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  • D-Day at Normandy
    called it his Atlantic Wall Hitler said that his troops would annihilate the Americans He bet his Hitler Youth trained to follow orders under all circumstances would maul the free thinking undisciplined children of the democracies He said the Americans were weak soft and spoiled and no match for his hard trained soldiers who were raised in accordance with his own totalitarian system of complete obedience and subservience The Troops landed at 0600 hours 6 th June 1944 The Liberation of Europe had commenced The Wall held back the British for about an hour the Canadians for about 20 minutes and the Americans at Utah for about two hours The Atlantic Wall was a joke That is everywhere but for the Americans assaulting Omaha As soon as the gates of the landing craft fell the Germans on the hill began firing and Americans began dying in wholesale numbers Yet on they charged Loading and firing back with a demoniacal fury said one man Men were shot and spun around like tops by the impact of the bullets Heads arms and backpacks flew into the clear air from the German shells that were landing everywhere on the beach The German defenders were pouring a terrible fire down upon the Americans We couldn t help but hit them with every shot said one German Soldiers began sliding and slipping on the muddy beach caused by the blood of their fallen comrades which now rested in pools all around Human body parts lay everywhere The incoming German shells destroyed entire units The deafening roar of the explosions only added to the confusion American soldiers prayed out loud cried out loud and died on the beaches of a foreign county They fell like when snow lands on warm ground they simple were no more Yet through the smoke and bursting enemy shells through the screams of their wounded comrades through the confusion and indistinguishable orders of commanding officers through this universe of man made hell came the American infantry fighting viciously for every step forward and for every step closer to the Germans who held the high ground The Nazi defenders soon found out that this was a different kind of army This was an army out to make other men free This was an army that would not turn and run This was an army that would not be denied this day The Allied Navy saw what was happening and some brave American naval commanders moved their ships so close to the shore that the bottoms scrapped along the ocean floor They turned their ships sideways parallel to the beach and ordered their own big guns to start firing back at the German batteries that were slaughtering the American infantry on the beach Several large naval guns fired off at once and their great shells blasted into the German defenses Some sailors manning the guns on the ships got into one on one duels with the German artillery and exchange after exchange ensued

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/dday_at_normandy.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • The collapse of Tsarism
    of eighteen months to be computed from the day of the exchange of the ratification of the present treaty ARTICLE IV Understanding of the importance of Article IV of the Treaty of Paris 1763 is extremely important to any appreciation of Canadians Sovereignty as a peoples spiritual possession founded in mutual respect for equality of difference supported by the rule of law and framing for our National Sovereignty or Canada s Sovereignty In 1763 the right to ownership of one s holism of personhood or Sovereignty over oneself or self reliance characterised by self determination self governance self rule self control self definition over oneself accompanied by responsibility and accountability for oneself or the human right of the natural person is sacrosanct spirituality was at that time based on the accepted perspective that Spirituality IS an established European religion deism The British Protestant Monarchy granted the French Catholic Monarchy and the French people their human right to spirituality as it was understood to be at that time This meant that out of respect for humanity s unique differences the French would not be forced to change their religion spirituality and hence assimilate into Anglo culture becoming indistinguishable from the British and their descendants or an Anglo monoculture Of course the sheet of paper didn t stop the repression based on religious cultural or spiritual differences for about two centuries During the last quarter of the 20thC the French were finally able to bring to Anglo attention the degree of repression that existed in a culture presumed to be based on equality At this time much cultural change took place due to the Anglo peoples becoming aware of the rightness of respect for diversity as being a strength and not a weakness creative of union and not division The expression of the individual s Sovereignty possessing fundamental or inherent human right as being outside the bounds of human possession accept by the individual or sacrosanct is based on life s energy being a product of life s creation and not of human engineering Creation is beyond human understanding Self in solidarity with Other forms a local regional national and international Sovereignty expressed through mutuality Whether or not individual or Canadians Sovereignty or integrity of one s body and life s energy is supported by rule of law it will directly equate to Canada s Sovereignty as Individual Sovereignty is the accepted foundation for National Sovereignty So the Treaty of Paris 1763 formally gave up sovereign right of the conqueror to possess power over the body and life energy of the conquered ownership out of recognition that Sovereignty is NOT a material world possession but instead is a life experienced spiritual world concept or the holism of the expression of one s humanity life s energy personhood body and mind with National Sovereignty arising indivisibly forming a group culture through social affiliations in respectful solidarity or mutuality As humans live in a physical world the geographic location where we live the life

