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  • A Glimpse of Humanity Reaching b
    used the climate to their advantage For instance they would use irrigation systems to produce a more abundant crop The Sumerians developed one of the first systems of monarchy An individual that was considered to be a priest king ruled each city state He was in charge of leading the military administering trade and helping with religious ceremonies Bureaucrats who surveyed the land aided him A council of elders ruled each city Each army was lead by a selected individual called a lugal Over time the lugals took over and established dynasties To record their courts of justice files they used clay tablets One clay tablet even recorded the oldest murder trial in history The Sumerians believed in justice and mercy law and order and an organized system of laws The elders in each city state generally made the laws The king was responsible for all law and justice However the enis was in charge of carrying out the laws The courts had a specific order in which things were completed The written laws were actually some of summer s main legal documents Sumerians believed that law and justice should be followed There was no clear punishment for any given crime The punishment was actually left up to the judge Some common Sumerian laws include Marriages were arranged by law The marriage license was usually inscribed onto a clay tablet Divorce was common because husbands were allowed to have more than one wife if their first wife had no children Children could be adopted The women were able to have rights after being married They were able to own a business own property or even testify in court Punishment was common because husbands were allowed to have more than one wife if their first wife had no children Children could be adopted The women were able to have rights after being married They were able to own a business own property or even testify in court The Sumerians had a polytheistic religion The gods were considered to be anthropomorphic by the people The gods were thought to have powers some of which were related to astronomical bodies These gods also had characteristics like that of a human They felt lust love anger etc The Sumerians did believe in life after death They had realistic expectations of what their future had in store They also understood that their gods were not always nice or polite They did try to understand what the gods had in store for them as well as how they could please the gods A large number of gods were worshiped with prayers and sacrifices People would pray to them in both times of praise and misfortune The most important god was known as Nanna Sin His son was the son god Utu and his daughter was the goddess Inanna Sacrifices of both oxen and sheep were made for important people Temples were the center of religious activity within a city Every temple contained a shrine that was

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  • Analysis of Akhenaten
    to believe that Akhenaten s views where so different from tradition that they were considered dangerous Akhenaten could not have been a good leader Although he single handedly raised the level of artistry and temple building it was not enough to prevent him from being targeted by the surrounding officials The article mentions correspondences from Tushratta a king of the Mesopotamian state of Mitanni Who writes about how Akhenaten sends him gold plated wooden statues instead of the pure gold ones It seems that Akhenaten only concentrated himself on building temples for Aten the god he chose above all His neglect to affairs outside Egypt is a terrible decision and probably left Egypt defenseless from outside attacks When he decided to elevate Aten to the level of the only god he definitely must have angered the priests of the other gods At one point out of a fit of anger Akhenaten tries to destroy the images and statues of the other gods These types of decision would have definitely angered Egypt s higher officials and cause tension between the pharaoh and the people around him At one point the Egyptologist theorize that a plague must have struck to account for all the deaths surrounding the royal family This is indeed conceivable since most of the population of Amarna sprung up in a short amount of time The location of Amarna was also considered desolate which could have made living harsh especially with such a large population It does surprise me that they do not consider the possibility of a conspiracy where the deaths where made to try to deter the pharaoh from his rebellious acts Another possibility for these deaths could have been that the pharaoh executed them Of course seeing as how information about this era are sketchy that

