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  • The Aztecs, Part One
    In the early part of the fifteenth century nearly a hundred years from the foundation of the city an event took place which created an entire revolution in the circumstances and to some extent in the character of the Aztecs This was the subversion of the Tezcucan monarchy by the Tepanecs already noticed When the oppressive conduct of the victors had at length aroused a spirit of resistance its prince Nezahualcoyotl succeeded after incredible perils and escapes in mustering such a force as with the aid of the Mexicans placed him on a level with his enemies In two successive battles these were defeated with great slaughter their chief slain and their territory by one of those sudden reverses which characterize the wars of petty states passed into the hands of the conquerors It was awarded to Mexico in return for its important services Then was formed that remarkable league which indeed has no parallel in history It was agreed between the states of Mexico Tezcuco and the neighbouring little kingdom of Tlacopan that they should mutually support each other in their wars offensive and defensive and that in the distribution of the spoil one fifth should be assigned to Tlacopan and the remainder be divided in what proportions in uncertain between the other powers The Tezcucan writers claim an equal share for their nation with the Aztecs But this does not seem to be warranted by the immense increase of territory subsequently appropriated by the latter And we may account for any advantage conceded to them by the treaty on the supposition that however inferior they may have been originally they were at the time of making it in a more prosperous condition than their allies broken and dispirited by long oppression What is more extraordinary than the treaty itself however is the fidelity with which it was maintained During a century of uninterrupted warfare that ensued no instance occurred where the parties quarrelled over the division of the spoil which so often makes shipwreck of similar confederacies among civilized states 1 Footnote 1 The loyal Tezcucan chronicler claims the supreme dignity for his own sovereign if not the greatest share of the spoil by this imperial compact Hist Chich cap 32 Torquemada on the other hand claims one half of all the conquered lands for Mexico Monarch Ind lib 2 cap 40 All agree in assigning only one fifth to Tlacopan and Veytia Hist antig lib 3 cap 3 and Zurita Rapport sur les differentes Classes de Chefs de la Nouvelle Espagne trad de Ternaux Paris 1840 p 11 both very competent critics acquiesce in an equal division between the two principal states in the confederacy An ode still extant of Nezahualcoyotl in its Castilian version bears testimony to the singular union of the three powers solo se acordaran en las Naciones lo bien que gobernaron las tres Cabezas que el Imperio honraron Cantares del Emperador Nezahualcoyotl MS The allies for some time found sufficient occupation for their

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  • The U.S. Wages War Against The Barbary
    could not be taken as a prize However the captain of the Enterprise did have all of the corsair s guns thrown overboard before allowing the ship to continue on its way with sixty casualties to his none Channing 1968 Yusuf was so furious at his captain s defeat at the hand of the American fat ducks that he had him bastinadoed beaten on the soles of his feet and paraded backward on a donkey his neck festooned with sheep s entrails Castor 1971 At this time U S naval enlistments were for only one year so in March 1802 Commodore Dale sailed home Congress still refused to declare war against Tripoli but did levy a light war tax and proclaimed protection of commerce by the navy Command of the American effort evolved in September 1803 to Captain Edward Preble who immediately set about on the offensive He scored a bloodless victory at Tangier by convincing the Sultan of Morocco that it would be to his benefit not to molest American shipping in the future Preble accomplished this feat by sailing the Constitution into Tangier harbor opening up the gun ports running out the cannon and pointing them at the Sultan s palace The Sultan hastened to agree and to seal the bargain supplied the crew of the ship with provisions Channing 1968 The glow of success was soon tarnished when news reached Preble of the capture of the frigate Philadelphia The Philadelphia arrived on station in the Mediterranean ahead of the rest of the squadron Its captain William Bainbridge unwisely set about trying to blockade Tripoli alone On October 31 while pursuing a corsair under full sail Philadelphia grounded on a sandbar about two miles offshore Despite five hours of desperate work by her crew she stuck fast With her broadsides tilted at crazy angles her firing was harmless to the pirates small craft that quickly swarmed about her Bainbridge after jettisoning his useless cannon and thinking the ship s carpenter had scuttled the ship surrendered to prevent a massacre Three hundred and seven Americans were taken prisoner put in chains and forced to slave in the building of Tripoli s fortifications Irwin 1970 Preble s hands were tied Any action by the Americans might result in the Pasha murdering Philadelphia s crewmen in reprisal So Preble first offered 50 000 and then 100 000 for their release but was scornfully refused Whereupon Preble released his own seahawk Stephen Decatur In December young Lieutenant Decatur captain of the Enterprise had apprehended an enemy ketch a four gun vessel of shallow draft which could be rowed Decatur planned a raid to destroy the unlucky Philadelphia whom the pirates had refloated and were rigging for action against the Americans Decatur s plan called for the use of a native vessel and the captured ketch filled the bill Decatur and his small crew disguised as North Africans sailed the Barbary ketch into Tripoli harbor on the night of February 15 1804 The tiny craft bumped into the Philadelphia and Decatur s boarding party flung grappling hooks to lash the rails together Then yelling and screaming they leaped onto the deck of the frigate As a pirate reported later the Americans sent Decatur on a dark night with a band of Christian dogs fierce and cruel as the tiger who killed our brothers and burnt our ships before our eyes Decatur s men wielded tomahawks and killed twenty pirates in as many minutes chasing the rest over the side Only one raider was wounded before the Philadelphia was set afire in four places Then the Americans withdrew Castor 1971 Decatur s luck held in the even more perilous escape from the harbor The Pasha s artillery thundered wildly after the brazen Americans but the little ketch scarcely scratched was rowed through the storm to rejoin the American squadron Castor 1971 When British Admiral Lord Nelson heard of the raid he called it the most bold and daring act of the age Decatur just twenty five won promotion to captain then the highest rank in the navy and remains the youngest man ever to be so honored Bobby Evans 2001 Decatur s act no matter how bold and daring did not alter radically the situation in the Mediterranean Tripoli was defended by 25 000 soldiers and 115 cannon ashore and 24 warships guarded the harbor Against them Preble could pit only 1 060 men aboard seven ships of which only the Constitution was heavy gunned Without troops to storm the port all that Preble and his men could do was to disrupt the Pasha s economy by not allowing the pirates to practice their trade and to keep the pasha on the defensive Channing 1968 On August 3 Preble s squadron sailed into Tripoli harbor to open bombardment of the city The pirates were sheltered safe behind thick walled defenses some of which had been constructed by Philadelphia s crew under the lash The bombardment caused little damage but Preble was pleased by the behavior of his crews who had taken on the pirates at their own game The corsairs were supposed to be invincible at hand to hand fighting but never again would they attempt this their favorite method of attacking and boarding on an American ship The fat ducks had turned into fierce seahawks American sailors led by men like Lieutenant John Trippe outnumbered three to one killed twenty one of the pirates and captured fifteen in one engagement alone Trippe himself took eleven wounds from a Turkish captain before ending the combat with a pike thrust Three Tripolitan gunboats were captured and one sunk Castor 1971 Only one American was lost Decatur s younger brother James had been treacherously murdered by the captain of a pirate ship after its surrender Stephen Decatur avenged his brother by killing the murderer in a savage man to man encounter before witnesses Castor 1971 Preble returned five times to harass and bombard Tripoli but without

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  • Americans of African Ancestry