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/Canada,%20Hill.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • The collapse of Tsarism
    Europe there was no place for a unic empire or for a strong hegemonic state The principle of balance of power was established justum potentiae equilibrium in the treaty that is one of the most important concepts of international politics Wars and treaties always respected this principle in the XVIII century because the main actors the great powers shared some common values and rules of behaviour the XVIII century is the triumph of the ius publicum europaeum This stable system was swept away by the events happened between 1789 and 1815 revolutionary France and Napoleon rejected the principle of balance of power and opened a long period of destructive and ideological wars significantly remained in the collective memory as The Great War The Vienna Congress in 1815 restored the principle of balance of power but the great powers understood that the equilibrium was not mechanical and automatic as it was believed in the optimistic XVIII century they believed in an automatism similar to the economical one They understood that the balance depended on their active will in preserving it Their collaboration was necessary and it was achieved through the so called diplomacy by conference the main Powers met very often to resolve problems and to assure the perpetuation of the European Concert In this original system for the first time the reason of state was limited to guarantee also the reason of system A rigidity in the international political system of restoration was the link between international and internal order Remembering with fear the consequencies of the French Revolution the monarchies decided to defend not only the international order but also the internal ones This rigid system had been shaken by the risings of 1820 21 1830 31 and 1848 49 After 1830 constitutional monarchies like Great Britain and France became more wary of Austria and Russia s absolutism Also it must be remembered the Monroe Doctrine 1823 expressed by the United States and linked to the processes of independence in South America After 1848 the system became quite ungovernable The Crimean war 1854 56 can be taken as the end of the Concert of great powers In fact it opened a period of conflicts between the great powers that is something that hadn t happened since 1815 The other three wars of this period 1859 60 1866 1870 saw the unification of Germany and Italy first against Austria then against France 1870 can be seen as the symbolic date in which the national principle became nationalism Bismarck the German chanchellor built a complex system of alliances to control revanchist France But the fragile bismarckian balance started to crash after 1890 when Bismarck was forced to resign by the new emperor William II Tensions grew more and more and when war broke out in 1914 European Powers were already divided into two blocks the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente World War I revolutionized both internal and international politics Four great empires collapsed Austro Hungarian German Russian and Ottoman The

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/INTERNATIONAL%20POLITICS.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • The collapse of Tsarism
    dropped the atomic bombs This narrative offers the readers an understanding of people totally different from them and further developing a humaneness attitude that lacked in wartime periods Each page in Hiroshima offers an appeal to pathos which Hersey decided to use as his main device for the American audience According to Patrick B Sharp in From Yellow Peril to Japanese Wasteland John Hersey s Hiroshima he states that Hersey was also heavily influenced by the imagery of literary modernism which provided a familiar vocabulary for discussing the effects of war and technology on individuals 442 In discussing about the various impacts that the bomb has on the Hibakushas rather than targeting the importance of the atomic bomb Hersey invoked a breakthrough from traditional views toward nuclear weaponry to literary modernism Traditional views of nuclear weaponry emphasize the support of its use on enemy bases and vengeance towards the attack on Pearl Harbor Little sympathy was accentuated on the Hibakushas in Hiroshima and Nagasaki Literary modernism offers a different perception By deciding to focus his narrative on six Hibakushas Hersey s text highlights the antipode of a typical American response to the bomb and the tragedies of thousands of other survivors These opposing views include a strong attention towards the sufferings of the Hibakushas and especially a lack of