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  • The Beliefs and Process of Mummi
    and also was needed later in the weighing of the heart ceremony The brain was the last soft organ to be removed and was done by a hook that the embalmers inserted in the nose The brain to the Egyptian was much like the kidneys had no real purpose they thought it was a waste of space and once removed was thrown away or dissolved in water The body know empty of organs was covered and stuffed with natron salt which helped the body dry out for forty days The body was then washed with water from the Nile and covered with oils to help the skin of the body stay elastic The body was then stuffed with linen sawdust or leaves so it would allow the body to look more life like and covered once again with oils The incision on the left side was then covered with either wax or with a metal plate The metal plate was used for protection for the underworld and was decorated with magical symbols Instead of the internal organs being placed in canoic jars they could be placed back into the body at this point The final step that was done in the tent of purification was the wrapping of the body that lasted fifteen days The body was wrapped with linen beginning with the head and neck and the fingers and toes followed after Each finger and toe was individually wrapped and the arms and legs were wrapped separately Between the layers of wrapping the embalmers place amulets to protect the body for its journey to the underworld Two important amulets were the Iris knot which protected the body and the Plummet amulet that will keep the person balanced in the next life While the mummy is being wrapped the priests read out spells These spells help ward off evil and protected them on their journey to the afterlife A papyrus scroll with spells from the Book of the Dead is placed between the wrapped hands This scroll allows them to have a safe and successful trip to the underworld The body was once more wrapped with linen and then covered with a cloth that had a picture of Orisis painted on the front Finally a large cloth is wrapped around the entire mummy It is attached with strips of linen that run from the top to the bottom of the bottom of the mummy After the body was wrapped the head and face were often covered by a mask decorated with facial features similar to those of the deceased Facial features were often decorated with gold or oil paint to imitate the flesh of the gods The embalming process was then finished with one final step before the funeral and that was for the mummy to be placed in a series of coffins There were usually two coffins with spells and images that would allow his her body to enter the underworld The spells on the coffin were protective spells

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  • A History of Class
    ins became more and more common with all other rebellion especially in the South As this movement against segregation began to gain momentum within twelve months in 1960 there were more than 50 000 people that participated in demonstrations against segregation By the end of 1960 the impact of these demonstrations was seen when lunch counters in Greensboro and other towns began to serve blacks Zinn 453 Not long after this a CORE began Freedom Rides a group of black and white people planning on traveling from D C to New Orleans to help promote desegregation The Freedom Riders stopped short of their final destination after being faced with a great deal of violence that was unopposed by both local authorities and FBI Zinn 453 In 1963 unemployment rates for non whites was over eight percent higher than that of whites people and half of the African American population was below the poverty line Zinn 458 Tension and demonstration continued gaining momentum all over the country when President Johnson passed new stronger Voter Rights Law in 1965 By 1968 black voter registration in the south increased 60 from 1952 Zinn 456 In 1967 a group formed in Detroit calling itself the League of Revolutionary Black Workers This group scared a great deal of those opposed to the forward of the black movement because the black population was aligning itself to fight with the lower class focusing more on the work situation It was believed that through this many people who would not formerly bend to help black people specifically politicians and businessmen began to cooperate out of fear of backlash form the entire lower class black and white Zinn 464 The oppression of woman in America begins at the same time as that of African American s Before America was even independent women were oppressed Women much like African American s were imported and kept as sex slaves child bearers and companions in early America Zinn 104 Given no right of property all the property of women was considered to belong to their husbands It was impossible for any woman that was not the wife of an important politician to speak their mind in anyway working class women being ignored completely While the world was changing and modernizing the woman s place was told to stay in the home perhaps to maintain some semblance in the home of a utopian past of the bread winning male and homemaking wife Zinn 114 This is the idea of the woman s sphere The idea that a woman s place is in the home was firmly engrained in the American mind making it difficult for women to achieve anywhere Zinn 117 However it was shortly after this that a woman s work was decidedly seen as separate but equal Of course as we already no this does not mean true equality Women still could not own property when she did work her wages were one fourth to one half what men earned in

