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  • Telegraph, Invention Of The
    received the highest commendation from the committee of science and arts with a strong expression in favor of government aid for the purpose of demonstrating the practical usefulness of the system From Philadelphia Morse removed his apparatus to Washington where he was permitted to demonstrate its operation before President Van Buren and his Cabinet Foreign ministers and members of both Houses of Congress as well also as prominent citizens were invited to attend the exhibition and manifested much interest in the novelty of the invention A bill was introduced in Congress making an appropriation of thirty thousand dollars for the purpose of providing for the erection of an experimental line of telegraph between Washington and Baltimore to illustrate by practical use its general utility The bill was in good time favorably reported from the committee on commerce but made no further progress in that Congress Similar bills were subsequently introduced and diligently supported in each succeeding Congress but it was not until the very closing hour of the expiring session of 1843 that the necessary enactment was effected and the appropriation secured The plan of construction devised by Professor Morse for the experimental line of telegraph to be erected between Washington and Baltimore under the Congressional appropriation provided for placing insulated wires in a lead pipe underground This was to be accomplished by the use of a specially devised plough of peculiar construction to be drawn by a powerful team by which means the pipe containing the electric conductors was to be automatically deposited in the earth This apparatus was entirely successful in operation and the pipe was thus buried to the complete satisfaction of all concerned at a cost very much lower than the work could have been accomplished in any other manner Two wires were to be used to form a complete metallic circuit for at that time it was not known as was shortly afterward discovered that the earth could be used to form one half of the circuit For purposes of insulation the wires were neatly covered with cotton yarn and then saturated in a bath of hot gum shellac but this treatment proved defective in insulating properties for when ten miles of line had been completed the wires were found to be wholly useless for electric conduction No mode had been devised for the treatment of india rubber to make it available for purposes of insulation and gutta percha was wholly unknown as an article of use or commerce in this country Twenty three thousand dollars of the Government appropriation had been expended and the work thus far accomplished was an acknowledged failure Only seven thousand dollars of the available fund remained unexpended and this was regarded as inadequate to complete the undertaking under any other plan The friends of the enterprise were in despair and for some time saw no other alternative than to apply to Congress for an additional appropriation This however was regarded as almost hopeless and the difficulty of the situation was extremely embarrassing An amusing incident was related of the means used to keep from public knowledge the desperate situation Professor Morse finally visited the scene of activity where the pipe laying was proceeding and calling the superintendent aside confided to him the fact that the work must be stopped without the newspapers finding out the true reason of its suspension The quick witted superintendent was equal to the occasion and starting the ponderous machine soon managed to run foul of a protruding rock and break the plough The newspapers published sensational accounts of the accident and announced that it would require several weeks to repair damages Thus the real trouble was kept from the public until new plans could be determined upon After long and careful consideration Professor Morse very reluctantly decided to erect the wires on poles This plan was at first considered wholly objectionable under the apprehension that the structure would be disturbed by evil minded persons It had however become manifest that this was the only mode of construction that could be accomplished within the remainder of the appropriation and finally upon ascertaining that pole lines had already been adopted in England it was determined to proceed in this manner The line was thus completed between Washington and Baltimore about May 1 1844 and proved to be successful and in every way satisfactory in its operation Shortly after the completion of the line the National Democratic Convention which nominated Polk and Dallas for President and Vice President assembled in Baltimore May 1844 Reports of the convention proceedings were promptly telegraphed to the capital city where the telegraph office was thronged with Members of Congress interested in the news These reports created an immense sensation in Washington and speedily removed all doubts as to the practical success of the new system of communication A despatch from the Honorable Silas Wright then United States Senator from New York refusing to accept the nomination for Vice President was read in the National Convention and produced an extraordinary interest from the fact that very few of the delegates had ever heard of the telegraph and it required much explanation to satisfy them of the genuineness of the alleged communication Having thus established beyond all reasonable question the practical utility of the telegraph as a superior means of public and private communication Professor Morse and his associates offered their patents to the United States Government for the very moderate price of one hundred thousand dollars with a view of having the system adopted for general use in connection with the postal establishment This proposition was referred to the Postmaster General for consideration and report After due deliberation that officer reported that Although the invention is an agent vastly superior to any other ever devised by the genius of man yet the operation between Washington and Baltimore has not satisfied me that under any rate of postage that can be adopted its revenues can be made to cover its expenditures Under the