humanist values and concerns for a difference race Back at the home front little sympathy was directed towards the survivors of the bomb experiments Most Americans appreciated the power of the atomic bomb which ensured the victory of a long war that left millions of people worldwide in despair Yet for vengeance of the attack on Pearl Harbor it was appropriate for the Americans to use the bomb in order to end the war quickly with little casualties In the postwar period before the publication of Hiroshima the majority of Americans generally desired to use the bombs destructive force in Japan From August 10 15 1945 a Gallup Poll asking Do you approve or disapprove of using the new atomic bomb on Japanese cities Gallup 521 was conducted on about 1000 American adults nationwide The poll results showed that about 85 percent approved 10 percent disapproved and 5 percent were unsure of the decision to use the bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Gallup 521 There were also similar surveys from other sources conducted throughout the year but the statistics usually indicate that the majority of Americans approved the atomic bombings This reveals that most Americans regarded the Japanese as an enemy especially following the intensifying vengeful mood that built up after the attack on Pearl Harbor In retrospect most Americans in 1945 were unconcerned with what the bomb did to the victims in Hiroshima but concerned more about winning the war Though many articles in the media described the destruction of Hiroshima and what the Hibakushas suffer though most of them deviated readers from connecting with the Hibakushas When television broadcasts and newspaper headlines inform about the bomb the statistics usually emphasized the destruction done to buildings and bridges These preferences in statistical views exemplify the points of views from the bombers government and American public In the US military When bodies were discussed the tone of the language was objective and medical Sharp 439 Instead of detailing the catastrophic sufferings of the Hibakushas the government tended to deviate from their points of view The following passage titled Hiroshima Gone Newsman Finds appeared in the New York Times newspaper on August 31 1945 Hiroshima was destroyed at one strike by a single atomic bomb dropped by a Superfort on the morning of Aug 6 There is not a single building standing intact in the city which had a population of 300 000 The death toll is expected to reach 100 000 and people continue to die daily from burns suffered from the bomb s ultra violet rays However as I trod my way through the debris wondering if my mother was still alive I realized that in reality Hiroshima had been destroyed through the stupendous destructive power of a single atomic bomb Two miles from the center of the city I found dwellings heavily damaged Many of them were crushed as if from heavily descending pressure Another half mile farther I found walls of dwellings smashed in and the roofs shattered attesting to the air pressure the bomb created Nakashima Many eyewitnesses also continued to follow this similar view towards the aftermath of the bomb Emphases on building statistics were usually dominant over death statistics It is only through the publication of Hiroshima that broke readers away from the mushroom cloud traditional views of the bomb towards a more noiseless flash that the Hibakushas experience The point of views from the bombers and the US government in particular also focused on the mushroom cloud in contrast with the noiseless flash that Hersey details in Hiroshima As Patrick Sharp puts it The August 12 San Francisco Chronicle devoted the upper right fourth of the front page to a picture of the smoke cloud taken by the American military at Hiroshima with the subtitle Monument to Victory 439 Captain William Parsons one of the crew members of the Enola Gay states that I knew the Japs were in for it but I felt no particular emotion about it Takaki 43 In the bomber s point of view many newspapers and magazines put large photos of the mushroom cloud on their headlines After pictures were released to the media except pictures that detail the wounds of Hibakushas the following type was perceived in many articles as the attention grabber Fig 1 Hiroshima Cloud The Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima August 6 1945 28 May 2007 http www mbe doe gov me70 manhattan hiroshima htm Again little emphasis was put on the Hibakushas in the media during the several months after the bombing Rather than perceiving the atomic bomb in mass murdering hundreds and thousands of innocent Japanese it is viewed as a destructive force The public did understand about the destructive powers of the atom bomb and some even were sympathetic towards the Hibakushas As Steve Rothman puts it in The Publication of Hiroshima in The New Yorker most of these stories steered clear of details that would help readers identify with the dead or the survivors 2 The media was more focused on the destructive powers of the bomb rather than on what the bomb did to the victims The media simply did not portray the full horrors of the atomic destructions because most reporters and journalists of the time gave brief summaries of the tragedies in Hiroshima in contrast with Hiroshima The media also could not portray the full horrors of the atomic destructions Patrick Sharp states that In the aftermath of the attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki the US government engaged in a long and protracted battle to control narratives about the atomic bomb The military controlled the press releases and all other information about the atomic bombings 438 In the weeks following the atomic attacks access to certain highways and roads which were mostly destroyed were limited Furthermore the US military also practiced censorship and limited information such as radiation sickness statistics to the public Therefore most reporters and journalists could not grasp complete information about the sufferings of the Hibakushas as the government and the military in particular also attempted to squelch or refute reports about the effects of the atomic bombs on humans especially the devastating and lingering impact of radiation Sharp 439 As information is limited sympathy for the Hibakushas was also limited Therefore reporters could only supply newspaper headlines with the atomic mushroom cloud image statistics of damages on buildings and brief summaries of death numbers Prior to the Hiroshima disaster the majority of Americans at home were fearless of the power of the atomic bomb They regarded the atomic bomb as something similar to the use of conventional bombs As Michael J Yavenditti states in John Hersey and the American Conscience The Reception of Hiroshima Americans had learned too little about the bomb to become aroused over its use against Japan 30 While photographs revealed the mushroom cloud aspect of the atomic bomb the media especially made Hiroshima seem like just another conventional bombed city Censorship in the media limited information to the American public by pointing out that conventional bombs were similar to that of atomic bombs Therefore Prior to Hiroshima all the American public knew of the bombing was statistics figures about explosive power numbers of casualties and that it had finally led to the end of the war John Hersey Hiroshima on the other hand persuaded readers to believe that the atomic bomb was much more different from other kinds of bombs which further stimulated readers to learn more about what the Hibakushas experienced A remarkable factor of the publication of Hiroshima also lies in the background information that Hersey incorporated within his text While many other Japanese cities were devastated by conventional bombs during the war Hiroshima was relatively unaffected Likewise the inhabitants in Hiroshima did not seek shelter as daily warnings in the city usually did not predict signs of potential threats In Hiroshima Hersey carefully delivers this message to his readers encouraging them to view conventional bombings differently than atomic bombs While many inhabitants did not seek shelter when daily warnings usually indicate minor threats the explosion of the atomic bomb was a big surprise Readers were aware that the atomic bomb was an enormous destructive force that differed from the familiar air raids of World War II Consequently the atomic attack demonstrated the savage power of the new weapon in an almost laboratory type experiment on human beings and seemingly confirmed a prior rumor among Hiroshima residents that the Americans were saving something special for the city Yavenditti 37 This indicates that many Americans discovered new information in Hiroshima that other writers of the time usually left out when writing about the atomic bombs Furthermore for the first time Hiroshima compelled readers to recognize the Hibakushas as human beings rather as enemies of war The justification of using the bomb was based on the foundation to end the war quickly with few American and Japanese casualties In reverse the decision to use the bomb resulted in much more casualties on the Japanese side In his speech on August 6 1945 after the bomb was dropped in Hiroshima President Truman indicates that The Japanese began the war from the air at Pearl Harbor They have been repaid many fold And the end is not yet We are now prepared to obliterate more rapidly and completely every productive enterprise the Japanese have above ground in any city We shall destroy their docks their factories and their communications Let there be no mistake we shall completely destroy Japan s power to make war If they do not now accept our terms they may expect a rain of ruin from the air the like of which has never been seen on this earth Behind this air attack will follow sea and land forces in such numbers and power as they have not yet seen and with the fighting skill of which they are already well aware Truman Truman s points indicate that Hiroshima and Nagasaki were military targets even when the Japanese were at the brink of surrender With Germany and Italy defeated Japan was left by herself with limited resources men and fighting spirit According to Mick Hume writer of Hiroshima The White Man s Bomb Revisited the Strategic Bombing Survey argued that Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped even if Russia had not entered the war and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated Hume Navy Admiral William F Halsey Third Fleet commander was quoted in the press as saying that the Japanese had been on the verge of surrender before the atom bombs were dropped in the summer of 1945 and that the atomic bomb was an unnecessary experiment Rothman 11 The Supreme Allied Commander Dwight D Eisenhower even assert that the Japanese were ready to surrender and we