    support He became the most powerful black man in the nation s history But his program of vocational training did not meet the changing needs of industry and the harsh reality of discrimination prevented most of his Tuskegee Institute graduates from using their skills The period of Washington s leadership proved to be one of repeated setbacks for black Americans More blacks lost the right to vote Segregation became more deeply entrenched Antiblack violence increased Between 1900 and 1914 there were more than 1 000 known lynchings Antiblack riots raged in both the South and the North the most sensational taking place in Brownsville Tex 1906 Atlanta 1906 and Springfield Ill 1908 Meanwhile black leaders opposed to Washington began to emerge The historian and sociologist W E B Du Bois criticized Washington s accommodationist philosophy in The Souls of Black Folk 1903 Others were William Monroe Trotter the militant editor of the Boston Guardian and Ida Wells Barnett a journalist and a crusader against lynching They insisted that blacks should demand their full civil rights and that a liberal education was necessary for the development of black leadership At a meeting in Niagara Falls Ont in 1905 Du Bois and other black leaders who shared his views founded the Niagara Movement Members of the Niagara group joined with concerned liberal and radical whites to organize the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP in 1910 The NAACP journal Crisis edited by Du Bois became an effective organ of propaganda for black rights The NAACP won its first major legal case in 1915 when the United States Supreme Court outlawed the grandfather clause a constitutional device used in the South to disfranchise blacks Black contributions to scholarship and literature continued to mount Historical scholarship was encouraged by the American Negro Academy whose leading figures were Du Bois and the theologians Alexander Crummell and Francis Grimke Charles W Chesnutt was widely acclaimed for his short stories Paul Laurence Dunbar became famous as a lyric poet Washington s autobiography Up from Slavery 1901 won international acclaim Black Migration to the North World War I When slavery was abolished in 1865 blacks were an overwhelmingly rural people In the years that followed there was a slow but steady migration of blacks to the cities mainly in the South Migration to the North was relatively small with nearly 8 million blacks about 90 percent of the total black population of the United States still living in the South in 1900 But between 1910 and 1920 crop damage caused by floods and by insects mainly the boll weevil deepened an already severe economic depression in Southern agriculture Destitute blacks swarmed to the North in 1915 and 1916 as thousands of new jobs opened up in industries supplying goods to Europe then embroiled in World War I Between 1910 and 1920 an estimated 500 000 blacks left the South The blacks who fled from the South soon found that they had not escaped segregation and discrimination They were confined mainly to overcrowded and dilapidated housing and they were largely restricted to poorly paid menial jobs Again there were antiblack riots such as that in East St Louis Ill in 1917 But in the Northern cities the economic and educational opportunities for blacks were immeasurably greater than they had been in the rural South In addition they were helped by various organizations such as the National Urban League founded in 1910 Some blacks opposed involvement in World War I The black Socialists A Philip Randolph and Chandler Owen argued that the fight for democracy at home should precede the fight for it abroad But when the United States entered World War I in April 1917 most blacks supported the step During the war about 1 400 black officers were commissioned Some 200 000 blacks served abroad though most were restricted to labor battalions and service regiments The Garvey Movement the Harlem Renaissance Blacks became disillusioned following World War I The jobs that they had acquired during the war all but evaporated in the postwar recession which hit blacks first and hardest The Ku Klux Klan which had been revived during the war unleashed a new wave of terror against blacks Mounting competition for jobs and housing often erupted into bloody race riots such as those that spread over the nation in the red summer of 1919 In the face of such difficulties a new Negro developed during the 1920s the proud creative product of the American city The growth of race pride among blacks was greatly stimulated by the black nationalist ideas of Marcus Garvey Born in Jamaica he had founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association there in 1914 He came to the United States in 1917 and established a branch of the association in the Harlem district of New York City By 1919 the association had become the largest mass movement of American blacks in the nation s history with a membership of several hundred thousand The Garvey movement was characterized by colorful pageantry and appeals for the rediscovery of the black African heritage Its goal was to establish an independent Africa through the return of a revolutionary vanguard of black Americans Garvey s great attraction among poor blacks was not matched however among the black middle class which resented his flamboyance and his scorn of their leadership Indeed one of Garvey s sharpest critics was Du Bois who shared Garvey s basic goals and organized a series of small but largely ineffectual Pan African conferences during the 1920s The Garvey movement declined after Garvey was jailed for mail fraud in 1925 and was deported to Jamaica in 1927 The flowering of African American creative talent in literature music and the arts in the 1920s was centered in New York and became known as the Harlem Renaissance Like the Garvey movement it was based on a rise in race consciousness among blacks The principal contributors to the Harlem Renaissance included not only well established literary figures such as Du Bois and the poet James Weldon Johnson but also new young writers such as Claude McKay whose militant poem If We Must Die is perhaps the most quoted black literary work of this period Other outstanding writers of the Harlem Renaissance were the novelist Jean Toomer and the poets Countee Cullen and Langston Hughes During the 1920s the artists Henry Ossawa Tanner and Aaron Douglas and the performers Paul Robeson Florence Mills Ethel Waters and Roland Hayes were also becoming prominent The black cultural movement of the 1920s was greatly stimulated by black journals which published short pieces by promising writers These journals included the NAACP s Crisis and the National Urban League s Opportunity The movement was popularized by black philosopher Alain Locke in The New Negro published in 1925 and by the black historian Carter G Woodson founder of the Association for the Study of Negro now Afro American Life and History and editor of the Journal of Negro History Blacks in the Depression and the New Deal The Great Depression of the 1930s worsened the already bleak economic situation of black Americans Again the first to be laid off from their jobs they suffered from an unemployment rate two to three times that of whites In early public assistance programs blacks often received substantially less aid than whites and some charitable organizations even excluded blacks from their soup kitchens Their intensified economic plight sparked major political developments among the blacks Beginning in 1929 the St Louis Urban League launched a national jobs for Negroes movement by boycotting chain stores that had mostly black customers but hired only white employees Efforts to unify black organizations and youth groups later led to the founding of the National Negro Congress in 1936 and the Southern Negro Youth Congress in 1937 Virtually ignored by the Republican administrations of the 1920s black voters drifted to the Democratic party especially in the Northern cities In the presidential election of 1928 blacks voted in large numbers for the Democrats for the first time In 1930 Republican President Herbert Hoover nominated John J Parker a man of pronounced antiblack views to the United States Supreme Court The NAACP successfully opposed the nomination In the 1932 presidential race blacks overwhelmingly supported the successful Democratic candidate Franklin D Roosevelt The Roosevelt Administration s accessibility to black leaders and the New Deal reforms strengthened black support for the Democratic party Many black leaders members of a so called black Cabinet were advisers to Roosevelt Among them were the educator Mary McLeod Bethune who served as the National Youth Administration s director of Negro affairs William H Hastie who in 1937 became the first black federal judge Eugene K Jones executive secretary of the National Urban League Robert Vann editor of the Pittsburgh Courier and the economist Robert C Weaver Blacks benefited greatly from New Deal programs though discrimination by local administrators was common Low cost public housing was made available to black families The National Youth Administration and the Civilian Conservation Corps enabled black youths to continue their education The Work Projects Administration gave jobs to many blacks and its Federal Writers Project supported the work of many authors among them Zora Neale Hurston Arna Bontemps Waters Turpin