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  • The American Civil War, Joseph Hooker
    and veteran of the Mexican War 1846 48 Hooker left his California home at the outbreak of the Civil War to serve as brigadier general of volunteers In 1862 he participated in all the major Eastern campaigns and was dubbed Fighting Joe because of his vigorous leadership in the field When General A E Burnside resigned command of the Army of the Potomac after the Union disaster at Fredericksburg November December Hooker was appointed to succeed him Immediately the new commander effected several much needed organizational reforms and prepared to challenge the South at the Battle of Chancellorsville May 1 4 1863 His grave defects as a commanding officer became apparent when Confederate general Robert E Lee with fewer than half the number of troops outmaneuvered him and caused a Union retreat This defeat resulted in the loss of 17 000 Union soldiers When Lee advanced into Pennsylvania in June Hooker followed him closely until rebuffed by Washington in his request for additional troops to meet the enemy at Gettysburg in July he sensed his superiors distrust and resigned his command on the eve of battle Three months later Hooker was sent by rail in command of two corps of

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/joseph_hooker.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • The American Civil War, George Meade
    service to work for a time as a surveyor He reentered the army in 1842 and in August 1861 was commissioned brigadier general of volunteers in command of the 2nd Brigade of the Pennsylvania Reserves After the disastrous Union defeat at Fredericksburg Va he was assigned the V Corps which participated in the Chancellorsville Va campaign April May 1863 On June 28 1863 President Lincoln appointed Meade to replace General

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/george_meade.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • The American Civil War, William Rosecrans
    under Gen George B McClellan and Gen John Pope each of whom he succeeded when he moved east to larger commands During 1862 Rosecrans led Union forces to victory in the battles of Iuka and Corinth Miss after which he moved on to Nashville Tenn to take command of the Army of the Cumberland He fought well at the intense but indecisive Battle of Stones River or Murfreesboro Dec 31 1862 Jan 2 1863 About this time Rosecrans earlier aggressive quality seemed to give way to an excess of caution and a disposition to worry and to argue with his superiors who he felt were hampering the effectiveness of his command Finally on June 23 1863 after six months of delay in the face of official pressure to take the offensive he began an advance that forced Confederate Gen Braxton Bragg into Chattanooga Tenn and then maneuvered him out of the city without a battle There his customary hesitancy vanished and he followed Bragg who turned upon him and precipitated the bloody Battle of Chickamauga September 19 20 An ill advised move opened a gap in Rosecrans lines and allowed Southern forces to pour through and put to rout part

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/william_rosecrans.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • The American Civil War, SHERMAN, William Tecumseh (1820-91)
    a successful campaign in that region Newspapers said that Sherman was crazy Time proved him right but popular protest cost him his command Sherman s military genius was so outstanding that he could not long be kept in the background At the battle of Shiloh on April 6 1862 he was in the thick of the fight For his services he received the rank of major general Serious mistakes had been made at the battle of Shiloh and the commander Grant had to endure much criticism Grant wanted to withdraw from the army but Sherman persuaded him to stay In the Vicksburg campaign Sherman rendered valuable aid to Grant At its successful conclusion he generously gave all the credit to his superior officer When Grant as a result of this campaign was made commander of the armies of the United States Sherman was appointed to fill Grant s position as commander in the West It was in this position that he carried on the campaign on which his fame chiefly rests On May 6 1864 he left Chattanooga Tenn for Atlanta Ga It took him four months to cover the 135 miles 215 kilometers between the two places for in this campaign he met a foe worthy of his steel in Gen Joseph E Johnston the Confederate commander Atlanta was reached on September 2 After clearing the city of its civil population and resting his men Sherman started on his famous march of 400 miles 645 kilometers from Atlanta to the sea For 32 days no news of him reached the North He had cut himself off from his base of supplies and his men lived on what they could get from the country through which they passed They covered a path 60 miles 95 kilometers wide in their march

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/sherman.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • The American Civil War, SHERIDAN, Philip (1831-88)
    command of the United States Army in 1864 he gave Sheridan command of the cavalry of the Army of the Potomac During the Wilderness campaign of 1864 Sheridan aided Grant by destroying Confederate lines of communication In July 1864 a strong Confederate force under Jubal Early drove the Federal Army from the Shenandoah Valley in northwestern Virginia Sheridan was given command of the area He defeated Early at Winchester and again at Fisher s Hill driving the Confederates back to Staunton These victories won for Sheridan a commission as brigadier general On the morning of October 19 Early counterattacked at Cedar Creek and drove the Federal force back in confusion At that time Sheridan was returning from a conference in Washington D C Reaching Winchester 20 miles 32 kilometers away he learned of the turn of events Speedily he rode forward and reorganized the Union troops At 3 PM his forces attacked and drove the Confederates 30 miles 48 kilometers up the valley For this Sheridan was made a major general and received the thanks of Congress In March 1865 Sheridan rejoined the Army of the Potomac At Five Forks he entrapped and routed George Edward Pickett s troops causing

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/sheridan.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • The American Civil War, Lewis Addison Armistead
    1 12 1862 commanding brigade Huger s Division Department of Northern Virginia April 12 July 1862 commanding brigade Anderson s Division lst Corps Army of Northern Virginia July September 17 1862 and commanding brigade Pickett s Division in 1st Corps Army of Northern Virginia October 1862 February 25 1863 and May July 3 1863 in the Department of Virginia and North Carolina February 25 April 1 1863 and in the

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/lewis_addison_armistead.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • The American Civil War, Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    in charge of the South Carolina troops in Charleston Harbor he won the nearly bloodless victory at Fort Sumter The Little Creole was hailed throughout the South Ordered to Virginia he commanded the forces opposite Washington and created the Confederate Army of the Potomac Reinforced by Joseph E Johnston and his Army of the Shenandoah Beauregard was reduced to corps command under Johnston the day before 1 st Bull Run However during the battle Beauregard being familiar with the field exercised tactical command while Johnston forwarded troops to the threatened left Both officers later claimed that they could have taken the Union capital if they had been properly supplied with rations for their men This was one of Beauregard s first conflicts with Davis Nonetheless he was named a full general from the date of the battle and early in 1862 was sent to the West as Albert Sidney Johnston s second in command Utilizing Napoleonic style he drafted the attack orders for Shiloh and took command when Johnston was mortally wounded on the first day of the battle On the evening of the first day he let victory slip through his fingers by calling off the attacks Controversy over his decision has raged to this day The next day he was driven from the field by Grant s and Buell s combined armies He was eventually forced to evacuate Corinth Mississippi his supply base in the face of Henry W Halleck s overwhelming force Shortly after that he went on sick leave without gaining Davis permission he was permanently relieved of his army and departmental commands on June 27 1862 by special direction of the president Two months later he returned to the scene of his earlier triumph as commander along the Southern coast from the North Carolina South

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/pierre_gustave_toutant_beauregar.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • The American Civil War, Braxton Bragg
    In the autumn of that year having succeeded Gen P G T Beauregard in the command of the Army of Tennessee Bragg led a bold advance from eastern Tennessee across Kentucky to Louisville Tactically the ensuing Battle of Perryville October was a draw unwilling to fight to a decision Bragg withdrew into Tennessee Though he was bitterly censured the personal favour of Confederate Pres Jefferson Davis kept him at the

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/braxton_bragg.htm (2016-02-11)
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