didn t have to hit them with that awful thing qtd in Newsweek 11 November 1963 Despite knowing that the Japanese were powerless to resist back with heavy force the Japanese did not have a chance to survey Hiroshima before surrendering After the bomb was dropped the city was virtually devastated making transportation very difficult in and out of the city Three days later another atomic bomb was dropped in Nagasaki and the Japanese were forced to surrender Although President Truman s decision to use the atomic bomb was for the benefit of the American population the US government knew that the Japanese were at the brink of surrender In 1993 the author Gar Alperovitz obtained hundreds of pages of US National Security Agency intercepts of secret enemy wartime communications These revealed that US intelligence knew top Japanese army officers were willing to surrender more than three months before the Hiroshima bomb was dropped Hume Although the United States dropped the bomb because Hiroshima was a military target and because it would end the war quickly there are more reasons for the justification of the decision One other factor lies in the politics of racial superiority by the reason that the bomb was designated to dropped in Japan rather than Germany The Military Policy Committee the head of the Manhattan Project to build the bomb held a meeting in May 1943 to determine military targets for the atomic bomb Germany was still relatively active in the war in 1943 but the decision of using the bomb in Japan was the preferred and first choice This indicates that Japan was the main military target and that Germany was never effectively considered To the United States Germany was only an enemy The Japanese however were regarded as a different kind of people an alien nation On August 11 1945 President Truman delivered another speech in regards to the atomic bombings He states that The only language the Japanese seem to understand is the one we have been using to bombard them When you have to deal with a beast you have to treat him as a beast It is most regrettable but nevertheless true qtd in Gar Alperovitz 563 By treating the Japanese as beasts Truman s decision to drop the bomb was also justified by racial superiority which sets the Japanese as a less advanced race compared to the Western powers The racial barriers between Japan and the United States are in fact a huge contribution to limited American responses to the negatives of the atomic bomb According to Mick Hume Allied propagandists made a clear distinction between their two major enemies They showed the problem in Europe not as the whole German nation but as Hitler and the Nazis In Asia by contrast the enemy was the Japs an entire malignant race Hume During this era the Japanese were depicted as monkeys and dogs and as President Truman indicates beasts These prejudices were also present before World War II such as the 1906 San Francisco Japanese education crisis which may have contributed to a growing negative sentiment towards the Japanese as tensions later grew between the United States and Japan Aroused over the attack on Pearl Harbor these racial barriers also likely diminished the values of protests against atomic bombings It is through the publication of Hiroshima that drew more Americans toward a sympathetic attitude of the Hibakushas During World War II more than 100 000 Japanese Americans of which the majority was United States citizens were forced into internment camps scattered across the country The primary reason for the migration was to protect US foreign activities by removing any possible sabotage in military facilities from Japanese citizens Yet with the extent of other past time tensions between Americans and Japanese such as the 1906 San Francisco Japanese education crisis and the rejection of Japan s attempt to include a clause on racial equality in the covenant of the new League of Nations Hume the overall relationship between the Japanese and Americans is not too friendly during the World War II era After a sense of vengeance stirred the American public after the attack on Pearl Harbor it is evident that few Americans were even sympathetic towards the Japanese Perhaps even viewing the Japanese as a less advanced race suggests that the bomb must be dropped to end the war quickly Traditional views of nuclear weaponry which consist of the stereotypical mushroom cloud view and the emphasis of its destructive powers can even be marked by a stance on racial superiority While the majority of Americans supported the use of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 it is evident that little tenderness was shown towards the Japanese Americans at home The internment of the thousands of Japanese American citizens sparked a sense of hatred among many people in Japan Although many Americans in the west coast of the United States did support the internment rule very few Americans were actually sympathetic to the Japanese Americans even when they knew that the rule violates American principles of freedom The following article titled Japanese American Troops Most Honored was published in a newspaper in 1945 shortly after the Japanese surrendered Now that the war is over combat statistics make the internment of Japanese Americans seem doubtfully shameful Nisei soldiers not only fought with great distinction but the 33 000 men of the Nisei 442nd Regiment and the 100th Battalion also emerged as the most decorated men in American military history More incredibly despite heavy casualties there were no known frontline Nisei desertions as against an overall service rate of about 15 percent In all some 8000 Nisei joined the army after Secretary of War Henry L Stimson announced in January 1943 that they could do so as volunteers in segregated units

