and which may be eight leagues from Borneo Close to this island is another which has many Myrobalans and the next day they set sail for the other island which is nearer to the port of Borneo and going along thus they saw so many shoals that they anchored and sent the boats ashore in Borneo and they took the aforesaid Moorish pilots on shore and there went a Christian with them and the boats went to set them on land from whence they had to go to the city of Borneo which was three leagues off and there they were taken before the Shahbender of Borneo and he asked what people they were and for what they came in the ships and they were presented to the King of Borneo with the Christian As soon as the boats had set the said men on shore they sounded in order to see if the ships should come in closer and during this they saw three junks which were coming from the port of Borneo from the said city out to sea and as soon as they saw the ships they returned inshore continuing to sound they found the channel by which the port is entered then they set sail and entered this channel and being within the channel they anchored and would not go farther in until they received a message from the shore which arrived next day with two paraos these carried certain swivel guns of metal and a hundred men in each parao and they brought goats and fowls and two cows and figs and other fruit and told them to enter farther in opposite the islands which were near there which was the true berth and from this position to the city there might be three or four leagues While thus at anchor they established peace and settled that they should trade in what there was in the country especially wax to which they answered that they would be willing to sell all that there was in the country for their money This port of Borneo is in 8 degrees For the answer thus received from the King they sent him a present by Gonzalo Mendes Despinosa captain of the ship Victoria and the King accepted the present and gave to all of them China stuffs and when there had passed twenty or twenty three days that they were there trading with the people on the island and had got five men on shore in the city itself there came to anchor at the bar close to them five junks at the hour of vespers and they remained there that evening and the night until next day in the morning when they saw coming from the city two hundred paraos some under sail others rowing Seeing in this manner the five junks and the paraos it seemed to them that there might be treachery and they set sail for the junks and as soon as the crews of the

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  • Discovery Of Neptune
    the law of gravitation If the law of gravitation held exactly at so great a distance from the sun there must be some perturbing force acting on it besides all the known forces that had been fully taken into account Could it be an outer planet The question occurred to several and one or two tried to solve the problem but were soon stopped by the tremendous difficulties of calculation The ordinary problem of perturbation is difficult enough Given a disturbing planet in such and such a position to find the perturbations it produces This was the problem that Laplace worked out in the Mecanique Celeste But the inverse problem given the perturbations to find the planet that causes them such a problem had never yet been attacked and by only a few had its possibility been conceived Friedrich Bessel made preparations for solving this mystery in 1840 but he was prevented by fatal illness In 1841 the difficulties of the problem presented by these residual perturbations of Uranus excited the imagination of a young student an undergraduate of Cambridge John Couch Adams by name and he determined to make a study of them as soon as he was through his tripos In January 1843 he was graduated as senior wrangler and shortly afterward he set to work In less than two years he reached a definite conclusion and in October 1845 he wrote to the astronomer royal at Greenwich Professor Airy saying that the perturbations of Uranus could be explained by assuming the existence of an outer planet which he reckoned was now situated in a specified latitude and longitude We know now that had the astronomer royal put sufficient faith in this result to point his big telescope at the spot indicated and begin sweeping for a planet he would have detected it within 1 3 4 degrees of the place assigned to it by Adams But anyone in the situation of the astronomer royal knows that almost every post brings absurd letters from ambitious correspondents some of them having just discovered perpetual motion or squared the circle or proved the earth flat or discovered the constitution of the moon or of ether or of electricity and in this mass of rubbish it requires great skill and patience to detect such gems of value as may exist Now this letter of Adams s was indeed a jewel of the first water and no doubt bore on its face a very different appearance from the chaff of which I have spoken but still Adams was unknown he had been graduated as senior wrangler it is true but somebody must be graduated as senior wrangler every year and a first rate mathematician is not produced every year Those behind the scenes as Professor Airy of course was having been a senior wrangler himself knew