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  • Australian Confederation
    it At this Hobart Conference of 1895 it was decided to ask the Parliament of each colony to pass a bill enabling the electors who were qualified to vote for members of the lower house in each colony to choose ten persons to represent the colony in a federal convention whose work would be the framing of a federal constitution to be submitted to the people for approval It was this thoroughly democratic principle in Mr Reid s scheme that led to such satisfactory results In 1896 what were called enabling acts to give effect to Mr Reid s proposals were passed by New South Wales Victoria South Australia and Tasmania and Queensland eventually joined All the colonial Parliaments except that of Western Australia passed these enabling bills and by the referendum the Federal Constitution was adopted by large majorities in New South Wales Queensland Victoria South Australia and Tasmania Western Australia held aloof for some time but at the eleventh hour its Parliament passed the Enabling Bill and the referendum gave the electors sanction to it by a large majority Consequently the whole continent of Australia and the island of Tasmania are now comprised within the Australian Commonwealth New Zealanders are beginning to see that the Commonwealth s tariff may seriously affect their interests more especially as the producers of that colony have hitherto had a very large trade with New South Wales Victoria and other portions of the continent Under the circumstances the Federal Parliament expected to frame a customs tariff specially favorable to New Zealand and therefore the inhabitants of that colony see when it may be too late that by standing aloof from the federation movement their own interests may have been seriously endangered It was this feeling that prompted the appointment of a royal commission to inquire into the whole subject and report to Parliament at its session of 1901 The Federation Act passed by the Imperial Parliament gives to the Australian Commonwealth the most extensive powers of self government while retaining to the various States of the union absolute control over their own local and internal affairs It is in all essential particulars the measure adopted by overwhelming majorities of the people in Australia and Tasmania and their mandate to the delegates taking the measure to Westminster was the Bill the whole Bill and nothing but the Bill With one exception these delegates loyally adhered to their trust a trust confided to them by the voice of a free and enlightened people desiring the fullest measure of self government The public of Great Britain and of Australia are fully acquainted with the persistent attempts made by Mr Chamberlain and others to weaken that measure of self government and know that these attempts were defeated one after another by the uncompromising attitude of Mr Barton of New South Wales Mr Deakin of Victoria and some of the other delegates Had they not been successful a very awkward situation might have arisen because the people of

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  • Australia And The Islands Of The Sea
    a bushy tail He howls but does not bark and is the sheep s worst enemy Australia is full of insects but the only one deserving especial mention is the native bee It has no sting is slender in body dark in color and not much larger than a common house fly The natives prize the honey and have a very ingenious way of discovering the hive which is always in a standing tree They catch one of the bees and then with a piece of gum from a tree fix a bit of white down on its back Then they release it Away goes the bee and away go the natives They keep their eyes fixed upon it until it alights at its hive Then one native takes his tomahawk cuts notches for his toes to rest in and climbs to the place where the bee was seen to enter He speedily cuts out the honeycomb which he and his companions devour at a meal Chapter V Mining And Shepherding Australia is rich in precious and useful minerals Victoria has gold South Australia copper Queensland copper tin gold iron and coal Western Australia lead silver and copper and New South Wales gold copper iron coal silver lead and tin The first discovery of gold was in 1851 When it is reported that gold has been found there is always a great rush to the place which at once becomes the scene of much bustle and confusion In the line of the march there are immense drays drawn by bullocks whose drivers do not hesitate to attempt any kind of road so long as their bullocks can stand on their feet These drays are loaded with provisions which are to be sold at an enormous price and if four yokes of bullocks cannot ascend the mountain over which they must pass a dozen can and must There are many people who carry their own loads by means of horses and carts Some travel on horseback with blankets strapped to their saddles but by far the largest number go on foot and carry their loads on their backs Some take shovels and picks but others trust to being able to buy them after they reach the fields Very soon long lines of white tents overtop the heaps of pipe clay that grow higher from day to day If the men are accompanied by their families they generally