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  • The collapse of Tsarism
    to the children who saved her in the mid life of her greatness Many of them will never see or know of this cherished place but alas they already saw and they already knew They knowingly saw the shadow of danger in the brightness of their youth and they went responding to the calling of their time fulfilling their duty and their destiny with distinction They most assuredly knew something of what Civil War brother in arms Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr reflected upon when he wrote If there is any part of your life where you should have been and did what you should have done it is in the great Olympiad of 61 to 65 What have you felt or looked upon since that is not pitifully small in comparison In our youth our hearts were touched with fire It is for us to bear the report to those who come after us Deep within their being they would also concur with Shakespeare s Henry V who roused his countrymen to battle thusly Whoever does not have the stomach for this fight let him depart Give him money to speed his departure since we wish not to die in that man s company Whoever lives past today and comes home safely will rouse himself every year on this day show his neighbor his scars and tell embellished stories of all their great feats of battle These stories will teach his son and from this day until the end of the world we shall be remembered We few we happy few we band of brothers for whoever has shed his blood with me shall be my brother And those men afraid to go will think themselves lesser men as they hear of how we fought and died together Indeed they saw and they knew Certainly however it is even more important for children grandchildren and great grandchildren to come and ponder awe inspired by their courage and accomplishments They must learn that these our heroes in the words of historian Steven Ambrose did more to help spread democracy around the world than any other generation in history They knew the difference between right and wrong and didn t want to live in a world in which wrong prevailed So they fought and won and we all of us for all succeeding generations must be forever profoundly grateful Ironically the memorial serves as a deathless reminder of all those who gave themselves in death that this nation s posterity and the posterity of so many other lands might know the blessings of liberty Let it be our hope as it was Gen Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain s for Gettysburg that it be a place where reverent men and women from afar and generations which know us not and that we know not of heart drawn to see where and by whom great things were suffered and done for them shall come to ponder and dream and lo The shadow of a mighty

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/listento.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • An Historical Perspective On God
    or ignored them were thrust out of the tribe on the commandment of the high priest No one wished to anger the god by ignoring the commandments of the representative of the god It was the shaman who offered prayers to the god during times of famine and drought it was the shaman who cured the sick and read the signs and interpreted the unknown These shamans oracles priests seers assumed a position of great power and eventually were influential in the selection of the kings or chieftains to whom the tribe would give its allegiance When the tribe went to war against its neighbors it was the shaman who called down on the enemy the judgment of the god and assured the tribe that through him the shaman they had the protection of the god As time went by these shaman developed a culture of their own separate from that of the tribe The members of their family became the priestly caste among the tribe and eventually assumed a position of authority that at times bordered on being as powerful as that of the chief king In order to obtain the agreement of the tribe for a cause of action it was necessary to convert to that cause the chief king who better to influence the chief king than the shaman over time this belief system became known as what we call our religion and within that religion we have assigned certain powers and privileges to our religious leaders Now come forward to the time of the beginnings of the early Christian faith when the messengers of the faith began to spread out among the gentiles and pagans to whom did they go to the chief kings of the tribes when they had converted that person the tribe went

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  • The collapse of Tsarism