and Melvin B Tolson The Congress of Industrial Organizations CIO established in the mid 1930s organized large numbers of black workers into labor unions for the first time By 1940 there were more than 200 000 blacks in the CIO many of them officers of union locals World War II The industrial boom that began with the outbreak of World War II in Europe in 1939 ended the depression However unemployed whites were generally the first to be given jobs Discrimination against blacks in hiring impelled A Philip Randolph head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters to threaten a mass protest march on Washington To forestall the march scheduled for June 25 1941 President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802 banning discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries or government and establishing a Fair Employment Practices Committee FEPC to investigate violations Although discrimination remained widespread during the war blacks secured more jobs at better wages in a greater range of occupations than ever before In World War II as in World War I there was a mass migration of blacks from the rural South Some 1 5 million blacks left the South during the 1940s mainly for the industrial cities of the North Once again serious housing shortages and job competition led to increased racial tension Race riots broke out the worst in Detroit in June 1943 During the war which the United States had entered in December 1941 a large proportion of black soldiers overseas were in service units and combat troops remained segregated In the course of the war however the Army introduced integrated officer training and Benjamin O Davis Sr became its first black brigadier general In 1949 four years after the end of World War II the armed services finally adopted a policy of integration During the Korean War of the early 1950s blacks for the first time fought side by side with whites in fully integrated units The Civil Rights Movement At the end of World War II black Americans were poised to make far reaching demands to end racism They were unwilling to give up the minimal gains that had been made during the war The campaign for black rights went forward in the 1940s and 1950s in persistent and deliberate steps In the courts the NAACP successfully attacked racially restrictive covenants in housing segregation in interstate transportation and discrimination in public recreational facilities In 1954 the United States Supreme Court issued one of its most significant rulings In the case Brown v Board of Education of Topeka Kan the court overturned the separate but equal ruling of 1896 and outlawed segregation in the nation s school systems White citizens councils in the South fought back with legal maneuvers economic pressure and even violence Rioting by white mobs temporarily closed Central High School in Little Rock Ark when nine black students were admitted to it in 1957 Direct nonviolent action by blacks achieved its first major success in the Montgomery Ala bus boycott of 1955 56 led by the Rev Martin Luther King Jr This protest was prompted by the quiet but defiant act of a black woman Rosa Parks who refused to give up her bus seat to a white passenger on Dec 1 1955 Resistance to black demands for the desegregation of Montgomery s buses was finally overcome when the Supreme Court ruled in November 1956 that the segregation of public transportation facilities was unconstitutional To coordinate further civil rights action the Southern Christian Leadership Conference was established in 1957 under King s leadership Within 15 years after the Supreme Court outlawed all white primary elections in 1944 the registered black electorate in the South increased more than fivefold reaching 1 250 000 in 1958 The Civil Rights Act of 1957 the first federal civil rights legislation to be passed since 1875 authorized the federal government to take legal measures to prevent a citizen from being denied voting rights Beginning in February 1960 in Greensboro N C student sit ins forced the desegregation of lunch counters in drug and variety stores throughout the South In April 1960 leaders of the sit in movement organized the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC In the spring of 1961 freedom rides to defy segregation on interstate buses in Alabama and Mississippi were organized by the Congress of Racial Equality CORE under its national director James Farmer The NAACP SCLC SNCC and CORE cooperated on a number of local projects such as the drive to register black voters in Mississippi launched in 1961 In April 1964 they worked together to help found the Mississippi Freedom Democratic party which later that year challenged the seating of an all white Mississippi delegation at the Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City N J Blacks adopted Freedom Now as their slogan to recognize the Emancipation Proclamation centennial in 1963 National attention in the spring of 1963 was focused on Birmingham Ala where King was leading a civil rights drive The Birmingham authorities used dogs and fire hoses to quell civil rights demonstrators and there were mass arrests In September 1963 four black girls were killed by a bomb thrown into a Birmingham church Civil rights activities in 1963 culminated in a March on Washington organized by Randolph and civil rights activist Bayard Rustin King addressed the huge throng of 250 000 demonstrators The march helped secure the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which forbade discrimination in voting public accommodations and employment and permitted the attorney general of the United States to deny federal funds to local agencies that practiced discrimination Efforts to increase the black vote were also helped by the ratification in 1964 of the 24th Amendment to the Constitution which banned the poll tax The difficulties in registering black voters in the South were dramatized in 1965 by events in Selma Ala Civil rights demonstrators there were attacked by police who used tear gas whips and clubs Thousands of demonstrators were arrested As a result however their cause won national sympathy and support Led by King and by John Lewis of SNCC some 40 000 protesters from all over the nation marched from Selma to Montgomery the Alabama state capital Congress then passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 which eliminated all discriminatory qualifying tests for voter registrants and provided for the appointment of federal registrars The Black Revolt During the 1960s the nation s black inhabited inner cities were swept by violent outbreaks Their basic causes were long standing grievances police insensitivity and brutality inadequate educational and recreational facilities high unemployment poor housing high prices Yet the outbreaks were mostly unplanned Unlike the race riots of earlier decades the outbreaks of the 1960s involved the looting and burning of white owned property in the black ghettos The fighting that took place was mainly between black youths and the police Hundreds of lives were lost and tens of millions of dollars worth of property was destroyed The most serious disturbances occurred in the Watts area of Los Angeles Calif in July 1965 and in Newark and Detroit in July 1967 During the 1960s militant black nationalist and Marxist oriented black organizations were created among them the Revolutionary Action Movement the Deacons for Defense and the Black Panther party Under such leaders as Stokely Carmichael and H Rap Brown SNCC adopted more radical policies Some of the militant black leaders were arrested and others fled the country seriously weakening their organizations The slogan of black power became popular in the late 1960s It was first used by Carmichael in June 1966 during a civil rights march in Mississippi However the concept of black power predated the slogan Essentially it refers to all the attempts by American blacks to maximize their political and economic power Among the outstanding modern advocates of black power was Malcolm X who rose to national prominence in the early 1960s as a minister in the Nation of Islam or Black Muslim movement Malcolm broke with the leader of the Black Muslims Elijah Muhammad and founded the Organization of Afro American Unity before he was assassinated in February 1965 The black power movement was stimulated by the growing pride of black Americans in their African heritage This pride was symbolized most strikingly by the Afro hair style and the African garments worn by many young blacks Black pride was also manifested in student demands for black studies programs black teachers and separate facilities and in an upsurge in African American culture and creativity The new slogan updated from Harlem Renaissance poet Langston Hughes was black is beautiful The Vietnam War in which black soldiers participated in disproportionately high numbers tended to divide the black leadership and divert white

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  • British Dominions
