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  • World of the Incas, Part Five
    the Incas however arbitrary in form was in its spirit truly patriarchal Yet in this there was nothing cheering to the dignity of human nature What the people had was conceded as a boon not as a right When a nation was brought under the sceptre of the Incas it resigned every personal right even the rights dearest to humanity Under this extraordinary polity a people advanced in many of the social refinements well skilled in manufactures and agriculture were unacquainted as we have seen with money They had nothing that deserved to be called property They could follow no craft could engage in no labor no amusement but such as was specially provided by law They could not change their residence or their dress without a license from the government They could not even exercise the freedom which is conceded to the most abject in other countries that of selecting their own wives The imperative spirit of despotism would not allow them to be happy or miserable in any way but that established by law The power of free agency the inestimable and inborn right of every human being was annihilated in Peru The astonishing mechanism of the Peruvian polity could have resulted only from the combined authority of opinion and positive power in the ruler to an extent unprecedented in the history of man Yet that it should have so successfully gone into operation and so long endured in opposition to the taste the prejudices and the very principles of our nature is a strong proof of a generally wise and temperate administration of the government The policy habitually pursued by the Incas for the prevention of evils that might have disturbed the order of things is well exemplified in their provisions against poverty and idleness In these they rightly discerned the two great causes of disaffection in a populous community The industry of the people was secured not only by their compulsory occupations at home but by their employment on those great public works which covered every part of the country and which still bear testimony in their decay to their primitive grandeur Yet it may well astonish us to find that the natural difficulty of these undertakings sufficiently great in itself considering the imperfection of their tools and machinery was inconceivably enhanced by the politic contrivance of government The royal edifices of Quito we are assured by the Spanish conquerors were constructed of huge masses of stone many of which were carried all the way along the mountain roads from Cuzco a distance of several hundred leagues 35 The great square of the capital was filled to a considerable depth with mould brought with incredible labor up the steep slopes of the Cordilleras from the distant shores of the Pacific Ocean 36 Labor was regarded not only as a means but as an end by the Peruvian law Footnote 35 Era muy principal intento que la gente no holgase que dava causa a que despues que los Ingas estuvieron en paz hacer traer de Quito al Cuzco piedra que venia de provincia en provincia para hacer casas para si o pa el Sol en gran cantidad y del Cuzco llevalla a Quito pa el mismo efecto y asi destas cosas hacian los Ingas muchas de poco provecho y de escesivo travajo en que traian ocupadas las provincias ordinariamte y en fin el travajo era causa de su conservacion Ondegardo Rel Prim Ms Also Antig y Monumentos del Peru Ms Footnote 36 This was literally gold dust for Ondegardo states that when governor of Cuzco he caused great quantities of gold vessels and ornaments to be disinterred from the sand in which they had been secreted by the natives Que toda aquella plaza del Cuzco le sacaron la tierra propia y se llevo a otras partes por cosa de gran estima e la hincheron de arena de la costa de la mar como hasta dos palmos y medio en algunas partes mas sembraron por toda ella muchos vasos de oro e plata y hovejuelas y hombrecillos pequenos de lo mismo lo cual se ha sacado en mucha cantidad que todo lo hemos visto desta arena estaba toda la plaza quando yo fui a governar aquella Ciudad e si fue verdad que aquella se trajo de ellos afirman e tienen puestos en sus registros paresceme que sea ansi que toda la tierra junta tubo necesidad de entender en ello por que la plaza es grande y no tiene numero las cargas que en ella entraron y la costa por lo mas cerca esta mas de nobenta leguas a lo que creo y cierto yo me satisfice porque todos dicen que aquel genero de arena no lo hay hasta la costa Rel Seg Ms With their manifold provisions against poverty the reader has already been made acquainted They were so perfect that in their wide extent of territory much of it smitten with the curse of barrenness no man however humble suffered from the want of food and clothing Famine so common a scourge in every other American nation so common at that period in every country of civilized Europe was an evil unknown in the dominions of the Incas The most enlightened of the Spaniards who first visited Peru struck with the general appearance of plenty and prosperity and with the astonishing order with which every thing throughout the country was regulated are loud in their expressions of admiration No better government in their opinion could have been devised for the people Contented with their