    by 4 million military deaths in the first year of war and no wonder opposition to the Tsar climaxed Optimists would therefore argue that the war was the primary reason for the downfall of Tsarism as it reversed the process which could have saved it However the stability of Russia in 1914 must not be overestimated and the war did not create the issues which were to overcome the monarchy The economy was growing but was not on par with the other great European nations such as Britain France and Germany Living conditions were still poor The rapid industrial growth caused problems as it enlarged the working class and drew labourers from the countryside putting strain on antiquated urban infrastructure and overstretching farmers This countered any improvement in the standard of living brought about by a stronger economy The political situation was also uneasy the number of people who took strike action in 1914 was the highest it had been since 1905 The backdrop was flammable Russia may have been stabilising but it was not yet stable enough to withstand war The war therefore served to aggravate problems which were already present and its importance is diminished What is more whether war had happened or not Tsarism was being torn apart by its own struggle The problems which the Tsar faced had been mostly brought upon himself before there was even a suggestion of war His incompetence was characterised by a haughty despotism which damaged his prestige and antagonised both his opponents and supporters Throughout his reign Tsar Nicholas II had increasingly lost touch with his people On his orders Cossack guards brutally repressed the 1905 revolution memorialised as Bloody Sunday and the 1912 Lena goldfields protests Suddenly people discovered that their leader was not the benevolent idol they had previously adored but a ruthless official determined to keep order His most grave mistake was when he took over full control of the armed forces in August 1915 When the army continued to be defeated Russians lost all sense of a protective shrewd paternal Tsar and it gave them an excuse to criticise him By the time rumours of Rasputin s sexual shenanigans in the royal court started spreading along with rumours of the unpopular Alexandra s interference in royal affairs it simply confirmed people s distrust in the Tsar Loss of prestige was important because prestige was something relied heavily upon by such obsolescent despotic regimes to keep largely illiterate populations under control Its loss played straight into the hands of the political opposition such as the Bolsheviks an alarming trend which was already strong before war was declared The Tsar s despotism was most clearly seen in his dealing with calls to reform and here is where he planted the seeds of unrest In 1905 he was forced reluctantly to introduce a limited constitution a parliament and legalise trade unions This tempted liberals who unsuccessfully demanded more However over the following ten years he tried to reverse these

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  • California Gold Rush
    which to build on When thousands began flowing into California settlements sprang up overnight in the mining fields According to Paul The most common was the camp a straggling settlement that might vary in size from a few houses to a small town A more impressive place was the mining town a community that was larger in size than the camp and usually had a few buildings that could make some pretensions to substantiality In the beginning nearly everyone was camping out under shelter of a tree a crude tent or a lean to made of canvas By 1850 log cabins were being built in the developing settlements For the common miner construction costs were so high that most buildings were made of wood frame with canvas stretched over it Such methods of construction produced communities that were wiped out by fires several times Miners set up a camp close to where they were digging it could be set up in a few hours and taken down in even less time This was an important part of their lifestyle since they were constantly on the move from one location to another If the daily living was rough the work was then severe Work began on the streams at daylight and as the miners dressed and prepared them selves for a hard day of labor the cook made their breakfast After breakfast the miners made their way down to the streams with their picks shovels pans and buckets After arriving at the claim the miners began the routine of digging shoveling carrying and washing until sunset This routine was carried out at least six days a week and often seven Often men would be removing the sand knee deep in ice cold water for hours on end One miner summarized the labors of mining in these terms Mining is the hardest work imaginable and an occupation which very much endangers health A weakly man might about as well go to digging his grave as to dig gold Few forty niners were prepared for the incredibly hard work Working fifty pans of dirt in a ten hour day was a reasonable goal But digging the dirt to fill those pans sorting it out and panning for the gold became more work than most gold seekers had anticipated For a man who could endure hardships could handle the incredible amount of labor and could handle the sorrows of disappointment there was never a better opportunity in the world to make a fortune There was a great number of men who barely knew how to pick up a shovel including doctors lawyers preachers bookkeepers and other white collar workers few of them prepared for the hard life of mining As much as a thousand dollars worth of gold could be washed from a single pan but few miners ever had that exhilarating experience A half an ounce of gold a day was generally recognized as the bare minimum a miner must make to keep

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