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  • Watt Improves The Steam
    a means of drainage then you would expect to see them substituted for Newcomen s comparatively ruinous engines Undeceive yourselves the author of a discovery has always to contend against those whose interest may be injured the obstinate partisans of everything old and finally the envious And these three classes united I regret to acknowledge it form the great majority of the public In my calculation I even deduct those who are doubly influenced to avoid a paradoxical result This compact mass of opponents can only be disunited and dissipated by time yet time is insufficient it must be attacked with spirit and unceasingly our means of attack must be varied imitating the chemist in this respect he learning from experience that the entire solution of certain amalgams requires the successive application of several acids Force of character and perseverance of will which in the long run disintegrate the best woven intrigues are not always found conjoined with creative genius In case of need Watt would be a convincing proof of this His capital invention his happy idea on the possibility of condensing steam in a vessel separate from the cylinder in which the mechanical action goes on was in 1765 Two years elapsed without his scarcely making an effort to apply it on a large scale His friends at last put him in communication with Dr Roebuck founder of the large works at Carron still celebrated at the present day The engineer and the man of projects enter into partnership Watt cedes two thirds of his patent to him An engine is constructed on the new principles it confirms all the expectations of theory its success is complete But in the interim Dr Roebuck s affairs receive various checks Watt s invention would undoubtedly have restored them it would have sufficed to borrow money but our associate felt more inclined to give up his discovery and change his business In 1767 while Smeaton was carrying on some triangulations and levellings between the two rivers of the Forth and the Clyde forerunners of the gigantic works of which the part of Scotland was to be the theatre we find Watt occupied with similar operations along a rival line crossing the Lomond passage Later he draws the plan of a canal that was to bring coals from Monkland to Glasgow and superintends the execution of it Several projects of a similar nature and among others that of a navigable canal across the isthmus of Crinan which Rennie afterward finished some deep studies on certain improvements in the ports of Ayr Glasgow and Greenock the construction of the Hamilton and Rutherglen bridges surveys of the ground through which the celebrated Caledonian Canal was to pass occupied our associate up to the end of 1773 Without wishing at all to diminish the merit of these enterprises I may be permitted to say that their interest and importance were chiefly local and to assert that neither their conception direction nor execution required a man called James Watt In the early part of 1774 after contending with Watt s indifference his friends put him into communication with Mr Boulton of Soho near Birmingham an enterprising active man gifted with various talents The two friends applied to Parliament for a prolongation of privilege since Watt s patent dated 1769 had only a few more years to run The bill gave rise to the most animated discussion The celebrated mechanic wrote as follows to his aged father This business could not be carried on without great expense and anxiety Without the aid of some warm hearted friends we should not have succeeded for several of the most powerful in the House of Commons were opposed to us It seemed to me interesting to search out to what class of society these Parliamentary persons belonged to whom Watt alluded and who refused to the man of genius a small portion of the riches that he was about to create Judge of my surprise when I found the celebrated Burke at their head It is possible then that men may devote themselves to deep studies possess knowledge and probity exercise to an eminent degree oratorical powers that move the feelings and influence political assemblies yet sometimes be deficient in plain common sense Now however owing to the wise and important modifications introduced by Lord Brougham in the laws relative to patents inventors will no longer have to undergo the annoyances with which Watt was teased As soon as Parliament had granted a prolongation of twenty five years to Watt s patent he and Boulton together began the establishments at Soho which have become the most useful school in practical mechanics for all England The construction of draining pumps of very large dimensions was soon undertaken there and repeated experiments showed that with equal effect they saved three quarters of the fuel that was consumed by Newcomen s previous engines From that moment the new pumps were spread through all the mining counties especially in Cornwall Boulton and Watt received as a duty the value of one third of the coal saved by each of their engines We may form an opinion of the commercial importance of the invention from an authentic fact in the Chace water mine alone where three pumps were at work the proprietors found it to their advantage to buy up the inventor s rights for the annual sum of sixty thousand francs two thousand four hundred pounds Thus in one establishment alone the substitution of the condenser for internal injection had occasioned an annual saving in fuel of upward of one hundred eighty thousand francs seven thousand pounds Men are easily reconciled to paying the rent of a house or the price of a farm But this good will disappears when an idea is the subject treated of whatever advantage whatever profit it may be the means of procuring Ideas are they not conceived without trouble or labor Who can prove that with time the