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  • A history of writing in human ci
    Also the inscriptions were carved on stone and monuments The people of the Indus Valley did not use papyrus or clay tablets but perhaps they wrote on a perishable item such as wood or leather Soon after 2000 B C writing was invented for the fifth time in the maritime kingdom of Crete The Cretans almost certainly got the notion of writing from foreign parts but the actual script is highly original The Cretans were by the 17th century B C using two scripts Linear A and Linear B Crete has one of the strangest artifacts in the history of writing the Phaistos disk The symbols on the disk are unlike the linear scripts The most striking feature is that the symbols were impressed with stamps instead of a stylus the tool usually associated with writing on clay By 1500 B C another invention of writing had appeared in Asia Minor Hittite hieroglyphs Hittite hieroglyphs which do not resemble Egyptian hieroglyphs were written in alternating directions The script numbered as many as 419 symbols mostly pictographic The Hittites used hieroglyphs when they carved inscriptions on stone monuments and rocks but for everyday purposes they wrote in cuneiform borrowed by Mesopotamia At about the same time writing was invented again far to the east in the Valley of Yellow River in China Early Chinese symbols were pictorial and very indigenous as were the writing materials bamboo and silk From all these beginnings many new scripts were to arise and further refinements were to be made The revolutionary advance to alphabetic writing was the main growth in writing Cuneiform is an ancient form of writing named for the shape of its word signs It is the earliest known form of writing or picture script Writing was first written with scratching signs on damp clay with a pointed stick or reed The clay was written on while moist and left to dry in the sun afterwards People found it was easier and quicker to make a stylized representation of an object by making a few marks on clay than drawing pictures So instead they drew straight lines or curves thus the beginning of cuneiform Cuneiform was written mostly on clay tablets but also on envelopes of clay used for transport seals and monuments Egyptian Hieroglyphs is the earliest script and the longest duration The first hieroglyphs are in the form of short label texts on stone and pottery objects The script was originally employed for different kinds of texts but as other writings developed hieroglyphic was increasingly confined to religious and monumental contexts The signs of the hieroglyphic script are largely pictorial in character A few are indeterminate in form but most characters are recognizable pictures which may exhibit fine detail and coloring although not always realistic Many people think that it is a kind of primitive picture writing because of its artistic beauty But it is a full writing system capable of communicating the same kind of information as our own alphabet

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  • Characteristics and Impacts of A
    was practically useless as it only dealt with Federal elections State elections were more important to citizens during the Reconstruction era and unless Johnson guaranteed State voting rights to freedmen he was offering them hardly anything at all Also Johnson supported Black Codes against Northern public opinion which damaged him politically in the North Finally Johnson did not deal with land reform or economic aid which was economically unsound In Congress the Radicals and Moderates were forced to join forces to overturn Johnson s extremely lenient plan Caught up in battles with Congress and an impeachment scandal until he left office Johnson did not achieve his Reconstruction goals Congress finally implemented their plan in 1866 This is viewed as the most prevalent plan of Reconstruction Under this strategy the majority of each state s voters had to take an oath of allegiance and then the state had to write a new constitution Congress would then review the constitutions and the applications for pardons from Confederate officers The states also had to accept the 13th 14th and 15th amendments Finally the South would be divided into ten military districts and were to be under military law Boyer 448 Although this plan was harsher than Johnson s it was still fairly forgiving to the South The military occupation was actually quite light and did not last long Also the 13th 14th and 15th amendments dealt only with Federal laws and did not extend to state elections or private policy Congress s plan did nothing to aid freedmen or protect them from violence and race riots Like Lincoln and Johnson s plans it did not address land reform However the goal of Congress s plan was reached at least partly Although Congress did not succeed in guaranteeing black suffrage which was one of its original intentions during Reconstruction it did begin the process of rebuilding the South Reconstruction modernized Southern law codes created more equal Congressional districts a fairer tax system and a public school system What it failed to do was give freedmen social or legal equality and protect them from white violence and oppression By refusing to deal with land reform the plan helped the rise of the share cropping system and by failing to guarantee state rights it paved the way for segregation However the plan did provide a sense of closure to the nation relieving it of the so called Southern question Boyer 470 By 1875 the North was tiring of Reconstruction and devoted its focus to the Frontiers and Industrialization Reconstruction had a deep impact on the North the South African Americans and the nation as a whole A landmark case that also had deep repercussions in America was the case of Plessy v Ferguson which ruled that segregation was legal and could be enforced Reconstruction led the North into industrial growth labor unrest and created political unrest Boyer 462 Due to the implementation of the factory system the North was able to employ low level workers in