    plantation owner In 1790 when the white population was just over 3 million there were some 750 000 blacks in the United States During the American Revolution serious questions arose about the morality of slavery Some people saw an embarrassing contradiction between human bondage and the ideals of the Declaration of Independence This antislavery sentiment temporarily weakened as fear grew over a bloody slave insurrection in Santo Domingo unrest among American slaves and the unsettling economic and social consequences of the French Revolution Slave rebellions in the early 1800s shocked many Americans The Industrial Revolution played a large role in harnessing slavery to the economy of the southern states English textile mills required an increased supply of cotton New technology and new lands made the plantation system more profitable creating an additional demand for slaves even as their importation ended in 1808 See Cotton Pressing This 1856 engraving shows pressing cotton on a Louisiana plantation Slaves often labored 14 hours a day and even as many as 18 hours during harvest time From Ballou s Pictorial Drawing Room Companion April 12 1856 Race Problems In The New Lands The imposition of European hegemony over native inhabitants in the far corners of the globeThis 1856 engraving shows slaves pressing cotton on a Louisiana plantation Slaves often labored 14 hours a day and even as many as 18 hours during harvest time and the slave trade created tragic racial conflicts It is difficult to gain an accurate estimate of the number of Indians in North America but it is generally held that before European settlement there were around 200 000 in Canada and 850 000 in the United States Since the arrival of white settlers the number of Indians in the two North American areas has been reduced by approximately half largely through disease and extermination While in modern time attempts have been made to help native Americans make a place for themselves in urban society these efforts have generally been inadequate Even though in the past two centuries Canada has compiled a much more humane record dealing with native Americans than the United States Indians remain the most neglected and isolated minority in North America See Slave Revolt Slaves rose up against the French in Saint Dominique in 1791 Napoleon sent an army to restore slavery in 1799 but many of the French soldiers died of yellow fever and the rebels defeated the decimated French army in 1803 Courtesy Library Of Congress The aborigines of Australia and Tasmania numbering possibly 300 000 at the time of the arrival of the Europeans were decimated by the diseases and liquors brought by the white settlers The native inhabitants could not adjust to the new ways of life brought about by the disappearance of their hunting grounds At times they were treated brutally in some places they were rounded up in gangs and shot sometimes the Europeans encouraged drunkenness among the natives then gave them clubs to fight each other for the entertainment of

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  • Acquisition Of California
    been organized among them was immediately moved to Monterey the flag of the United States was substituted for the bear and star and the authority of the Commodore was immediately recognized This battalion of mounted riflemen on its arrival at Monterey July 23 1846 was mustered into the service of the United States by Commodore Stockton who had succeeded Commodore Sloat in command of the squadron Captain Fremont being appointed its commandant and Lieutenant A H Gillespie of the Marines its second officer and it was immediately despatched on the sloop of war Cyane to San Diego for the purpose of cutting off the retreat of General Castro of the Mexican service who had encamped and fortified his position near Ciudad de los Angeles while the Commodore with his sailors who landed from the Congress at San Pedro moved against him in front The expedition was eminently successful as the Mexicans on the approach of the Commodore immediately evacuated their camp and fled in the greatest confusion although most of the principal officers were subsequently captured and on August 13th the Ciudad de los Angeles was occupied again without opposition by the American troops and seamen and the conquest of California was apparently completed A short time afterward Commodore Stockton appointed Captain Fremont Governor of the Territory into which by the proclamation of Commodore Sloat the Province had been transformed while Captain Gillespie was left with nineteen men in possession of Los Angeles Lieutenant Talbot of the Topographical Engineers with nine men was left at Santa Barbara and with his squadron Commodore Stockton proceeded to San Francisco while Governor Fremont on September 8th also moved to Monterey The main body had no sooner left Los Angeles than the Californians who before the departure of the Commodore and the Governor had held secret meetings for the purpose rose in arms for the expulsion of the invaders of their country Indeed an attempt appears to have been intended before the Governor left the city but by timely precautions it had been prevented although the purpose and determination still continued and were called into requisition at a more convenient season The necessary preparations having been made for that purpose under the directions of Jose Antonio Carrillo a professed conspirator of that vicinity at an early hour on the morning of September 23d the quarters of Captain Gillespie were attacked by Cerbulo Varela a metamorphosed captain under Governor Fremont at the head of sixty five men under cover of a thick fog The morning was auspicious for such purposes yet the Captain was not surprised and the twenty one rifles which he controlled were quickly brought to bear on the assailants who retired soon afterward with three of their number killed and several wounded and at daylight the remainder were driven from the town with the loss of several taken prisoners by a few men under Lieutenant Hensley and Doctor Gilchrist of the navy The insurgents who were thus expelled from the city formed a nucleus around which the disaffected gathered and as the party gained strength day by day it harassed the little garrison and killed one of its number There was but little concert of action in its ranks however and as the rival aspirants to power struggled for authority while the numbers rapidly increased the efficiency of the insurgents was but slightly increased At length in a spirit of compromise Captain Antonio Flores was urged to take the command of the party and reluctantly accepted it and he soon found himself at the head of six hundred men armed with lances escopetas and a brass six pounder light and well mounted In the mean time the little garrison had found an old honey combed iron six pounder and had drilled out the spike cleaned and mounted it and by melting the lead pipes of a distillery had provided unknown to the insurgents thirty rounds of ball and grape for it Two other pieces having been added to this on the following day the little garrison and its gallant commander resolved to die rather than surrender notwithstanding the extreme efforts which had been made to strengthen its position and the great fatigue which was incident thereto To render his little party still more secure however on September 27th Captain Gillespie withdrew his command from his quarters in the city and occupied a height which commanded it when he strengthened his position and prepared for an obstinate defence No sooner had this movement been effected than Captain Flores sent Don Eulogeo Celis to inquire on what terms Captain Gillespie would surrender the city and that officer after consulting with his subordinates answered that if the enemy would consent that he should march out of the city with the honors of war colors flying and drums beating that he should take everything with him that he should be furnished with means for transporting his baggage and provisions at his own expense and that the enemy should not come within a league of his party while on its line of march to San Pedro he would accept those terms and no others would be considered and Captain Flores should be held responsible for any damage which might ensue in case they were rejected After some negotiations these terms were offered by Captain Flores and accepted by Captain Gillespie and on September 29th the garrison began its march reached San Pedro on the same evening and on October 4th embarked on the Vandalia after spiking its three old guns an exploit which when the circumstances under which Captain Gillespie s force the strength of his opponent and the temper of the people among whom he moved are taken into consideration may well be ranked as one of the most brilliant feats of that remarkable campaign While these difficulties were surrounding Captain Gillespie at Los Angeles Lieutenant Talbot at Santa Barbara with his nine men was not less dangerously situated and when the former had made terms with the insurgents Manuel Garpio with two hundred men moved against Lieutenant Talbot surrounded the town and demanded his surrender offering two hours for his deliberation As the men had resolved that they would not give up their arms and as the barracks were untenable with so small a force the Lieutenant resolved to abandon