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  • Controversies About Women
    but of women it is said that they have two faults that is to say they can neither say well nor do well There is a saying that goeth thus that things far fetched and dear bought are of us most dearly beloved The like may be said of women although many of them are not far fetched yet they are dear bought yea and so dear that many a man curseth his hard pennyworths and bans his own heart For the pleasure of the fairest woman in the world lasteth but a honeymoon that is while a man hath glutted his affections and reaped the first fruit his pleasure being past sorrow and repentance remaineth still with him Tattle Well And Hit Him Home s Women s Sharp Revenge But it hath been the policy of all parents even from the beginning to curb us of that benefit by striving to keep us under and to make us men s mere Vassals even unto all posterity How else comes it to pass that when a Father hath a numerous issue of Sons and Daughters the sons forsooth they must be first put to the Grammar school and after perchance sent to the University and trained up in the Liberal Arts and Sciences and there if they prove not Blockheads they may in time be book learned When we whom they style by the name of weaker Vessels though of a more delicate fine soft and more pliant flesh therefore of a temper most capable of the best Impression have not that generous and liberal Education lest we should be made able to vindicate our own injuries we are set only to the Needle to prick our fingers or else to the Wheel to spin a fair thread for our

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  • Women In The Industrial Revolution
    and trouble swells the pulsations of his throbbing breast that beats for honorable distinction and rewards his toils with the undivided homage of a grateful heart In the important and endearing character of mother she watches and directs the various impulses of unfledged genius instills into the tender and susceptible mind the quickening seeds of virtue fits us to brave dangers in time of peril and consecrates to truth and virtue the best affections of our nature Motherhood As Power And Burden 1877 Every woman who has charge of a household should have a practical knowledge of nursing simple doctoring and physicianing The professional doctor must be called in for real illness But the Home Doctor may do so much to render professional visits very few and far between And her knowledge will be of infinite value when it is necessary to carry out the doctor s orders The Mother Builder It is a curious fact that architects who design and builders who carry out their plans must have a training for this work But the Mother Builder is supposed to have to know by instinct how to put in each tiny brick which builds up the human The result of leaving it to instinct is that the child starts out with bad foundations and a jerry built constitution When one considers that one child in every three born dies before the age of five years it is evident how wide spread must be the ignorance as to the feeding and care of these little ones It is a matter of surprise to those who understand the constitution and needs of infants that considering the conditions under which the large number of them are reared the mortality is not greater The Risks Babies Run To begin with the popular superstition that a young baby must be hungry because it lives on milk and is on this plea the recipient of scraps and bits of vegetables potato and gravy crusts and other heterogeneous articles of diet has much to answer for Then the artistic sense of the mother which leads her to display mottled necks dimpled arms and chubby legs instead of warmly covering these charming portions of baby s anatomy goes hugely to swell the death rate Mistakes in feeding and covering have much to answer for in the high mortality of infants The Servant Problem 1860 So we lost Mary and Peggy reigned in her stead for some six weeks But Peggy differed greatly from her predecessor Mary She was not clean in her person and my mother declared that her presence was not desirable within a few feet Moreover she had no notion of putting things in their places but always left all her working materials in the apartment where they were last used It was not therefore pleasant when one wanted a sweeping brush to have to sit down and think which room Peggy had swept the last and so on with all the paraphernalia for dusting

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  • Women's Rights