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  • Treason
    on to the British news that the French fleet was planning to land at Newport and then attack Canada a phony story that Washington spread in hopes that it would lure Clinton away from New York long enough for him to seize and capture the island city Benedict went to West Point for the first time accompanied by General Robert Howe Howe felt that Arnold could be a weak link towards Washington s precious stronghold of the north On July 31st Washington moved his troops across the Hudson at King s Ferry near Stony Point where he met Arnold Washington felt that it would be a waste of an excellent field officer but could not refuse Arnold s request On August 3rd Washington announced that Arnold would take command of West Point enabling General Howe to return to the American line Then on August 24th Arnold received a letter from André indicating that the British would meet his financial demands and pay him 20 000 pounds when he surrendered West Point all its stores artillery and a battalion of approximately 3 000 men His plan was to send troops out in isolated groups so they could easily become surprised and captured Benedict then suggested that a swift British expedition could surprise the Americans detain Washington and very likely win the war However the British failed to take advantage of this great opportunity On September 11th Arnold s barge cautiously approached Dobbs Ferry when a swift British gunboat suddenly appeared from the eastern shore Then the ship began to open fire about him Arnold was by complete surprise wondering if it had been a trap or was he merely caught off guard All afternoon he paced the shoreline searching the river for a signal from Major André He quickly wrote a note to General Washington who was only three miles away explaining his attendance Soon after he fled back to headquarters On September 14th three days after his narrow escape at Dobbs Ferry Arnold again embarked on his journey heading south Only this time he was to meet up with his beloved Peggy at Joshua Smith s house in Haverstraw Soon after a courier delivered Arnold a confidential letter from General Washington requesting a exceptional guard to be sent to King s Ferry the subsequent evening September 17th to cover the commander in chief s voyage with his suite Washington planned to spend the night in Peekskill en route to Hartford for a covert discussion with the French general and admiral Immediately following Benedict informed André of his diplomacy Unfortunately for Arnold André would not receive the news in time to organize an abduction of the commander in chief The purpose was to inform André to delay his destination upriver until the coast was clear Following this Major André and Arnold met to discuss their plan of attack on West Point Predictably it was when the subject turned to money that obscurity arose Benedict s interests had focused on money thus

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  • Historical propaganda and realit
    dislike against Persians not Iranians and I would say hatred against Armenians again I am neutral speaking of the fact The same we can see with Persians and Armenians as well that they do not like Turks And this is the place where the problem occurs Armenians would not recognize the successful parts of the Azeri s and the same with us Persian historian s writes that there was not Azerbaijan before 13th century all were Persian in Caucasus even in Northern Caucasus They would call Caucasian tribes like Caspii s Nakhch s Udin s Uti s as Persian but it is the fact that they did not speak Iranian Indo European and that there is not enough information to define their ethnicity Besides it I believe that any nation living 4 000 years ago cannot simply be the ancestor of 1 nation For example even with Persians we cannot say Elam s as their ancestors or more correctly as their only ancestor At the same time even during Soviet times when nationalism and racism was less than today I believe since people did not even have time to deal with it some Azeri historians would accept or declare those tribes even tribes like Gutian s Lullubian s as Turkish or Proto Turks without even being aware of the fact and may be being aware of the fact but denying it that Turks as a nation appeared in the history first time in early middle ages in 5th and 6th centuries Talking about Proto Turks it is the same with the Ancestors of Turks which most historians accept as Huns and Possible several tribes of Scythians which is not proven as well It is a fact that in history books in Azerbaijan we do not have a single place where it is mentioned that there was an Armenian kingdom free or dependent doesn t matter and that Highs did live in that kingdom in times of late Republic of Rome and Middle Parthian Empire Nor any map we have in our history books that mention that southern Caucasus Mountains were called Armenia by Assyrians and later on by Iranian and Greek Roman states And I believe this is the same in Armenia as well They also make our history fake and this is the part of Information War in the world And it is shameful that one of the first victims of this war is History Those examples are plenty and it is the very fact that today in modern conflicts frozen or active such as Kosova Darfur Palestine Karabakh this propaganda s play great role I do not want to go deeper and turn to politics but this also part or I would say problem that Historians must work on and clarify issues with building institutions and I am sure that it will help to cool down tensions Coming to the origin of Turks today by most Scholars those who are not racist it is accepted that Turks origin

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