fence in a small inclosure which in the spring is used as a garden Many of them keep cows and sell milk and butter As timber is abundant houses of every sort soon take the places of many of the tents There are several processes of mining In that of surfacing the earth is dug two or three feet deep thrown into a trough and the water kept running continuously through it Two men with shovels and forks stir the gravel constantly The gold usually in very small pieces falls to the bottom of the trough and escapes with the small stones through a sheet of perforated iron at the further extremity Another process is called shallow sinking and here the pits are simply sunk deeper the process of washing being the same But the most common process is called deep sinking and the preliminary labor is the same as that performed in sinking a well This digging is continued until bed rock is reached when the shaft is said to be bottomed The sand and gravel on the bed rock are then scraped off and the collection thus made is put into a bucket and drawn to the surface by means of a windlass Sometimes large quantities of gold have been found in one bucketful The process of tunneling is carried on upon the surface of the bed rock underneath equaling in extent the area of the claim above These shafts are of various depths some sinking six hundred feet Many lives have been lost from want of proper attention to the use of props to prevent the falling of the earth above from accidents caused by blasting at great depths and from the filling of the mine with water When mined the pieces of gold differ very much as to size and shape The three most common forms are the fine or gold dust the scaly and the rough The first is found in places abounding in granite the second where quartz and slate are intermixed the last where quartz predominates When mixed with quartz steam power has to be resorted to for crushing the quartz The diggers all have a correct knowledge of the value of the precious metal and keep scales for weighing it After a digger has amassed a quantity or a pile he does not usually keep it by him In common with all others he intrusts it for conveyance to the capital city to the Government gold escort This is a four wheeled wagon drawn by four horses and protected by armed policemen The gold commissioner at the gold fields receives the packages which are incased in chamois skin bags and gives the miner an acknowledgment of the same These bags duly sealed and registered are then forwarded to their destination The life of the digger is a very undesirable one It is attended with great temptation and a man may easily degenerate It is impossible to take proper care of the body The food is likely to be coarse and poorly prepared The life is one of uncertainty irregularity and excitement and utterly devoid of all opportunity of self improvement It is almost necessarily one of wandering and notwithstanding the most solid qualities of head and heart those who follow it soon become unfit for any steady occupation The other great industry of Australia is stock raising Cattle probably impose less labor than sheep but the men who own three or four thousand cattle apiece usually have their hands full These men are called squatters or graziers Their runs usually amount to twenty thousand acres or more and though some of them are owned the most of them are leased for a number of years from the Government Their houses are usually furnished comfortably and if the run be near a town even luxuriantly They live well the food on the table being abundant but the meals are monotonous The breakfast luncheon and dinner are equally substantial and tea is the universal beverage both of masters and men There is always a carriage and as horses are cheap they are found in profusion both for riding and driving The squatter is a busy man He is often on horseback before breakfast and never seems to slacken his labors till after the evening dews have fallen If he keeps sheep the shearing selling buying breeding and feeding together with the management of a large force of hired workmen tax his energies to the utmost But many squatters really manage their properties by deputy Serviceable men have grown up in their employment and after a while the real work of the run falls into their hands and they are called overseers As to the underworkers any man who has sufficient eyesight to see the sheep before him and strength enough to walk a few miles a day may be a shepherd in Australia Many persons who in other lands are totally unable to support themselves can manage to live here by shepherding and even to lay up a little money The business is an extremely indolent one and it is a pitiable sight to see a large strong man sitting on a fallen tree and dragging himself along over the ground doing the work which might easily be done by a boy Hut keeping is still lazier work The man has nothing to do but sit in his hut cook his victuals and when necessary shift the hurdles in which the sheep are folded At night he reports to the overseer in regard to missing sheep To guard against attacks on his sheep he sleeps in a covered box near them and if native dogs come around the howling and barking of his own wake him When he has a wife she receives extra wages and takes care of the