    be worked out individually In reality every such relationship is a class relationship and the conflicts between individual men and women are political conflicts that can only be solved collectively III We identify the agents of our oppression as men Male supremacy is the oldest most basic form of domination All other forms of exploitation and oppression racism capitalism imperialism and the like are extensions of male supremacy men dominate women a few men dominate the rest All power structures throughout history have been male dominated and male oriented Men have controlled all political economic and cultural institutions and backed up this control with physical force They have used their power to keep women in an inferior position All men receive economic sexual and psychological benefits from male supremacy All men have oppressed women IV Attempts have been made to shift the burden of responsibility from men to institutions or to women themselves We condemn these arguments as evasions Institutions alone do not oppress they are merely tools of the oppressor We also reject the idea that women consent to or are to blame for their own oppression Women s submission is not the result of brain washing stupidity or mental illness but of continual daily pressure from men We do not need to change ourselves but to change men V We regard our personal experience and our feelings about that experience as the basis for an analysis of our common situation We cannot rely on existing ideologies as they are all products of male supremacist culture We question every generalization and accept none that are not confirmed by our experience The first requirement for raising class consciousness is honesty in private and in public with ourselves and other women VI We identify with all women We define our best

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  • Women In The Revolutionary Struggle
    and actively involving themselves in revolutionary activities The following quotations are taken from Vietnamese and Chinese revolutionary writings and interviews with women involved in the revolutionary movements in each country They express the women s goals their struggle to be taken seriously in the uncharacteristic political roles they had assumed and some of the many ways women found self respect and redress for their grievances as a result of the changes wrought by the spread of the new social order 1 Women must first of all be masters of themselves They must strive to become skilled workers and at the same time they must strictly observe family planning Another major question is the responsibility of husbands to help their wives look after children and other housework 2 We intellectuals had had little contact with the peasants and when we first walked through the village in our Chinese gowns or skirts the people would just stare at us and talk behind our backs When the village head beat gongs to call out the women to the meetings we were holding for them only men and old women came but no young ones Later we found out that the landlords and rich peasants had spread slanders among the masses saying They are a pack of wild women Their words are not for young brides to hear 3 brave wives and daughters in law untrammelled by the presence of their menfolk could voice their own bitterness encourage their poor sisters to do likewise and thus eventually bring to the village wide gatherings the strength of half of China as the more enlightened women very much in earnest like to call themselves By speaking pains to recall pains the women found that they had as many if not more grievances than the men and

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  • woman suffrage
    s movement In 1869 however Parliament did grant women taxpayers the right to vote in municipal elections and in the ensuing decades women became eligible to sit on county and city councils The right to vote in parliamentary elections was still denied to women however despite the considerable support that existed in Parliament for legislation to that effect In 1897 the various suffragist societies united into one National Union of Women s Suffrage Societies thus bringing a greater degree of coherence and organization to the movement Out of frustration at the lack of governmental action however a segment of the woman suffrage movement became more militant under the leadership of Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughter Christabel After the return to power of the Liberal Party in 1906 the succeeding years saw the defeat of seven suffrage bills in Parliament As a consequence many suffragists became involved in increasingly violent actions as time went on These women militants or suffragettes as they were known were sent to prison and continued their protests there by engaging in hunger strikes Meanwhile public support of the woman suffrage movement grew in volume and public demonstrations exhibitions and processions were organized in support of women s right to vote When World War I began the woman suffrage organizations shifted their energies to aiding the war effort and their effectiveness did much to win the public wholeheartedly to the cause of woman suffrage The need for the enfranchisement of women was finally recognized by most members of Parliament from all three major parties and the resulting Representation of the People Act was passed by the House of Commons in June 1917 and by the House of Lords in February 1918 Under this act all women age 30 or over received the complete franchise An act to enable women to sit in the House of Commons was enacted shortly afterward In 1928 the voting age for women was lowered to 21 to place women voters on an equal footing with male voters From the founding of the United States women were almost universally excluded from voting Only when women began to chafe at this restriction however was their exclusion made explicit The movement for woman suffrage started in the early 19th century during the agitation against slavery Women such as Lucretia Mott showed a keen interest in the antislavery movement and proved to be admirable public speakers When Elizabeth Cady Stanton joined the antislavery forces she and Mott agreed that the rights of women as well as those of slaves needed redress In July 1848 they issued a call for a convention to discuss the issue of women s rights this convention met in Stanton s hometown Seneca Falls New York on July 19 20 1848 and issued a declaration that called for woman suffrage and for the right of women to educational and employment opportunities See Seneca Falls Convention It was followed in 1850 by the first national convention of the women s movement held in