the town and push for the hills and strange to say he marshalled his men and marched out of the town without opposition those who lay on the road retreated to the main force which was on the lower side of the town Having reached the hills he encamped and remained there eight days when the Californians endeavored to rout him out but were repulsed with the loss of a horse The insurgents then offered him his arms and freedom if he would engage to remain neutral in the anticipated hostilities but he sent word back that he preferred to fight They next built fires about him and burned him out but in doing so they did not capture or injure him and he pushed through the mountains for Monterey and after a month s travel in which he endured unheard of hardships and suffering he reached that place in safety Intelligence of the insurrection having reached Commodore Stockton at San Francisco and Lieutenant Colonel Fremont at Sacramento both took immediate steps to check its progress and to punish the offenders In conformity with the Commodore s orders Lieutenant Colonel Fremont hastened to San Francisco whence he embarked with one hundred sixty men on the ship Sterling for Santa Barbara to which port the frigate Savannah Captain Mervine had previously been ordered while on the same day the Commodore in person sailed for the same port in the Congress The latter vessel reached San Pedro on October 6th and at sunrise on the 7th Captain Mervine landed with his seamen and marines and after being joined by Captain Gillespie and his brave hearted little party he found himself at the head of three hundred ten men as brave and as valiant as ever were led to battle upon any field At eight o clock the party commenced its march toward Los Angeles Captain Gillespie being in advance and when the column reached the hills of Palo Verde the insurgents showed themselves and opened a fire with their escopetas The march was rapid and the jolly tars unused to such extended journeys appear to have suffered from its effects in consequence of which although the enemy gradually fell back before the advancing column between one and two o clock when near the Rancho de los Domingos fourteen miles from San Pedro it became necessary to halt and encamp for the night As may have been expected the sailors and marines were ashore and the strict discipline which the deck had inculcated appears to have been left on board the frigate As a necessary consequence the camp displayed but little of the order which such a locality should have insured and many and marvelous were the adventures of that night while on the other hand the enemy profited by the delay by the moral effect of the disorder with which the march had been conducted and by the entire absence of any artillery On the following morning at daylight the column was again put in motion and with Captain Gillespie s men in front in still greater disorder than on the preceding day it moved toward Los Angeles twelve miles distant It had marched only three miles when posted behind a small stream which intersected the line of march the advance of the insurgents seventy six men with a small fieldpiece under Jose Antonio Carrillo was discovered in front and as the column approached a fire was opened on it which was answered with a characteristic shout The volunteers Captain Gillespie s command pressed forward and by taking advantage of the neighboring shelter they drove the enemy and compelled him to abandon his fieldpiece but before it could be reached and taken possession of Captain Mervine gave orders to withdraw With great indignation therefore the volunteers discontinued the action and after picking up his killed and wounded harassed by the enemy who pressed after the column and covered by the volunteers and sixteen marines under Captain Gillespie Captain Mervine slowly and sadly fell back to San Pedro where he arrived about dark on the same day Thirteen noble tars were buried on the island in front of San Pedro the victims of this badly managed expedition On October 23d the Commodore reached San Pedro Lieutenant Colonel Fremont meanwhile having returned to Monterey and on the 31st he sailed for San Diego which had been invested by the insurgents and needed assistance He reached that port a few days afterward and with the assistance of Captain Gillespie s command the besiegers were repelled and a fort was erected to protect the town from similar troubles in future Strenuous efforts were made to obtain horses for the use of the troops with some degree of success and Commodore Stockton sailed toward San Pedro again During this temporary absence of the Commodore the insurgents appear on November 18 1846 to have moved against San Diego a second time and were again driven back by Captain Gillespie and the volunteers and marines under his command and on December 3d a messenger came into the town bearing a letter from General Kearney apprising the Commodore of his approach and expressing a wish that a communication might be opened with him that he might be informed of the state of affairs in California It appeared that after the General had taken Santa Fe on October 1st he had moved from that city with the regular cavalry which he had brought there Soon afterward October 7th he had reduced his force to one hundred men sending the remainder back to Santa Fe and after an interesting march overland on December 3 1846 he had reached Warner s rancheria the outpost of civilization in California From there a letter had been despatched to San Diego by Mr Stokes an Englishman who lived in a neighboring rancheria and on the 4th the command had moved fifteen miles nearer to the city On the receipt of General Kearney s letter Commodore Stockton despatched Captain Gillespie to meet him with a letter of welcome The Captain was accompanied by Lieutenant Beale Midshipman Duncan ten seamen Captain Gibson s company of riflemen twenty five men and a fieldpiece and on the 5th he reached the General s camp when having learned on his way that the insurgents were encamped at San Pasqual nine miles from the camp Lieutenant Hammond was sent out by General Kearney to reconnoitre the enemy s position At a very early hour on the 6th the troops were put in motion Captain Johnston with twelve dragoons forming the advance guard the main body of the General s party under Captain Moore following next after which moved Captain Gillespie with Captain Gibson and his small company and Lieutenant Davidson with the General s howitzers brought up the rear When the column had reached a hill which overlooked the valley of the San Pasqual the insurgents encampment it was halted and the General gave the final orders to his command One thrust of the sabre is worth a dozen cuts and depend upon them more than upon the carbines and rifles Without further delay the column advanced down the hill and as soon as Captain Johnston had struck the plain with his twelve dragoons having mistaken the purport of an order from the General he uttered a yell and without waiting for the support of the main body dashed on the heavy ranks of the enemy falling a victim of his own indiscretion The main body hastened by a flank movement down the hill to support the charge of the advance and received the enemy s fire from an Indian village on its right flank but the enemy waited to do no further mischief and fled from the charge of the advance before the line could be formed Perceiving the defection of the enemy Captain Moore with a portion of his command pursued the fugitives down the right of the valley while Captain Gillespie with his volunteers did the same on the left side the latter taking prisoner Pablo Beja the insurgents second officer In this pursuit however the ranks of the Americans were greatly broken and as the Mexicans far outnumbered them they soon afterward made a stand using their lances with good effect Captain Moore fell pierced in the breast by nine lances the General was severely wounded and his life was saved from an attack on his rear by a ball from Lieutenant Emory Captain Gillespie was attacked by seven Californians received three wounds and saved himself with great difficulty Captain Gibson received two wounds Lieutenant Hammond received nine lance wounds in the breast and many others were severely injured For five minutes the enemy held the ground when the main body of the Americans having come up he again turned and fled In this spirited affair about eighty Americans were engaged while of the Californians there is said to have been one hundred sixty under Andreas Pico Of the former Captains Moore and Johnston Lieutenant Hammond and sixteen men were killed and General Kearney Captains Gillespie and Gibson Lieutenant Warner and eleven men were wounded while of the latter it is said twenty eight were killed and wounded The dead were buried as soon as night closed in the wounded were properly attended to by the single surgeon who was with the party and ambulances were prepared for their conveyance to San Diego thirty nine miles distant and on the morning of the 7th the order to march was given the column taking the right hand road over the hills and leaving the River San Bernardo to the left the enemy retiring as