condition and free from vice to borrow the language of an eminent authority of that early day the mild and docile character of the Peruvians would have well fitted them to receive the teachings of Christianity had the love of conversion instead of gold animated the breasts of the Conquerors 37 And a philosopher of a later time warmed by the contemplation of the picture which his own fancy had colored of public prosperity and private happiness under the rule of the Incas pronounces the moral man in Peru far superior to the European 38 Footnote 37 Y si Dios permitiera que tubieran quien con celo de Cristiandad y no con ramo de codicia en lo pasado les dieran entera noticia de nuestra sagrada Religion era gente en que bien imprimiera segun vemos por lo que ahora con la buena orden que hay se obra Sarmiento Relacion Ms cap 22 But the most emphatic testimony to the merits of the people is that afforded by Mancio Sierra Lejesema the last survivor of the early Spanish Conquerors who settled in Peru In the preamble to his testament made as he states to relieve his conscience at the time of his death he declares that the whole population under the Incas was distinguished by sobriety and industry that such things as robbery and theft were unknown that far from licentiousness there was not even a prostitute in the country and that every thing was conducted with the greatest order and entire submission to authority The panegyric is somewhat too unqualified for a whole nation and may lead one to suspect that the stings of remorse for his own treatment of the natives goaded the dying veteran into a higher estimate of their deserts than was strictly warranted by facts Yet this testimony by such a man at such a time is too remarkable as well as too honorable to the Peruvians to be passed over in silence by the historian and I have transferred the document in the original to Appendix No 4 Footnote 38 Sans doute l homme moral du Perou etoit infiniment plus perfectionne que l Europeen Carli Lettres Americaines tom I p 215 Yet such results are scarcely reconcilable with the theory of the government I have attempted to analyze Where there is no free agency there can be no morality Where there is no temptation there can be little claim to virtue Where the routine is rigorously prescribed by law the law and not the man must have the credit of the conduct If that government is the best which is felt the least which encroaches on the natural liberty of the subject only so far as is essential to civil subordination then of all governments devised by man the Peruvian has the least real claim to our admiration It is not easy to comprehend the genius and the full import of institutions so opposite to those of our own free republic where every man however humble his condition may aspire to the highest honors of the state may select his own career and carve out his fortune in his own way where the light of knowledge instead of being concentrated on a chosen few is shed abroad like the light of day and suffered to fall equally on the poor and the rich where the collision of man with man wakens a generous emulation that calls out latent talent and tasks the energies to the utmost where consciousness of independence gives a feeling of self reliance unknown to the timid subjects of a despotism where in short the government is made for man not as in Peru where man seemed to be made only for the government The New World is the theatre on which these two political systems so opposite in their character have been carried into operation The empire of the Incas has passed away and left no trace The other great experiment is still going on the experiment which is to solve the problem so long contested in the Old World of the capacity of man for self government Alas for humanity if it should fail The testimony of the Spanish conquerors is not uniform in respect to the favorable influence exerted by the Peruvian institutions on the character of the people Drinking and dancing are said to have been the pleasures to which they were immoderately addicted Like the slaves and serfs in other lands whose position excluded them from more serious and ennobling occupations they found a substitute in frivolous or sensual indulgence Lazy luxurious and licentious are the epithets bestowed on them by one of those who saw them at the Conquest but whose pen was not too friendly to the Indian 39 Yet the spirit of independence could hardly be strong in a people who had no interest in the soil no personal rights to defend and the facility with which they yielded to the Spanish invader after every allowance for their comparative inferiority argues a deplorable destitution of that patriotic feeling which holds life as little in comparison with freedom Footnote 39 Heran muy dados a la lujuria y al bever tenian acceso carnal con las hermanas y las mugeres de sus padres como no fuesen sus mismas madres y aun algunos avia que con ellas mismas lo hacian y ansi mismo con sus hijas Estando borrachos tocavan algunos en el pecado nefando emborrachavanse muy a menudo y estando borrachos todo lo que el demonio les traia a la voluntad hacian Heran estos orejones muy soberbios y presuntuosos Tenian otras muchas maldades que por ser muchas no las digo Pedro Pizarro Descub y Conq Ms These random aspersions