hut If she is thrifty the place soon loses its woe begone look and assumes the appearance of a comfortable home Cows are kept a garden is made and articles of furniture before unthought of find their way into the humble abode The system of employing families is a great improvement upon the old one of hut keeping If there are boys in the family they tend the sheep while the father spends his time in cultivating a plot of ground or in making shoes if he knows the trade while at the same time he may see that the sheep are properly tended In the early history of the country convicts exiles Chinese coolies and even savages from the Fiji Islands were employed cheap labor being what was wanted But the discovery of gold brought about a radical change Nearly every one rushed off to the mines Wages rose at once from twelve pounds to forty and sixty pounds a year besides rations the allowance for a man being ten pounds of meat ten of flour two of sugar and one fourth pound of tea a week At present the wages vary in different parts of the country being governed largely by the law of demand and supply Great interest attaches to this industry since it has proved a stepping stone to comfort and even affluence for a great many people Those who take to the occupation are saved all risk of loss They are taken from the ship in which they arrive and are at once housed fed and provided for Their work is easy to learn and in a little while they acquire the manners and customs of the country This life is a lonesome one however and it is not surprising that when a few hundred pounds have been saved the family generally seek some other occupation Chapter VI The Great Barrier Coral Reef Of Australia The Great Barrier Coral Reef of Australia is one of the wonders of the world and its curious structure and vast extent were first made known by that intrepid explorer Captain Cook Its total length is twelve hundred miles Its northern origin is in Torres Strait in close proximity to New Guinea and from this point it extends in a southeasterly direction along the coast of Queensland as far as Lady Eliot Island in latitude 24 Degrees south almost directly opposite the mainland promontory known as Bustard Head The width of the reef or series of reefs varies in different districts In some places the distance from the mainland to the outer edge measures two hundred and forty geographical miles In other places it narrows down to thirty miles and at one or two isolated points it measures but ten or twelve miles The area inclosed between the mainland and the outer edge of the reef is about eighty thousand square geographical miles This extensive surface consists of an archipelago of detached reefs and coral islands The majority of the former are completely submerged and at low water are but partially exposed to view The outer wall is generally represented as being one continuous reef but it is more correct to describe it as a chain of detached reefs broken by many openings only a few of which are navigable for large sized vessels The Admiralty Charts specify twenty two such channels but of these only nine are in common use The reefs which form the outside barrier together with the secondary reefs crowded closely to them constitute a natural breakwater against which the ocean waves dash in vain The Inner Route thus formed is consequently converted into a comparatively shallow and tranquil inland sea It is however so thickly studded with shoals reefs and islets as to render its navigation extremely intricate For vessels of heavy tonnage the services of a pilot are absolutely necessary and this employment is followed by a large number of experienced and efficient men The danger is in reality reduced to a minimum by the very excellent system of beaconing established by the Queensland government which is cited by navigators the world over as among the most efficient of its kind But notwithstanding the utmost precautions many vessels are wrecked yearly upon the coral reefs One of the most noteworthy instances was the loss of the Quetta at the entrance of Torres Strait in February 1890 The Quetta was one of the finest and largest of the British India and Australian Steam Navigation Company s fleet Her express mission was to carry the mails between Queensland ports and London Having safely passed through the Barrier Inner Channel while sailing at full speed along the charted course between Albany and Adolphus islands she struck an unknown rock and in three minutes had sunk to the bottom of the sea in a depth of fifteen fathoms of water Of 282 people only 162 escaped and in some cases the escape seemed almost miraculous One young woman sixteen years old swam and floated on the surface of the water for thirty five hours before being picked up by a rescue boat In about the same length of time another swimming and drifting with the help of a plank reached Adolphus Island Of the cargo only a small percentage was ever recovered There is another story of shipwreck similar to this one but of much earlier date In this instance all painful associations of loss of life are happily absent the narrative resolving itself into an almost romantic record of discovered treasure trove The good discovery on this occasion fell to the lot of Mr Frank Jardine the genial owner