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  • Christianity, Anti-Papal Movement
    of civil affairs Innocent could do nothing to stem such a violent current and he died in the midst of these disturbances in the year 1143 The mild Cardinal Guido the friend of Abelard and Arnold became his successor and called himself when pope Celestine II By his gentleness quiet was restored for a short time Perhaps it was the news of the elevation of this friendly man to the papal throne that encouraged Arnold himself to come to Rome But Celestine died after six months and Lucius II was his successor Under his reign the Romans renewed the former agitations with more violence they utterly renounced obedience to the Pope whom they recognized only in his priestly character and the restored Roman Republic sought to strike a league in opposition to the Pope and to papacy with the new Emperor Conrad III In the name of the senate and Roman people a pompous letter was addressed to Conrad The Emperor was invited to come to Rome that from thence like Justinian and Constantine in former days he might give laws to the world Caesar should have the things that are Caesar s the priest the things that are the priest s as Christ ordained when Peter paid the tribute money Long did the tendency awakened by Arnold s principles continue to agitate Rome In the letters written amidst these commotions by individual noblemen of Rome to the Emperor we perceive a singular mixing together of the Arnoldian spirit with the dreams of Roman vanity a radical tendency to the separation of secular from spiritual things which if it had been capable enough in itself and if it could have found more points of attachment in the age would have brought destruction on the old theocratical system of the Church They said that the Pope could claim no political sovereignty in Rome he could not even be consecrated without the consent of the Emperor a rule which had in fact been observed till the time of Gregory VII Men complained of the worldliness of the clergy of their bad lives of the contradiction between their conduct and the teachings of Scripture The popes were accused as the instigators of the wars The popes it was said should no longer unite the cup of the eucharist with the sword it was their vocation to preach and to confirm what they preached by good works How could those who eagerly grasped at all the wealth of this world and corrupted the true riches of the Church the doctrine of salvation obtained by Christ by their false doctrines and their luxurious living receive that word of our Lord Blessed are the poor in spirit when they were poor themselves neither in fact nor in disposition Even the donative of Constantine to the Roman bishop Silvester was declared to be a pitiable fiction This lie had been so clearly exposed that it was obvious to the very day laborers and to women and that these could put to silence the most learned men if they ventured to defend the genuineness of this donative so that the Pope with his cardinals no longer dared to appear in public But Arnold was perhaps the only individual in whose case such a tendency was deeply rooted in religious conviction with many it was but a transitory intoxication in which their political interests had become merged for the moment The pope Lucius II was killed as early as 1145 in the attack on the Capitol A scholar of the great abbot Bernard the abbot Peter Bernard of Pisa now mounted the papal chair under the name of Eugene III As Eugene honored and loved the abbot Bernard as his spiritual father and old preceptor so the latter took advantage of his relation to the Pope to speak the truth to him with a plainness which no other man would easily have ventured to use In congratulating him upon his elevation to the papal dignity he took occasion to exhort him to do away with the many abuses which had become so widely spread in the Church by worldly influences Who will give me the satisfaction said he in his letter of beholding the Church of God before I die in a condition like that in which it was in ancient days when the apostles threw out their nets not for silver and gold but for souls How fervently I wish thou mightest inherit the word of that apostle whose episcopal seat thou hast acquired of him who said Thy gold perish with thee Oh that all the enemies of Zion might tremble before this dreadful word and shrink back abashed This thy mother indeed expects and requires of thee for this long and sigh the sons of thy mother small and great that every plant which our Father in heaven has not planted may be rooted up by thy hands He then alluded to the sudden deaths of the last predecessors of the Pope exhorting him to humility and reminding him of his responsibility In all thy works he wrote remember that thou art a man and let the fear of Him who taketh away the breath of rulers be ever before thine eyes Eugene was soon forced to yield it is true to the superior force of the insurrectionary spirit in Rome and in 1146 to take refuge in France but like Urban and Innocent he too from this country attained to the highest triumph of the papal power Like Innocent he found there in the abbot Bernard of