of the hard conqueror show too gross an ignorance of the institutions of the people to merit much confidence as to what is said of their character But we must not judge too hardly of the unfortunate native because he quailed before the civilization of the European We must not be insensible to the really great results that were achieved by the government of the Incas We must not forget that under their rule the meanest of the people enjoyed a far greater degree of personal comfort at least a greater exemption from physical suffering than was possessed by similar classes in other nations on the American continent greater probably than was possessed by these classes in most of the countries of feudal Europe Under their sceptre the higher orders of the state had made advances in many of the arts that belong to a cultivated community The foundations of a regular government were laid which in an age of rapine secured to its subjects the inestimable blessings of tranquillity and safety By the well sustained policy of the Incas the rude tribes of the forest were gradually drawn from their fastnesses and gathered within the folds of civilization and of these materials was constructed a flourishing and populous empire such as was to be found in no other quarter of the American continent The defects of this government were those of over refinement in legislation the last defects to have been looked for certainly in the American aborigines Note I have not thought it necessary to swell this Introduction by an inquiry into the origin of Peruvian civilization like that appended to the history of the Mexican The Peruvian history doubtless suggests analogies with more than one nation in the East some of which have been briefly adverted to in the preceding pages although these analogies are adduced there not as evidence of a common origin but as showing the coincidences which might naturally spring up among different nations under the same phase of civilization Such coincidences are neither so numerous nor so striking as those afforded by the Aztec history The correspondence presented by the astronomical science of the Mexicans is alone of more importance than all the rest Yet the light of analogy afforded by the institutions of the Incas seems to point as far as it goes towards the same direction and as the investigation could present but little substantially to confirm and still less to confute the views taken in the former disquisition I have not thought it best to fatigue the reader with it Two of the prominent authorities on whom I have relied in this Introductory portion of the work are Juan de Sarmiento and the Licentiate Ondegardo Of the former I have been able to collect no information beyond what is afforded by his own writings In the title prefixed to his manuscript he is styled President of the Council of the Indies a post of high authority which infers a weight of character in the party and means of information that entitle his opinions on colonial topics to great deference These means of information were much enlarged by Sarmiento s visit to the colonies during the administration of Gasca Having conceived the design of compiling a history of the ancient Peruvian institutions he visited Cuzco as he tells us in 1550 and there drew from the natives themselves the materials for his narrative His position gave him access to the most authentic sources of knowledge and from the lips of the Inca nobles the best instructed of the conquered race he gathered the traditions of their national history and institutions The quipus formed as we have seen an imperfect system of mnemonics requiring constant attention and much inferior to the Mexican hieroglyphics It was only by diligent instruction that they were made available to historical purposes and this instruction was so far neglected after the Conquest that the ancient annals of the country would have perished with the generation which was the sole depositary of them had it not been for the efforts of a few intelligent scholars like Sarmiento who saw the importance at this critical period of cultivating an intercourse with the natives and drawing from them their hidden stores of information To give still further authenticity to his work Sarmiento travelled over the country examined the principal objects of interest with his own eyes and thus verified the accounts of the natives as far as possible by personal observation The result of these labors was his work entitled Relacion de la sucesion y govierno de las Yngas Senores naturales que fueron de las Provincias del Peru y otras cosas tocantes a aquel Reyno para el Iltmo Senor Dn Juan Sarmiento Presidente del Consejo R1 de Indias It is divided into chapters and embraces about four hundred folio pages in manuscript The introductory portion of the work is occupied with the traditionary tales of the origin and early period of the Incas teeming as usual in the antiquities of a barbarous people with legendary fables of the most wild and monstrous character Yet these puerile conceptions afford an inexhaustible mine for the labors of the antiquarian who endeavours to unravel the allegorical web which a cunning priesthood had devised as symbolical of those mysteries of creation that it was beyond their power to comprehend But Sarmiento happily