perfectly well that the labelling of a young man on his taking his degree is much more worthless as a testimony to his genius and ability than the general public is apt to suppose Was it likely that a young and unknown man should have solved so extremely difficult a problem It was altogether unlikely Still he should be tested he should be asked for explanations concerning some of the perturbations which Professor Airy had noticed and see whether he could explain these also by his hypothesis If he could there might be something in his theory If he failed well there was an end of it The questions were not difficult They concerned the error of the radius vector Adams could have answered them with perfect ease but sad to say though a brilliant mathematician he was not a man of business He did not answer Professor Airy s letter It may seem a pity to many that the Greenwich equatorial was not pointed at the place just to see whether any foreign object did happen to be in that neighborhood but it is no light matter to derange the work of an observatory and alter the plans laid out for the staff into a sudden sweep for a new planet on the strength of a mathematical investigation just received by post If observatories were conducted on these unsystematic and spasmodic principles they would not be the calm accurate satisfactory places they are Of course if anyone had known that a new planet was to be found for the looking any course would have been justified but no one could know this I do not suppose that Adams himself felt an absolute confidence in his attempted prediction So there the matter dropped Adam s communication was pigeonholed and remained in seclusion eight or nine months Meanwhile and quite independently something of the same sort was going on in France A brilliant young mathematician Urbain Jean Joseph Leverrier born in Normandy in 1811 held the post of astronomical professor at the Ecole Polytechnique founded by Napoleon His first published papers directed attention to his wonderful powers and the official head of astronomy in France the famous Arago suggested to him the unexplained perturbations of Uranus as a worthy object for his fresh and well armed vigor At once he set to work in a thorough and systematic way He first considered whether the discrepancies could be due to errors in the tables or errors in the old observations He discussed them with minute care and came to the conclusion that they were not thus to be explained away This part of the work he published in November 1845 He then set to work to consider the perturbations produced by Jupiter and Saturn to see whether they had been accurately allowed for or whether some minute improvements could be made sufficient to destroy the irregularities He introduced several fresh terms into these calculations but none of them of sufficient importance to do more than partly explain the mysterious perturbations He next examined the various hypotheses that had been suggested to account for them Were they caused by

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  • Scientific Methods, Birth Of Modern
    what is undeniable that the great discoveries in modern science were neither made on Bacon s method nor under any direct guidance from him that Copernicus Galileo and Kepler preceded him that Harvey and Newton ignored him stanch admirers have their answer ready they know that Bacon was the herald of the new era and they believe that it was his trumpet call which animated the troops and led them to victory Having thus indicated his position it will be necessary to give a brief outline of the method which he confidently believed was to be infallible and applicable in all inquiries This was imperatively needed for let a man look carefully into all that variety of books with which the arts and sciences abound he will find everywhere endless repetitions of the same thing varying in the method of treatment but not new in substance insomuch that the whole stock numerous as it appears at first view proves on examination to be but scanty What was asserted once is asserted still and what was a question once is a question still and instead of being resolved by discussion is only fixed and fed He proposes his new method that thereby the intellect may be raised and exalted and made capable of overcoming the difficulties and obscurities of nature The art which I introduce with this view which I call the Interpretation of Nature is a kind of logic though the difference between it and the ordinary logic is great indeed immense For the ordinary logic professes to contrive and prepare helps and guards for the understanding as mine does and in this one point they agree But mine differs from it in three points viz in the end aimed at in the order of demonstration and in the starting point of inquiry But the greatest change I introduce is in the form itself of induction and the judgments made thereby For the induction of which the logicians speak which proceeds by simple enumeration is a puerile thing concluded at hazard is always liable to be upset by a contradictory instance takes into account only what is known and ordinary and leads to no result Now what the sciences stand in need of is a form of induction which shall analyze experience and take it to pieces and by a due process of exclusion and rejection lead to