Clairvaux a mightier instrument for operating on the minds of the age than he could have found in any other country and like Urban when banished from the ancient seat of the papacy he was enabled to place himself at the head of a crusade proclaimed in his name and undertaken with great enthusiasm an enterprise from which a new impression of sacredness would be reflected back upon his own person The news of the success which had attended the arms of the Saracens in Syria the defeat of the Christians the conquest of the ancient Christian territory of Edessa the danger which threatened the new Christian kingdom of Jerusalem and the Holy City had spread alarm among the Western nations and the Pope considered himself bound to summon the Christians of the West to the assistance of their hard pressed brethren in the faith and to the recovery of the holy places By a letter directed to the abbot Bernard he commissioned him to exhort the Western Christians in his name that for penance and forgiveness of sins they should march to the East to deliver their brethren or to give up their lives for them Enthusiastic for the cause himself Bernard communicated through the power of the living word and by letters his enthusiasm to the nations He represented the new crusade as a means furnished by God to the multitudes sunk in sin of calling them to repentance and of paving the way by devout participation in a pious work for the forgiveness of their sins Thus in his letter to the clergy and people in East Frankland Germany he exhorts them eagerly to lay hold on this opportunity he declares that the Almighty condescended to invite murderers robbers adulterers perjurers and those sunk in other crimes into his service as well as the righteous He calls upon them to make an end of waging war with one another and to seek an object for their warlike prowess in this holy contest Here brave warrior he exclaims thou hast a field where thou mayest fight without danger where victory is glory and death is gain Take the sign of the cross and thou shalt obtain the forgiveness of all the sins which thou hast never confessed with a contrite heart By Bernard s fiery discourses men of all ranks were carried away In France and in Germany he travelled about conquering by an effort his great bodily infirmities and the living word from his lips produced even mightier effects than his letters A peculiar charm and a peculiar power of moving men s minds must have existed in the tones of his voice to this must be added the awe inspiring effect of his whole appearance the way in which his whole being and the motions of his bodily frame joined in testifying of that which seized and inspired him Thus it admits of being explained how in Germany even those who understood but little or in fact nothing of what he said could be so moved as to shed tears and smite their breasts could by his own speeches in a foreign language be more strongly affected and agitated than by the immediate interpretation of his words by another From all quarters sick persons were conveyed to him by the friends who sought from him a cure and the power of his faith the confidence he inspired in the minds of men might sometimes produce remarkable effects With this enthusiasm however Bernard united a degree of prudence and a discernment of character such as few of that age possessed and such qualities were required to counteract the multiform excitements of the wild spirit of fanaticism which mixed in with this great ferment of minds Thus he warned the Germans not to suffer themselves to be misled so far as to follow certain independent enthusiasts ignorant of war who were bent on moving forward the bodies of the crusaders prematurely He held up as a warning the example of Peter the Hermit and declared himself very decidedly opposed to the proposition of an abbot who was disposed to march with a number of monks to Jerusalem for said he fighting warriors are more needed there than singing monks At an assembly held at Chartres it was proposed that he himself should take the lead of the expedition but he rejected the proposition at once declaring that it was beyond his power and contrary to his calling Having perhaps reason to fear that the Pope might be hurried on by the shouts of the many to lay upon him some charge to which he did not feel himself called he besought the Pope that he would not make him a victim to men s arbitrary will but that he would inquire as it was his duty to do how God had determined to dispose of him With the preaching of this Second Crusade as with the invitation to the First was connected an extraordinary awakening Many who had hitherto given themselves up to their unrestrained passions and desires and become strangers to all higher feelings were seized with compunction Bernard s call to repentance penetrated many a heart people who had lived in all manner of crime were seen following this voice and flocking together in troops to receive the badge of the cross Bishop Otto of Freisingen the historian who himself took the cross at that time expresses it as his opinion that every man of sound understanding would be forced to acknowledge so sudden and uncommon a change could have been produced in no other way than by the right hand of the Lord The provost Gerhoh of Reichersberg who wrote in the midst of these movements was persuaded that he saw here a work of the Holy Spirit designed to counteract the vices and corruptions which had got the upper hand in the Church Many who had been awakened to repentance confessed what they had taken from others by robbery or fraud and hastened before they went to the holy war to seek reconciliation with their enemies The Christian enthusiasm of the German people