confines himself to the mere statement of traditional fables without the chimerical ambition to explain them From this region of romance Sarmiento passes to the institutions of the Peruvians describes their ancient polity their religion their progress in the arts especially agriculture and presents in short an elaborate picture of the civilization which they reached under the Inca dynasty This part of his work resting as it does on the best authority confirmed in many instances by his own observation is of unquestionable value and is written with an apparent respect for truth that engages the confidence of the reader The concluding portion of the manuscript is occupied with the civil history of the country The reigns of the early Incas which lie beyond the sober province of history he despatches with commendable brevity But on the three last reigns and fortunately of the greatest princes who occupied the Peruvian throne he is more diffuse This was comparatively firm ground for the chronicler for the events were too recent to be obscured by the vulgar legends that gather like moss round every incident of the older time His account stops with the Spanish invasion for this story Sarmiento felt might be safely left to his contemporaries who acted a part in it but whose taste and education had qualified them but indifferently for exploring the antiquities

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/inca6.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Corporal Roland C. Holder
    and spearheaded a drive north to the Yalu River where the Communist Chinese Intervention began The immensity of the Chinese attack soon forced the Division to withdraw down the peninsula During this action the 2d Engineers were ordered to fight a delaying action while the rest of the Division fell back to regroup From 25 November until 30 November the Battalion fought off the advancing Chinese before it was overwhelmed at Kunu Ri After burning and destroying all usable equipment the few men still alive were captured by the Communist Forces The 2d Engineers were built back to full strength and were still supporting the Division when the final cease fire was given During Korea the Battalion had been awarded ten more battle streamers UN Defensive UN Offensive CCF Intervention First UN Counteroffensive CCF Spring offensive UN Summer Fall Offensive Second Korean Winter Korea Summer Fall 1952 Third Korean Winter and Korea Summer 1953 The Battalion also received its second Distinguished Unit Citation for the action at Hongchon and two Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citations Naktong River Line and Korea Company B received a third Distinguished Unit Citation for Chipyong Ni The 2d Engineers then moved with the Division to Ft Lewis WA for two years until called to Alaska On 1 March 1954 they were re designated the 2d Engineer Battalion Combat and following their tour in the 49th State were transferred less personnel and equipment to Department of the Army control on 16 December 1957 On 14 June 1958 the 2d Engineers were reborn at Fort Benning Georgia with the reactivation of the 2d Infantry Division where they assumed the mission of training Engineer soldiers 11 September 1961 saw the unit enter into an Intensified Combat Training Program Upon termination of the training and upon being designated

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/corporal_roland_c.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Mayan Glyphs
    years Landa provided the only guide available Unlike the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs no text with Maya and some other known language side by side exists and so the problem of reading the Maya glyphs remains difficult The first modern advances were made in reading Maya numbers and identifying glyphs for the months in the calendar cycle By the 1940s scholars could read the dates rather well and because so many inscriptions and the four remaining books seemed to be numerical and related to the calendar most specialists believed that the Maya writing was primarily about the calendar system and that the Maya were obsessed with time Many things complicated the reading of the other glyphs such as the fact that scholars were not sure which of the various Maya languages that survive was the language of the inscriptions In 1952 a young Russian researcher argued that the Maya glyphs combined signs that stood for whole words with others that represented sounds In this the Maya script was like ancient Egyptian and cuneiform writings Although the theory was not fully accepted at first it has proven to be accurate A major breakthrough took place in 1960 when art historian Tatiana Proskouriakoff noted that on certain sets of monuments the earliest and last dates were never more than 62 years apart and that the first date was always accompanied by one certain glyph and the next always by another She recognized that the images on the monuments were not gods or mythical figures but kings and that the first glyph indicated birth and the second accession Sixty two years was consistent with a human life span With this approach scholars have figured out the names of the rulers and their families and something about the dynastic history of a number of