an inevitable conclusion Now my method though hard to practise is easy to explain and it is this I propose to establish progressive stages of certainty The evidence of sense helped and guarded by a certain process of correction I retain but the mental operation which follows the act of sense I for the most part reject and instead of it I open and lay out a new and certain path for the mind to proceed in starting directly from the simple sensuous perception The same dissatisfaction with mediaeval philosophy expressed itself in Descartes The incompetence of philosophers to solve the problems they occupied themselves with the anarchy which reigned in the scientific world where no two thinkers could agree upon fundamental points the extravagance of the conclusions to which some accepted premises led determined him to seek no more to slake his thirst at their fountains And that is why as soon as my age permitted me to quit my preceptors he says I entirely gave up the study of letters and resolving to seek no other science than that which I could find in myself or else in the great book of the world I employed the remainder of my youth in travel in seeing courts and camps in frequenting people of diverse humors and conditions in collecting various experiences and above all in endeavoring to draw some profitable reflection from what I saw For it seemed to me that I should meet with more truth in the reasonings which each man makes in his own affairs and which if wrong would be speedily punished by failure than in those reasonings which the philosopher makes in his study upon speculations which produce no effect and which are of no consequence to him except perhaps that he will be more vain of them the more remote they are from common sense because he would then have been forced to employ more ingenuity and subtlety to render them plausible For many years he led a roving unsettled life now serving in the army now making a tour now studying mathematics in solitude now conversing with scientific men One constant purpose gave unity to those various pursuits He was elaborating his answers to the questions which perplexed him he was preparing his method When only twenty three he conceived the design of a reformation in philosophy He was at that time residing in his winter quarters at Neuburg on the Danube His travels soon afterward commenced and at the age of thirty three he retired into Holland there in silence and solitude to arrange his thoughts into a consistent whole He remained there eight years and so completely did he shut himself from the world that he concealed from his friends the very place of his residence When the results of this meditative solitude were given to the world in the shape of his celebrated Discourse on Method and his Meditations to which he invented replies the sensation produced was immense It was evident to all men that an original thinker had arisen and although this originality could not but rouse much opposition from the very fact of being original yet Descartes gained the day His name became European His controversies were European quarrels Charles I of England invited him over with the promise of a liberal appointment and the invitation would probably have been accepted had not the civil war broken out He afterward received a flattering invitation from Christina of Sweden who had read some of his works with great satisfaction and wished to learn from himself the principles of his

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  • Science, A History
    he will be of immortal fame to some is yet by an infinite number for such is the multitude of fools laughed at and rejected 4 Footnote 4 Quoted in Stillman Drake Galileo at Work Chicago University of Chicago Press 1978 p 41 In 1609 Galileo made a telescope and with it he discovered mountains on the moon sunspots the satellites of Jupiter and the rings of Saturn Having published his findings and beliefs he was constrained by the Church in 1616 to promise that he would not hold teach or defend the heretical Copernican doctrines After another publication he was again hauled before a church court in 1633 This time he was forced to make a public denial of his doctrines Galileo was defeated but by the end of the century the heliocentric theory had won common acceptance Newton And The Law Of Gravitation Great as were the contributions of Galileo and Kepler their individual discoveries had not been synthesized into one all embracing principle that would describe the universe as a unity When Sir Isaac Newton achieved this goal the opponents of science such as Galileo s persecutors were effectively silenced The notion of gravitation occurred to Newton in 1666 when he was only twenty four According to his own later account he hit on the idea while sitting in thought under an apple tree A falling apple roused him to wonder why it and other objects fell toward the center of the earth and not sideways or upward There must be he thought in a flash of insight some drawing power associated with matter If this were true he reasoned the drawing power was proportionate to quantity which would explain why the smaller apple despite its own attracting force was pulled to earth In his Principia 1687 Newton expressed this idea precisely in a mathematical formula The resulting law of gravitation states that