of the cattle ranch and fishing station at Somerset in the Albany Pass to whose ready and unlimited hospitality extended to them in the day of their sore distress the survivors from the Quetta accident owe their lifelong gratitude In the minds of many doubtless there will seem to be an almost providentially directed connection betwixt these good deeds and this fortunate episode It so happened that one of Mr Jardine s boats prospecting in pastures new for a remunerative fishing ground was driven through stress of weather to take shelter in one of those naturally protected coves that abound among the Barrier Reefs Lying to in the secluded haven the flukes of a time worn anchor were discerned at a short distance from the boat at low ebbtide Acting on the idea that the instrument might in some way prove useful steps were taken to remove it The surprise and gratification experienced on a mass of coin being laid bare on the immediate resting ground of the eroded anchor can well be imagined Further investigation led to the discovery of a larger mass of coin than could be transported by the fishing lugger in a single voyage several trips from Somerset being eventually undertaken before the little mine was exhausted The specie exhumed consisted of Spanish silver dollars with a fair sprinkling of gold coins The money was in a remarkable state of preservation and the aggregate value of the treasure amounted to several thousand pounds The Great Barrier Reef doubtless has many secrets and hides within its coral caves many treasures which will never come to light Among these are Captain Cook s six guns thrown overboard from the Endeavor when she was temporarily aground on a reef These are of classic interest to all Australians and the supposed vicinity of the disaster has been searched with the aid of divers many times without success In all probability the guns have long since been buried beneath a mass of growing coral Before we go farther it may be well to inquire what formed this great coral reef The coral insect Not so There is no such thing as a coral insect A great many people labor under the delusion that held Punch s railway porter who puzzled as to the classification of the old lady s tortoise affirmed that being neither a dawg nor a bird it must needs be a hinsec An insect in the normal adult condition has several legs associated with a distinctly articulated body and a complex nervous and circulatory system The coral animal has none of these It is individually a single polyp comparable in every essential detail with the ordinary simply organized sea anemone with the exception that it possesses the property of secreting a dense calcareous skeleton out of the lime held abundantly in suspension in probably every sea The coral reef building polyps are found only in water whose temperature never falls below 68 degrees F Therefore as a rule they live only in tropical seas between the parallels of latitude 23 1 2 degrees north and south of the equator In the Barrier district the highest elevation at which growing corals are found is low water mark and the lowest is thirty fathoms deep Their most luxuriant development is limited by a depth of fifteen fathoms As originally classified by Mr Darwin there are three distinct varieties of coral reefs Lagoon Islands or Atolls Barrier or Encircling Reefs and Fringing or Shore Reefs The atolls are singular rings of coral land which rise abruptly out of the unfathomable sea Between the atoll and barrier reef there is no essential point of difference The former incloses a simple sheet of water the latter encircles an expanse with one or more islands rising from it With respect to fringing or shore reefs there is little in their structure that needs explanation and their name expresses their comparatively small extension They differ from barrier reefs in not lying far from the shore and in not having within them

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  • The Spanish Influenza
    the place A mountain range from two to five thousand feet in height occupies the central part of the island while its plains and valleys give pasturage to nearly two million sheep besides large numbers of cattle The wool produced is of an excellent quality and always commands the best price In the mountain ranges and near them gold silver tin copper and coal abound so that the land teems with mineral wealth as yet undeveloped One hundred and fifty miles from Launceston is the famous Mount Bischoff tin mine It may be reached from the city either by land or water The quartz or tin bearing rock may be said to form the entire hill to the height of three hundred feet Several shafts have been sunk to the depth of a hundred feet showing that the metallic deposit reaches that depth and is practically inexhaustible The tin is shipped direct to England in the form of pigs the demand from that country absorbing the entire product of the mine One hundred and fifty miles south of Launceston is Hobart the capital of Tasmania The two places are connected by a narrow gauge railroad owned and operated by a private company The city occupies a fine position twenty miles from the sea at the head of a sheltered estuary called Sullivan s Cove On the other three sides it is surrounded by hills and mountains the