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/mayag.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • The Destruction And Transformation Of Indian Societies
    or to extract a tribute from them led to Spanish attempts to maintain those aspects of Indian life that served colonial goals or at least did not openly conflict with Spanish authority or religion Thus in Mexico and Peru while the old Indian religion and its priestly class were eliminated the traditional Indian nobility remained in place supported by Spanish authority as middlemen between the tax and labor demands of the new rulers and the majority of the population The enslavement of Indians except those taken in war was prohibited by the mid 16th century in most of Spanish America Instead different forms of labor or taxation were imposed At first encomiendas were given to the individual conquerors of a region The holders of these grants or encomenderos were able to use their Indians as workers and servants or to tax them While in the Inca and Aztec empires commoners had owed tribute or labor to the state the new demands were arbitrary often excessive and usually devoid of the reciprocity of obligation and protection characteristic of the Indian societies Encomiendas were introduced after the initial conquest of a region from New Mexico in the north to Chile in the south In general the encomiendas proved to be destructive to Indian societies and as depopulation continued the holders of the grants became dissatisfied Finally the Spanish crown unwilling to see a new nobility arise in the New World among the conquerors with their grants of Indian serfs moved to end the institution in the 1540s The crown limited the inheritability of encomiendas and prohibited the right to demand certain kinds of labor from the Indians While encomiendas continued to exist in marginal regions at the fringes of the empire in the central areas of Mexico and Peru they were all

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/indiandes.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Thomas Jefferson on the Monroe Doctrine
    us in it By acceding to her proposition we detach her from the bands bring her mighty weight into the scale of free government and emancipate a continent at one stroke which might otherwise linger long in doubt and difficulty Great Britain is the nation which can do us the most harm of any one or all on earth and with her on our side we need not fear the whole world With her then we should most sedulously cherish a cordial friendship and nothing would tend more to knit our affections than to be fighting once more side by side in the same cause Not that I would purchase even her amity at the price of taking part in her wars But the war in which the present proposition might engage us should that be its consequence is not her war but ours Its object is to introduce and establish the American system of keeping out of our land all foreign powers of never permitting those of Europe to intermeddle with the affairs of our nations It is to maintain our own principle not to depart from it And if to facilitate this we can effect a division in the body of the European powers and draw over to our side its most powerful member surely we should do it But I am clearly of Mr Canning s opinion that it will prevent instead of provoking war With Great Britain withdrawn from their scale and shifted into that of our two continents all Europe combined would not undertake such a war For how would they propose to get at either enemy without superior fleets Nor is the occasion to be slighted which this proposition offers of declaring our protest against the atrocious violations of the rights of nations by the interference of any one in the internal affairs of another so flagitiously begun by Bonaparte and now continued by the equally lawless Alliance calling itself Holy But we have first to ask ourselves a question Do we wish to acquire to our own confederacy any one or more of the Spanish provinces I candidly confess that I have ever looked on Cuba as the most interesting addition which could ever be made to our system of States The control which with Florida Point this island would give us over the Gulf of Mexico and the countries and isthmus bordering on it as well as all those whose waters flow into it would fill up the measure of our political well being Yet as I am sensible that this can never be obtained even with her own consent but by war and its independence which is our second interest and especially its independence of England can be secured without it I have no hesitation in abandoning my first wish to future chances and accepting its independence with peace and the friendship of England rather than its association at the expense of war and her enmity I could honestly therefore join

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/thomas_jefferson_on_the_monroe_d.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Ranking The Presidents