all material objects attract other bodies inversely according to the square of their distances and directly in proportion to the products of their masses Hundreds of observations soon verified this principle firmly establishing the validity of scientific methods Not only had Newton solved astronomical problems defined by Kepler and Galileo he had also confirmed the necessity of combining methods advocated by Descartes and Bacon In the Principia Newton stressed the importance of supplementing mathematical analysis with observation Final conclusions he insisted must rest on solid facts on the other hand any hypothesis no matter how mathematically plausible must be abandoned if not borne out by obsevation or experimentation Newton had also confirmed the basic premise of modern science that all nature is governed by laws Indeed his own major law was applicable to the whole universe from a speck of dust on earth to the largest star in outer space The magnitude of this idea that is the concept of universal laws was almost infinitely exciting and contagious Within decades it had spread throughout the Western world and had been applied in every area including human relations The Widening Scope Of Scientific Study The impressive achievements of astronomers climaxed by Newton s amazing revelations encouraged scientific interest and endeavors in all related fields As science widened its scope the first advances outside of astronomy came in physics and physiology Both fields owed much to earlier influences from Italian universities both also reflected the new mechanistic ideas so prevalent in astronomy Chemistry long affected by medieval alchemy did not reach maturity until the eighteenth century By that time in general biology apart from human anatomy and physiology cellular studies and classification systems had begun to develop although there was as yet no comprehensive evolutionary theory Late in the century however geologists were suggesting such a scheme In astronomy the period after Newton was a time of elaboration and filling in the main outline rather than one of new beginnings A possible exception was the brilliant French astronomer mathematician Pierre Laplace 1749 1827 who has been called the Newton of France Although a leading disciple of Newton Laplace went beyond his master Newton believed that God tended the universal machine to compensate for irregularities but Laplace demonstrated that apparent inconsistencies such as comets were also governed by mathematical laws Laplace is best known for his nebular hypothesis which maintained that our sun once a gaseous mass threw off the planets as it solidified and contracted Until recently this hypothesis was widely accepted Despite their lack of opportunities for scientific education a number of women became involved in astronomical studies during the eighteenth century In France Emilie du Chatelet 1706 1749 the sometime mistress and lifelong friend of Voltaire translated the Principia helping introduce Newton among the French philosophes Maria Kirch 1670 1720 while assisting her husband Gottfried the royal astronomer in Berlin discovered the comet of 1702 After her husband s death she published their observations which were widely read Caroline Herschel 1750 1848 a native of Hanover working with her brother William in England helped build huge telescopes shared the discovery of 2500 new nebulae and by herself found a number of new comets The Herschels work demonstrated that Newtonian principles applied to distant stars outside the solar system In physics the field most closely related to astronomy Galileo was the pioneer He defined the law of falling bodies demonstrating that their acceleration is constant no matter what their weight or size His experiments also revealed the law of inertia a body at rest or in motion will remain at rest or continue moving in a straight line at constant speed unless affected by an external force In addition he showed that the path of a fired projectile follows a parabolic curve to earth an inclination explained later by the law of gravitation Galileo made additional notable discoveries through his studies of the pendulum hydrostatics and optics His work was clarified by two famous professors at the University of Bologna Maria Agnesi 1718 1799 in mathematics and Laura Bassi 1700 1778 in physics Other physicists

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  • Science, Impact of
    yet by an infinite number for such is the multitude of fools laughed at and rejected 4 Footnote 4 Quoted in Stillman Drake Galileo at Work Chicago University of Chicago Press 1978 p 41 In 1609 Galileo made a telescope and with it he discovered mountains on the moon sunspots the satellites of Jupiter and the rings of Saturn Having published his findings and beliefs he was constrained by the Church in 1616 to promise that he would not hold teach or defend the heretical Copernican doctrines After another publication he was again hauled before a church court in 1633 This time he was forced to make a public denial of his doctrines Galileo was defeated but by the end of the century the heliocentric theory had won common acceptance Newton And The Law Of Gravitation Great as were the contributions of Galileo and Kepler their individual discoveries had not been synthesized into one all embracing principle