found utterance in songs in the German tongue and even now the peculiar adaptation of this language to sacred poetry began to be remarked Indecent songs could no longer venture to appear abroad While some were awakened by Bernard s preaching from a life of crime to repentance and by taking part in the holy war strove to obtain the remission of their sins others again who though hitherto borne along in the current of ordinary worldly pursuits yet had not given themselves up to vice were filled by Bernard s words with loathing of the worldly life inflamed with a vehement longing after a higher stage of Christian perfection after a life of entire consecration to God They longed rather to enter upon the pilgrimage to the heavenly than to an earthly Jerusalem they resolved to become monks and would fain have the man of god himself whose words had made so deep an impression on their hearts as their guide in the spiritual life and commit themselves to his directions in the monastery of Clairvaux But here Bernard showed his prudence and knowledge of mankind he did not allow all to become monks who wished to do so Many he rejected because he perceived they were not fitted for the quiet of the contemplative life but needed to be disciplined by the conflicts and cares of a life of action As contemporaries themselves acknowledge these first impressions in the case of many who went to the crusades were of no permanent duration and their old nature broke forth again the more strongly under the manifold temptations to which they were exposed in proportion to the facility with which through the confidence they reposed in a plenary indulgence without really laying to heart the condition upon which it was bestowed they could flatter themselves with security in their sins Gerhoh of Reichersberg in describing the blessed effects of that awakening which accompanied the preaching of the crusader yet says We doubt not that among so vast a multitude some became in the true sense and in all sincerity soldiers of Christ Some however were led to embark in the enterprise by various other occasions concerning whom it does not belong to us to judge but only to Him who alone knows the hearts of those who marched to the contest either in the right or not in the right spirit Yet this we do confidently affirm that to this crusade many were called but few were chosen And it was said that many returned from this expedition not better but worse than they went Therefore the monk Cesarius of Heisterbach who states this adds All depends on bearing the yoke of Christ not one year or two years but daily if a man is really intent on doing it in truth and in that sense in which our Lord requires it to be done in order to follow him When it turned out however that the event did not answer the expectations excited by Bernard s enthusiastic confidence but the crusade came to that unfortunate issue which was brought about especially by the treachery of the princes and nobles of the Christian kingdom in Syria this was a source of great chagrin to Bernard who had been so active in setting it in motion and who had inspired such confident hopes by his promises He appeared now in the light of a bad prophet and he was reproached by many with having incited men to engage in an enterprise which had cost so much blood to no purpose but Bernard s friends alleged in his defence that he had not excited such a popular movement single handed but as the organ of the Pope in whose name he acted and they appealed to the facts by which his preaching of the cross was proved to be a work of God to the wonders which attended it Or they ascribed the failure of the undertaking to the bad conduct of the crusaders themselves to the unchristian mode of life which many of them led as one of these friends maintained in a consoling letter to Bernard himself adding God however has turned it to good Numbers who if they had returned home would have continued to live a life of crime disciplined and purified by many sufferings have passed into the life eternal But Bernard himself could not be staggered in his faith by this event In writing to Pope Eugene on this subject he refers to the incomprehensibleness of the divine ways and judgments to the example of Moses who although his work carried on its face incontestable evidence of being a work of God yet was not permitted himself to conduct the Jews into the Promised Land As this was owing to the fault of the Jews themselves so too the crusaders had none to blame but themselves for the failure of the divine work But says he it will be said perhaps how do we know that this work came from the Lord What miracle dost thou work that we should believe thee To this question I need not give an answer it is a point on which my modesty asks to be excused from speaking Do you answer says he to the Pope for me and for yourself according to that which you have seen and heard So firmly was Bernard convinced that God had sustained his labors by miracles Eugene was at length enabled in the year 1149 after having for a long time excited against himself the indignation of the cardinals by his dependence on the French abbot with the assistance of Roger King of the Sicilies to return to Rome where however he still had to maintain a struggle with the party of Arnold The provost Gerhoh finds something to complain of in the fact that the Church of St Peter wore so warlike an aspect that men beheld the tomb of the apostle surrounded with bastions and the implements of war As Bernard was no longer sufficiently near the Pope to exert on him the same immediate personal influence as in times past he addressed to him a voice of admonition

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