    studies George Washington Abraham Lincoln and Franklin Roosevelt continue to be the most esteemed presidents Also like other studies Democratic presidents tend to be rated higher than Republican presidents though insignificantly so both overall and since 1857 No demographic data were collected on the 78 respondents 59 response rate 30 historians 25 political scientists and 23 law professors Where possible we have quoted from the comments of scholars who responded to the survey Each scholar was asked to rate each President on a standard social science five point scale from well below average to highly superior and to name the most over and underrated presidents 4 Historian Paula Baker was one of many scholars who explained her criteria Highly superior and above average presidents made the most of what circumstances provided and in a few cases reoriented their parties and public life The scholars we surveyed were supposed to rate them as presidents but undoubtedly their other accomplishments sometimes affected the ratings One respondent explicitly rejected this tendency Some of the low ranking presidents as he ranked them such as John Quincy Adams Martin Van Buren and William Howard Taft were able men who contributed a great deal to the nation but not as president This strange modern genre of presidential rankings was initiated in 1948 by Arthur Schlesinger Sr who repeated his study in 1962 In 1996 his son Arthur Schlesinger Jr replicated the study Our study conducted in October 2000 found remarkably similar results to the last Schlesinger study The correlation between the ranks in the two studies is a staggeringly high 94 The main difference between the two studies is that Ronald Reagan ranks eighth in our study while he ranked 25 th out of 39 presidents in Schlesinger s 1996 study Compared to the Schlesinger study there are some methodological differences Like Schlesinger we surveyed 30 historians but in place of his two politicians Mario Cuomo and former Senator Paul Simon we surveyed 25 political scientists and 23 law professors While Schlesinger surveyed one woman and no non white minorities about 15 of our respondents were women and minorities a substantial proportion only by comparison We believe that we also surveyed more young professors than Schlesinger did Professor of Law Director Demography of Diversity Project Northwestern University J D 1977 University of Chicago B A 1974 Yale University currently Ph D Student Sociology University of Chicago I would like to thank my colleague at Northwestern Steven Calabresi and Leonard Leo and C David Smith of the Federalist Society who designed and implemented the survey and data collection After they collected the data they were extraordinarily kind to offer it to me for analysis I very much appreciate the joint sponsorship of the Wall Street Journal and the Federalist Society for Law and Public Policy Some of the data from this article are expected to be published in the Wall Street Journal in one or more installments starting in mid November 2000 Arthur M Schlesinger Jr Rating

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/ranking_the_presidents.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, Part Two
    government of a republic in which power was to be allocated to three branches executive legislative and judicial This was to prevent the abuse of power by any one branch But the framers feared more than misuse of power by government They were also wary of letting the people control the government through direct elections The one case of direct election of public officials they allowed was for members of the House of Representatives Senators though now elected by popular vote were chosen by the state legislatures until the 17th Amendment was ratified in 1913 The election of the president and vice president was taken out of the hands of the population and vested in an electoral college as stipulated by Article II Section 1 of the Constitution Each state is allowed a number of electors equal to the total of its Congressional representation one for each House member and one for each of its two senators An elector cannot be any person holding office in the federal government In some states electors are chosen at political party conventions When individuals cast their vote for a candidate in a general election for the presidency they actually vote for a slate of electors The party of the candidates who win the most votes in a state thereby elects its slate of electors Losing candidates win no electors The successful slates of electors meet in their respective state capitals on the Monday following the second Wednesday in December to cast their votes for president and vice president Although electors have the constitutional right to vote for any person they choose regardless of the outcome of the general election they rarely vote for someone other than the person to whom they are pledged The votes are delivered to Congress and the candidates are

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  • UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, Part Three
    to remove contrary to statute the secretary of war Edwin M Stanton with inducing a general of the army to violate an act of Congress and with contempt of Congress Johnson was acquitted by a margin of a single vote In 1974 the Judiciary Committee of the House of Representatives voted three articles of impeachment against President Richard M Nixon but he resigned before impeachment proceedings in the full House

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/impeachment.htm (2016-02-11)
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