that would describe the universe as a unity When Sir Isaac Newton achieved this goal the opponents of science such as Galileo s persecutors were effectively silenced The notion of gravitation occurred to Newton in 1666 when he was only twenty four According to his own later account he hit on the idea while sitting in thought under an apple tree A falling apple roused him to wonder why it and other objects fell toward the center of the earth and not sideways or upward There must be he thought in a flash of insight some drawing power associated with matter If this were true he reasoned the drawing power was proportionate to quantity which would explain why the smaller apple despite its own attracting force was pulled to earth In his Principia 1687 Newton expressed this idea precisely in a mathematical formula The resulting law of gravitation states that all material objects attract other bodies inversely according to the square of their distances and directly in proportion to the products of their masses Hundreds of observations soon verified this principle firmly establishing the validity of scientific methods Not only had Newton solved astronomical problems defined by Kepler and Galileo he had also confirmed the necessity of combining methods advocated by Descartes and Bacon In the Principia Newton stressed the importance of supplementing mathematical analysis with observation Final conclusions he insisted must rest on solid facts on the other hand any hypothesis no matter how mathematically plausible must be abandoned if not borne out by obsevation or experimentation Newton had also confirmed the basic premise of modern science that all nature is governed by laws Indeed his own major law was applicable to the whole universe from a speck of dust on earth to the largest star in outer space The magnitude of this idea that is the concept of universal laws was almost infinitely exciting and contagious Within decades it had spread throughout the Western world and had been applied in every area including human relations The Widening Scope Of Scientific Study The impressive achievements of astronomers climaxed by Newton s amazing revelations encouraged scientific interest and endeavors in all related fields As science widened its scope the first advances outside of astronomy came in physics and physiology Both fields owed much to earlier influences from Italian universities both also reflected the new mechanistic ideas so prevalent in astronomy Chemistry long affected by medieval alchemy did not reach maturity until the eighteenth century By that time in general biology apart from human anatomy and physiology cellular studies and classification systems had begun to develop although there was as yet no comprehensive evolutionary theory Late in the century however geologists were suggesting such a scheme In astronomy the period after Newton was a time of elaboration and filling in the main outline rather than one of new beginnings A possible exception was the brilliant French astronomer mathematician Pierre Laplace 1749 1827 who has been called the Newton of France Although a leading disciple of Newton Laplace went beyond his master Newton believed that God tended the universal machine to compensate for irregularities but Laplace demonstrated that apparent inconsistencies such as comets were also governed by mathematical laws Laplace is best known for his nebular hypothesis which maintained that our sun once a gaseous mass threw off the planets as it solidified and contracted Until recently this hypothesis was widely accepted Despite their lack of opportunities for scientific education a number of women became involved in astronomical studies during the eighteenth century In France Emilie du Chatelet 1706 1749 the sometime mistress and lifelong friend of Voltaire translated the Principia helping introduce Newton among the French philosophes Maria Kirch 1670 1720 while assisting her husband Gottfried the royal astronomer in Berlin discovered the comet of 1702 After her husband s death she published their observations which were widely read Caroline Herschel 1750 1848 a native of Hanover working with her brother William in England helped build huge telescopes shared the discovery of 2500 new nebulae and by herself found a number of new comets The Herschels work demonstrated that Newtonian principles applied to distant stars outside the solar system In physics the field most closely related to astronomy Galileo was the pioneer He defined the law of falling bodies demonstrating that their acceleration is constant no matter what their weight or size His experiments also revealed the law of inertia a body at rest or in motion will remain at rest or continue moving in a straight line at constant speed unless affected by an external force In addition he showed that the path of a fired projectile follows a parabolic curve to earth an inclination explained later by the law of gravitation Galileo made additional notable discoveries through his studies of the pendulum hydrostatics and optics His work was clarified by two famous professors at the University of Bologna Maria Agnesi 1718 1799 in mathematics and Laura Bassi 1700 1778 in physics Other physicists made significant contributions For example Newton and the Dutch

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  •