it advanced A proper regard for the comfort of the wounded compelled the column to move slowly and it was afternoon before it reached the San Bernardo rancheria Mr Snook s After a short halt at that place the column moved down into the valley and immediately afterward the hills on the rear of the column around the rancheria were covered with Californian horsemen a portion of whom dashed at full speed past the Americans to occupy a hill which commanded theroute of the latter while the remainder of the party threatened the rear of the column Thirty or forty of the enemy quickly occupied the hill referred to and as the column came up six or eight Americans filed off to the left and under Lieutenant Emory charged up the hill when the Californians delivered their fire and fled five of their number having been killed or wounded by the rifles of the assailants The wounded having been removed with great difficulty the cattle having been lost and the danger of losing the sick and the packs being great the General determined to halt at that place and await the arrival of reenforcements for which messengers had been sent to San Diego on the morning of the 6th Accordingly the Americans occupied the high ground on which the action had been fought bored holes for water killed their fattest mules for meat and awaited the arrival of their friends until the morning of the 11th when they were joined by one hundred seamen and eighty marines under Lieutenant Gray who had been sent out to meet them by Commodore Stockton and on the afternoon of the 12th the combined parties entered the town in safety At this time commenced that memorable conflict between the two commanders General Kearney and Commodore Stockton respecting the chief command which subsequently created so much trouble in the American ranks and throughout the country Commodore Stockton appears however to have retained the authority and

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  • Discovery Of Gold In California
    Some weeks later they sent Mr Henderson Sydney Willis and Mr Fifield Mormons down there to dig telling them that that place was better than Coloma These were the first miners at Mormon Island Marshall was a man of an active enthusiastic mind and he at once attached great importance to his discovery His ideas however were vague he knew nothing about gold mining he did not know how to take advantage of what he had found Only an experienced gold miner could understand the importance of the discovery and make it of practical value to all the world That gold miner fortunately was near at hand his name was Isaac Humphrey He was residing in the town of San Francisco in the month of February when a Mr Bennett one of the party employed at Marshall s mill went down to that place with some of the dust to have it tested for it was still a matter of doubt whether this yellow metal really was gold Bennett told his errand to a friend whom he met in San Francisco and this friend introduced him to Humphrey who had been a gold miner in Georgia and was therefore competent to pass an opinion Humphrey looked at the dust pronounced it gold at the first glance and expressed a belief that the diggings must be rich He made inquiries about the place where the gold was found and subsequent inquiries about the trustworthiness of Mr Bennett and on March 7th he was at the mill He tried to induce several of his friends in San Francisco to go with him they all thought his expedition a foolish one and he had to go alone He found that there was some talk about the gold and persons would occasionally go about looking for pieces of it but no one was engaged in mining and the work of the mill was going on as usual On the 8th he went out prospecting with a pan and satisfied himself that the country in that vicinity was rich in gold He then made a rocker and commenced the business of washing gold and thus began the business of mining in California Others saw how he did it followed his example found that the work was profitable and abandoned all other occupations The news of their success spread people flocked to the place learned how to use the rocker discovered new diggings and in the course of a few months the country had been overturned by a social and industrial revolution Mr Humphrey had not been at work more than three or four days before a Frenchman called Baptiste who had been a gold miner in Mexico for many years came to the mill and he agreed with Humphrey that California was very rich in gold He too went to work and being an excellent prospector he was of great service in teaching the newcomers the principles of prospecting and mining for gold principles not abstruse yet not likely to suggest themselves at first thought to men entirely ignorant of the business Baptiste had been employed by Captain Sutter to saw lumber with a whipsaw and had been at work for two years at a place since called Weber about ten miles eastward from Coloma When he saw the diggings at the latter place he at once said there were rich mines where he had been sawing and he expressed surprise that it had never occurred to him before so experienced in gold mining as he was but he afterward said it had been so ordered by Providence that the gold might not be discovered until California should be in the hands of the Americans About the middle of March P B Reading an American now a prominent and wealthy citizen of the State then the owner of a large ranch on the western bank of the Sacramento River near where it issues from the mountains came to Coloma and after looking about at the diggings said that if similarity in the appearance of the country could be taken as a guide there must be gold in the hills near his ranch and he went off declaring his intention to go back and make an examination of them John Bidwell another American now a wealthy and influential citizen then residing on his ranch on the bank of Feather River came to Coloma about a week later and he said there must be gold near his ranch and he went off with expressions similar to those used by Reading In a few weeks news came that Reading had found diggings near Clear Creek at the head of the Sacramento Valley and was at work there with his Indians and not long after it was reported that Bidwell was at work with his Indians on a rich bar of Feather River since called Bidwell s Bar Although Bennett had arrived at San Francisco in February with some of the dust the editors of the town for two papers were published in the place at the time did not hear of the discovery till some weeks later The first published notice of the gold appeared in the Californian published in San Francisco on March 15th as follows In the newly made raceway of the sawmill recently erected by Captain Sutter on the American Fork gold has been found in considerable quantities One person brought thirty dollars worth to New Helvetia gathered there in a short time California no doubt is rich in mineral wealth great chances here for scientific capitalists Gold has been found in almost every part of the country Three days later the California Star the rival paper gave the following account of the discovery We were informed a few days since that a very valuable silver mine was situated in the vicinity of this place and again that its locality was known Mines of quicksilver are being found all over the country Gold has been

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  • Canada, An Early History
    They discovered that the cold northwest Atlantic waters were teeming with fish soon Portuguese Spanish and French fishing crews braved the Atlantic crossing to fish in the waters of the Grand Banks Some began to land on the coast of Newfoundland to dry their catch before returning to Europe Despite Cabot s explorations the English paid little heed to the Atlantic fishery until the early 1580s in 1583 Sir Humphrey Gilbert laid claim to the lands around present day St John s in Newfoundland probably as a base for an English fishery The French also claimed parts of Newfoundland primarily on the north and west coasts of the island as bases for their own fishing endeavors The fishery ushered in the initial period of contact between the Indians and the Europeans Although each was deeply suspicious of the other a sporadic trade was conducted in scattered locations between the fishing crews and the Indians with the latter trading furs for iron and other manufactured goods The settlement of New France Jacques Cartier The discoverer of the great entry to Canada the St Lawrence River was the Frenchman Jacques Cartier In 1534 in a voyage conducted with great competence he explored the Gulf of St Lawrence and claimed its shores for the French crown In the following year Cartier ascended the river itself and visited the sites of Stadacona modern Quebec city and Hochelaga Montreal So favorable were his reports that the French king anxious to challenge the claims of Spain in the New World decided to set up a fortified settlement Internal and European politics delayed the enterprise until 1541 when under the command of the Lord de Roberval Cartier returned to Stadacona and founded Charlesbourg Royal just northwest of Quebec Cartier had hoped to discover precious gems and minerals as the Spaniards had done in Mexico and Peru but the mineral specimens he sent home were worthless false as a Canadian diamond became a common French expression Disappointed in his attempt to reach the mythical Kingdom of Saguenay the reputed source of precious metals Cartier returned to France after a severe winter deserting Roberval who had arrived in Newfoundland with reinforcements Roberval also failed and during the century only two subsequent attempts were made at exploiting the French claim to the lands of the St Lawrence The French claim remained it had only to be made good by actual occupation Samuel de Champlain In 1604 the French navigator Samuel de Champlain under the Lord de Monts who had received a grant of the monopoly led a group of settlers from the St Lawrence region to Acadia He chose as a site Dochet Island in the St Croix River on the present boundary between the United States and Canada But the island proved unsuitable and in 1605 the colony was moved across the Bay of Fundy to Port Royal now Annapolis N S The colony was to be a trading post and a center of settlement but the rugged forested