loftiest being Mount Wellington The city is square and is built upon a succession of low hills Its broad streets intersect one another at right angles They are lined with well stocked stores and among them are several elegant bookstores which would do credit to any American or European city their shelves containing a full assortment of both modern and classical literature Its public buildings and many of its private residences are constructed of light freestone which not only gives an imposing aspect to its thoroughfares but produces a pleasing effect whether seen in sunshine or shadow The population numbers thirty thousand Though the prospect is so pleasing Hobart has not yet outlived the curse of the penal institutions which characterized its early history Fifty years ago the British government was spending five thousand dollars a day in support of jails and military barracks The last convict ship from England discharged her cargo in 1851 Since then the system with all its incidental barbarities has gradually disappeared The Botanical Garden covers an area of over twenty acres It is filled with ornamental trees flowers and fruit trees from a every part of the world Even in the winter which for the climate is mild and wonderfully equable sweet scented shrubs and flowers render the dewy morning air delightfully fragrant In some respects the street scenes are novel The typical miner with his canvas bag his pick and shovel on his shoulder seems omnipresent The chimney sweep whom we know only as belonging to olden times is seen here with blackened face and soiled

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  • Agriculture And The Origins Of Civilization: Part Two
    construction of community ritual centers Building materials varied greatly by region but sun dried bricks wattle interwoven branches usually plastered with mud and stone structures were associated with early agricultural communities Seasonal harvests made improved techniques of food storage essential At first baskets and leather containers were employed but by the early Neolithic period pottery which protected stored foods better from moisture and dust was known to a number of cultures in the Middle East Houses in early agricultural settlements usually included special storage areas and most were centered on clay or stone hearths that were ventilated by a hole in the roof The presence of stored food in early villages made the houses tempting targets for nomadic bands or rival settlements For that reason they were increasingly fortified More dependable and varied food supplies walls and sturdy houses greatly enhanced the security and comfort of human groups These conditions spurred higher rates of procreation and lowered mortality rates at least in times when crop yields were high By the end of the Neolithic period in the 6th millennium B C many of the major food plants that humans cultivate today had been domesticated In addition to food crops plants such as flax and cotton whose fibers could be woven into clothing tents and rugs had begun to be cultivated in the Middle East and other areas New tools and ready supplies of hides also led to new forms of water transport Axes made possible the carving of paddles and dug out canoes capable of crossing large bodies of water Skin covered boats and reed and log rafts were also surprisingly effective forms of water transport Even after the introduction of the wheel in Afroasia in the 4th millennium B C water transport remained much more efficient than land particularly when bulk goods were involved Not until railways revolutionized land transport in the 19th century A D was this situation reversed Social Change The surplus production that agriculture made possible was the key to the social transformations that made up another dimension of the Neolithic revolution Surpluses meant that cultivators could exchange part of their harvest for the specialized services and productions of noncultivators such as toolmakers and weavers Human communities became differentiated on an occupational basis Political and religious leaders arose who eventually formed elite classes that intermarried and became involved in ruling and ceremonies on a full time basis But in the Neolithic period the specialized production of stone tools weapons and perhaps pottery was a more important consequence of the development of agriculture than the formation of elites Originally each household crafted the tools and weapons it required just as it wove its own baskets and produced its own clothing Over time however families or individuals who proved particularly skilled in these tasks began to manufacture implements beyond their own needs and exchange them for grain milk or meat Villages in certain regions specialized in the production of materials in demand in other areas For example flint

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  • Agriculture And The Origins Of Civilization: Part Three
    flowed together to create the unexpected development of civilization While the establishment of agriculture did not guarantee further change it did ultimately co tribute to change by encouraging new forms of social organization Settled agriculture as opposed to slash and burn varieties usually implied some forms of property so that land could be identified as belonging to a family a village or a landlord Only with property was there incentive to introduce improvements such as wells or irrigation measures that could be monopolized by those who created them or left to their heirs But property meant the need for new kinds of laws and enforcement mechanisms which in turn implied more extensive government Here agriculture could create some possibilities for trade and could spur innovation new kinds of regulations and some government figures who could enforce them Farming encouraged the formation of larger and more stable communities than had existed before Neolithic times Most hunting peoples moved in small groups containing no more than 60 individuals who could not settle in a single spot lest the game run out With settled agriculture the constraints changed Communities developed around the cleared and improved fields In many early agricultural areas including the Middle East a key incentive to stability was the need for irrigation systems Irrigated agriculture depended on arrangements that would allow farmers to cooperate in building and maintaining irrigation ditches and sluices The needs of irrigation plus protection from marauders help explain why most early agricultural peoples settled in village communities rather than isolated farms Villages that grouped several hundred people constituted the characteristic pattern of residence in almost all agricultural societies from Neolithic days to our own times Some big rivers encouraged elaborate irrigation projects that could channel water in virtually assured quantities to vast stretches of land To create larger irrigation projects along major rivers such as Tigris Euphrates or the Nile large gangs of laborers had to be assembled Further regulations had to assure that users along the river and in the villages near the river s source would have equal access to the water supply This implied an increase in the scale of political and economic organization A key link between the advantages of irrigation and the gradual emergence of civilization was that irrigated land produced surpluses with greater certainty and required new kinds of organization It is no accident that the earliest civilizations arose along large rivers and amid irrigation projects Civilization in Mesopotamia and then Egypt involved not only the central fact of economic surplus but also the ability to integrate tens even hundreds of square miles along rivers Regional coordination based first on irrigation needs could easily lead to other contacts shared cultures including artistic styles and religious beliefs economic contacts including trade and common political institutions Further Innovations New Tools And Specializations In The 4th Millennium The first civilization also required the technological developments whose impact coalesced around 4000 B C These developments addressed problems faced by agricultural peoples who were encouraged

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  • Akkad and Sargon The Great
    of cuneiform Mesopotamian history and not from documents that were written during his lifetime The lack of contemporary record is explained by the fact that the capital city of Agade which he built has never been located and excavated It was destroyed at the end of the dynasty that Sargon founded and was never again inhabited at least under the name of Agade According to a folktale Sargon was a self made man of humble origins a gardener having found him as a baby floating in a basket on the river brought him up in his own calling His father is unknown his own name during his childhood is also unknown his mother is said to have been a priestess in a town on the middle Euphrates Rising therefore without the help of influential relations he attained the post of cupbearer to the ruler of the city of Kish in the north of the ancient land of Sumer The event that brought him to supremacy was the defeat of Lugalzaggisi of Uruk biblical Erech in central Sumer Lugalzaggisi had already united the city states of Sumer by defeating each in turn and claimed to rule the lands not only of the Sumerian city states but also those as far west as the Mediterranean Thus Sargon became king over all of southern Mesopotamia the first great ruler for whom rather than Sumerian the Semitic tongue known as Akkadian was natural from birth although some earlier kings with Semitic names are recorded in the Sumerian king list Victory was ensured however only by numerous battles since each city hoped to regain its independence from Lugalzaggisi without submitting to the new overlord It may have been before these exploits when he was gathering followers and an army that Sargon named himself Sharru kin Rightful King in support of an accession not achieved in an old established city through hereditary succession Historical records are still so meager however that there is a complete gap in information relating to this period Not content with dominating this area his wish to secure favorable trade with Agade throughout the known world together with an energetic temperament led Sargon to defeat cities along the middle Euphrates to northern Syria and the silver rich mountains of southern Anatolia He also dominated Susa capital city of the Elamites in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran where the only truly contemporary record of his reign has been uncovered Such was his fame that some merchants in an Anatolian city probably in central Turkey begged him to intervene in a local quarrel and according to the legend Sargon with a band of warriors made a fabulous journey to the still unlocated city of Burushanda Purshahanda at the end of which little more than his appearance was needed to settle the dispute As the result of Sargon s military prowess and ability to organize as well as of the legacy of the Sumerian city states that he had inherited by conquest and of