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  • Cartier Explores Canada
    fair winds which carried them to the middle of the ocean between Newfoundland and Bretagne They then encountered storms and adverse winds respecting which Cartier piously remarks We suffered and endured these with the aid of God and after that we had good weather and arrived at the harbor of St Malo whence we had set out on September 5 1534 Thus ended Jacques Cartier s first voyage to Canada As a French Canadian historian of Canada has observed this first expedition was not sterile in results for in addition to the other notable incidents of the voyage the two natives whom he carried with him to France are understood to have been the first to inform him of the existence of the great river St Lawrence which he was destined to discover the following year It is not certainly known how nearly he advanced to the mouth of that river on his passage from Gaspe Bay But it is believed that he passed round the western point of Anticosti subsequently named by him Isle de l Assumption and that he then turned to the east leaving behind the entrance into the great river which he then supposed to be an extensive bay and coasting along the shore of Labrador came to the river Natachquoin near Mount Joli whence as already stated he passed eastward and northward to Blanc Sablon Cartier and his companions were favorably received on their return to France The expectations of his employers had been to a certain extent realized while the narrative of the voyage and the prospects which this afforded of greater results in future inspired such feelings of hope and confidence that there seems to have been no hesitation in furnishing means for the equipment of another expedition The Indians who had been brought to France were instructed in the French language and served also as specimens of the people inhabiting his majesty s western dominions During the winter the necessary preparations were made On the May 19 1535 Cartier took his departure from St Malo on his second expedition It was in every way better equipped than that of the preceding year and consisted of three ships manned by one hundred ten sailors A number of gentlemen volunteers from France accompanied it Cartier himself embarked on board the largest vessel which was named La Grande Hermine along with his two interpreters Adverse winds lengthened the voyage so that seven weeks were occupied in sailing to the Straits of Belle Isle Thence the squadron made for the Gulf of St Lawrence so named by Cartier in honor of the day upon which he entered it Emboldened by the information derived from his Indian interpreters he sailed up the great river at first named the River of Canada or of Hochelaga The mouth of the Saguenay was passed on September 1st and the island of Orleans reached on the 9th To this he gave the name Isle of Bacchus on account of the abundance of grape vines upon it On the 16th the ships arrived off the headland since known as Cape Diamond Near to this a small river called by Cartier St Croix now the St Charles was observed flowing into the St Lawrence intercepting at the confluence a piece of lowland which was the site of the Indian village Stadacona Towering above this on the left bank of the greater river was Cape Diamond and the contiguous highland which in after times became the site of the Upper Town of Quebec A little way within the mouth of the St Croix Cartier selected stations suitable for mooring and laying up his vessels for he seems on his arrival at Stadacona to have already decided upon wintering in the country This design was favored not only by the advanced period of the season but also by the fact that the natives appeared to be friendly and in a position to supply his people abundantly with provisions Many hundreds came off from the shore in bark canoes bringing fish maize and fruit Aided by the two interpreters the French endeavored at once to establish a friendly intercourse A chief Donacona made an oration and expressed his desire for amicable relations between his own people and their visitors Cartier on his part tried to allay apprehension and to obtain information respecting the country higher up the great river Wishing also to impress upon the minds of the savages a conviction of the French power he caused several pieces of artillery to be discharged in the presence of the chief and a number of his warriors Fear and astonishment were occasioned by the sight of the fire and smoke followed by sounds such as they had never heard before Presents consisting of trinkets small crosses beads pieces of glass and other trifles were distributed among them Cartier allowed himself a rest of only three days at Stadacona deeming it expedient to proceed at once up the river with an exploring party For this purpose he manned his smallest ship the Ermerillon and two boats and departed on the 19th of September leaving the other ships safely moored at the mouth of the St Charles He had learned from the Indians that there was another town called Hochelaga situated about sixty leagues above Cartier and his companions the first European navigators of the St Lawrence and the earliest pioneers of civilization and Christianity in those regions moved very slowly up the river At the part since called Lake St Peter the water seemed to become more and more shallow The Ermerillon was therefore left as well secured as possible and the remainder of the passage made in the two boats Frequent meetings of a friendly nature with Indians on the river bank caused delays so that they did not arrive at Hochelaga until October 2d As described by Cartier himself this town consisted of about fifty large huts or cabins which for purposes of defence were surrounded by wooden palisades There were upward of twelve hundred inhabitants 1 belonging to some Algonquin tribe Footnote 1 It has not been satisfactorily settled to what tribe the Indians belonged who were found by Cartier at Hochelaga Some have even doubted the accuracy of his description in relation to their numbers the character of their habitations and other circumstances under the belief that allowance must be made for exaggeration in the accounts of the first European visitors who were desirous that their adventures should rival those of Cortes and Pizarro It has also been suggested that the people were not Hurons but remnants of the Iroquois tribes who might have lingered there on their way southward At any rate when the place was revisited by Frenchmen more than half a century afterward very few savages were seen in the neighborhood and these different from those met by Cartier while the town itself was no longer in existence Champlain upward of seventy years after Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga but made no mention in his narrative either of the town or of inhabitants At Hochelaga as previously at Stadacona the French were received by the natives in a friendly manner Supplies of fish and maize were freely offered and in return presents of beads knives small mirrors and crucifixes were distributed Entering into communication with them Cartier sought information respecting the country higher up the river From their imperfect intelligence it appears he learned the existence of several great lakes and that beyond the largest and most remote of these there was another great river which flowed southward They conducted him to the summit of a mountain behind the town whence he surveyed the prospect of a wilderness stretching to the south and west as far as the eye could reach and beautifully diversified by elevations of land and by water Whatever credit Cartier attached to their vague statements about the geography of their country he was certainly struck by the grandeur of the neighboring scenery as viewed from the eminence on which he stood To this he gave the name of Mount Royal whence the name of Montreal was conferred on the city which has grown up on the site of the ancient Indian town Hochelaga According to some accounts Hochelaga