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  • Akkad, Legend Of Sargon The Great
    and cultural center of the middle east for almost two thousand years But Sargon s ambitious empire lasted for only a blink of an eye in the long time spans with which we measure Mesopotamian history In 2125 the Sumerian city of Ur in southern Mesopotamia rose up in revolt and the Akkadian empire fell before a renewal of Sumerian city states The Akkadians were Semites that is they spoke a language drawn from a family of languages called Semitic languages the term Semite is a modern designation taken from the Hebrew Scriptures Shem was a son of Noah and the nations descended from Shem are the Semites These languages include Hebrew Arabic Assyrian and Babylonian After the final end of Sumerian power and civilization around 2000 BC the area came under the exclusive control of Semitic peoples for centuries The Akkadians THE LEGEND OF SARGON Portions of this work contributed by Robert A Guisepi and F Roy Williams University of California Ancient Near Eastern Texts 119 Sargon the mighty king king of Agade am I MY mother was a changeling 1 my father I knew not The brother s of my father loved the hills My city is Azupiranu which is situated on the banks of the Euphrates My changeling mother conceived me in secret she bore me She set me in a basket of rushes with bitumen she sealed My lid She cast me into the river which rose not over me The river bore me up and carried me to Akki the drawer of water Akki the drawer of water lifted me out as he dipped his e w er Akki the drawer of water took me as his son and reared me Akki the drawer of water appointed me as his gardener While I was a

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  • Akkad and Sargon's Reign
    his own The original inscriptions of the kings of Akkad that have come down to posterity are brief and their geographic distribution generally is more informative than is their content The main sources for Sargon s reign with its high points and catastrophes are copies made by Old Babylonian scribes in Nippur from the very extensive originals that presumably had been kept there They are in part Akkadian in part bilingual Sumerian Akkadian texts According to these texts Sargon fought against the Sumerian cities of southern Babylonia threw down city walls took prisoner 50 ensis and cleansed his weapons in the sea He is also said to have captured Lugalzagesi of Uruk the former ruler of Umma who had vigorously attacked UruKAgina in Lagash forcing his neck under a yoke and leading him thus to the gate of the god Enlil at Nippur Citizens of Akkad filled the offices of ensi from the nether sea the Persian Gulf upward which was perhaps a device used by Sargon to further his dynastic aims Aside from the 34 battles fought in the south Sargon also tells of conquests in northern Mesopotamia Mari Tuttul on the Balikh where he venerated the god Dagan Dagon Ebla Tall Mardikh in Syria the cedar forest Amanus or Lebanon and the silver mountains battles in Elam and the foothills of the Zagros are mentioned Sargon also relates that ships from Meluhha Indus region Magan possibly the coast of Oman and Dilmun Bahrain made fast in the port of Akkad Impressive as they are at first sight these reports have only a limited value because they cannot be arranged chronologically and it is not known whether Sargon built a large empire Akkadian tradition itself saw it in this light however and a learned treatise of the late 8th or the 7th century lists no fewer than 65 cities and lands belonging to that empire Yet even if Magan and Kapturu Crete are given as the eastern and western limits of the conquered territories it is impossible to transpose this to the 3rd millennium Sargon appointed one of his daughters priestess of the moon god in Ur She took the name of Enheduanna and was succeeded in the same office by Enmenanna a daughter of Naram Sin Enheduanna must have been a very gifted woman two Sumerian hymns by her have been preserved and she is also said to have been instrumental in starting a collection of songs dedicated to the temples of Babylonia Sargon died at a very old age The inscriptions also preserved only in copies of his son Rimush are full of reports about battles fought in Sumer and Iran just as if there had never been a Sargonic empire It is not known in detail how rigorously Akkad wished to control the cities to the south and how much freedom had been left to them but they presumably clung tenaciously to their inherited local autonomy From a practical point of view it was probably in

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