was even in those days a place of importance having subject to it eight or ten outlying settlements or villages Anxious to return to Stadacona and probably placing little confidence in the friendly professions of the natives Cartier remained at Hochelaga only two days and commenced his passage down the river on October 4th His wary mistrust of the Indian character was not groundless for bands of savages followed along the banks and watched all the proceedings of his party On one occasion he was attacked by them and narrowly escaped massacre Arriving at Stadacona on the 11th measures were taken for maintenance and security during the approaching winter Abundant provisions had been already stored up by the natives and assigned for the use of the strangers A fence or palisade was constructed round the ships and made as strong as possible and cannon so placed as to be available in case of any attack Notwithstanding these precautions it turned out that in one essential particular the preparations for winter were defective Jacques Cartier and his companions being the first of Europeans to experience the rigors of a Canadian winter the necessity for warm clothing had not been foreseen when the expedition left France and now when winter was upon them the procuring of a supply was simply impossible The winter proved long and severe Masses of ice began to come down the St Lawrence on November 15th and not long afterward a bridge of ice was formed opposite to Stadacona Soon the intensity of the cold such as Cartier s people had never before experienced and the want of suitable clothing occasioned much suffering Then in December a disease but little known to Europeans broke out among the crew It was the scurvy named by the French mal de terre As described by Cartier it was very painful loathsome in its symptoms and effects as well as contagious The legs and thighs of the patients swelled the sinews contracted and the skin became black In some cases the whole body was covered with purple spots and sore tumors After a time the upper parts of the body the back arms shoulders neck and face were all painfully affected The roof of the mouth gums and teeth fell out Altogether the sufferers presented a deplorable spectacle Many died between December and April during which period the greatest care was taken to conceal their true condition from the natives Had this not been done it is to be feared that Donacona s people would have forced an entrance and put all to death for the purpose of obtaining the property of the French In fact the two interpreters were on the whole unfaithful living entirely at Stadacona while Donacona and the Indians generally showed in many ways that under a friendly exterior unfavorable feelings reigned in their hearts But the attempts to hide their condition from the natives might have been fatal for the Indians who also suffered from scurvy were acquainted with means of curing the disease It was only by accident that Cartier found out what those means were He had forbidden the savages to come on board the ships and when any of them came near the only men allowed to be seen by them were those who were in health One day Domagaya was observed approaching This man the younger of the two interpreters was known to have been sick of the scurvy at Stadacona so that Cartier was much surprised to see him out and well He contrived to make him relate the particulars of his recovery and thus found out that a decoction of the bark and foliage of the white spruce tree furnished the savages with a remedy Having recourse to this enabled the French captain to arrest the progress of the disease among his own people and in a short time to bring about their restoration to health The meeting with Domagaya occurred at a time when the French were in a very sad state reduced to the brink of despair Twenty five of the number had died while forty more were in expectation of soon following their deceased comrades Of the remaining forty five including Cartier and all the surviving officers only three or four were really free from disease The dead could not be buried nor was it possible for the sick to be properly cared for In this extremity the stout hearted French captain could think of no other remedy than a recourse to prayers and the setting up of an image of the Virgin Mary in sight of the sufferers But he piously exclaimed God in his holy grace looked down in pity upon us and sent to us a knowledge of the means of cure He had great apprehensions of an attack from the savages for he says in his narrative We were in a marvellous state of terror lest the people of the country should ascertain our pitiable condition and our weakness and then goes on to relate artifices by which he contrived to deceive them One of the ships had to be abandoned in course of the winter her crew and contents being removed into the other two vessels The deserted hull was visited by the savages in search of pieces of iron and other things Had they known the cause for abandoning her and the desperate condition of the French they would have soon forced their way into the other ships They were in fact too numerous to be resisted if they had made the attempt At length the protracted winter came to an end As soon as the ships were clear of ice Cartier made preparations for returning at once to France On May 3 1536 a wooden cross thirty five feet high was raised upon the river bank Donacona was invited to approach along with his people When he did so Cartier caused him together with the two interpreters and seven warriors to be seized and taken on board his ship His object was to convey them to France and present them to the King On the 6th the two vessels departed Upward of six weeks were spent in descending the St Lawrence and traversing the gulf Instead of passing through the Straits of Belle Isle Cartier this time made for the south coast of Newfoundland along which he sailed out into the Atlantic Ocean On Sunday July 17 1536 he arrived at St Malo By the results of this second voyage Jacques Cartier established for himself a reputation and a name in history which will never cease to be remembered with respect He had discovered one of the largest rivers in the world had explored its banks and navigated its difficult channel more than eight hundred miles with a degree of skill and courage which has never been surpassed for it was a great matter in those days to penetrate so far into unknown regions to encounter the hazards of an unknown navigation and to risk his own safety and that of his followers among an unknown people Moreover his accounts of the incidents of his sojourn of eight months and of the features of the country as well as his estimate of the two principal sites upon which in after times the two cities Quebec and Montreal have grown up illustrate both his fidelity and his sagacity His dealings with the natives appear to have been such as to prove his tact prudence and sense of justice notwithstanding the objectionable procedure of capturing and carrying off Donacona with other chiefs and warriors This latter measure however indefensible in itself was consistent with the almost universal practice of navigators of that period and long afterward Doubtless Cartier s expectation was that their abduction could not but result in their own benefit by leading to their instruction in civilization and Christianity and that it might be afterward instrumental in producing the rapid conversion of large numbers of their people However this may be considering the inherent viciousness of the Indian character Cartier s intercourse with the Indians was conducted with dignity and benevolence and was marked by the total absence of bloodshed which is more than can be urged in behalf of other eminent discoverers and navigators of those days or during the ensuing two centuries Cartier was undoubtedly one of the greatest sea captains of his own or any other country and one who provided carefully for the safety and welfare of his followers and so far as we know enjoyed their respect and confidence nor were his plans hindered or his proceedings embarrassed by disobedience on their part or the display of mutinous conduct calculated to mar the success of a maritime expedition In fine Jacques Cartier was a noble specimen of a mariner in an age when a maritime spirit prevailed A severe disappointment awaited Cartier on his return home from his second voyage France was now engaged in a foreign war and at the same time the minds of the people were distracted by religious dissensions In consequence of these untoward circumstances both the court and the people had ceased to give heed to the objects which he had been so faithfully engaged in prosecuting in the western hemisphere Neither he nor his friends could obtain even a hearing in behalf of the fitting out of another expedition for the attention of the King and his advisers was now absorbed by weightier cares at home Nevertheless from time to time as occasion offered several unsuccessful attempts were made to introduce the project of establishing a French colony on the banks of the St Lawrence Meanwhile Donacona and the other

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