archive-org.com » ORG » H » HISTORY-WORLD.ORG

Total: 1156

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • Assyria Part Sixteen
    stands in intimate relation to his office as judge For the association of Adad with Shamash there is however no obvious explanation in the character or other functions of Adad the robe of the soothsayer fits the tempestuous warrior ill It may be surmised that Adad got into the formula as the tribal or national god of the people among whom the divination texts were compiled or recast It may be added that the inscriptions make no reference to Adad s oracular talents The moon god Sin was the chief deity of Harran in Mesopotamia as he was under the Sumerian name Nannar in Ur At Harran he was the head of a divine family his queen is called Ningal Nikkal he has a daughter Ishtar the planet Venus with the title princess and a son Nusku In Assyria itself the worship of Sin seems never to have attained great proportions though several kings bear names compounded with his name and in the order of the triad he regularly precedes Shamash a survival probably of an older stage of Semitic religion Of the old Sumerian gods Anu was perhaps the first to be honoured in Assyria with a local cult a fact the more noteworthy inasmuch as in Babylonia itself his religious importance was by no means commensurate with his rank in the pantheon He is the king and father of the gods At the city Assur a double temple for Anu and his gallant son Adad erected about the end of the twelfth century B C has recently been excavated A temple on the same site about a thousand years earlier was dedicated to Adad alone without any mention of Anu The great triad Anu Bel Ea is often invoked The Assyrian kings who ruled over Babylonia are at pains to give a religious legitimation to their rule They have been chosen by the gods to rule over the land of Bel to take the hand of Bel belongs to the ceremony of investiture When Shalmaneser II makes an expedition into Babylonia to put down a revolt he declares that he did it by Marduk s command On the other hand they give Marduk the next place after Assur when they list several gods together To secure the favour of the Babylonian gods they restore their temples and offer sacrifice in them In all this we may see not only a wise policy but true reverence for the ancient seats of religion and sources of priestly wisdom but this homage to the Babylonian gods in Babylonia did not give them any corresponding increment of importance in Assyria the kings built no temples for Marduk in their own land A god designated by the signs Nin ib what he was really called is unknown was especially honoured by some of the Assyrian kings He was as might be supposed an invincible warrior whose strength and prowess are lauded in swollen phrases like his admirers he was also a mighty hunter His great temple was in Calah Nergal the god of Kutha in northern Babylonia whom we have already met as a god of the realms of the dead was also worshipped in Assyria as a god of war and the chase a character indeed which all gods and goddesses took among that bellicose folk The Assyrian temples to judge from the few examples of which anything is known were of the same general type as those of Babylonia the characteristic temple tower stood beside them also The ritual the arts of incantation and divination were taken over from the Babylonians as has been already said The kings entitle themselves in religious inscriptions priests of Assur and stand at the head of the state religion Many reliefs from their palaces represent acts of worship in which the king participates and from them our knowledge of the apparatus of the cult is chiefly derived it is however more frequently sacrifice or divination in the camp or the field than worship in the temples that appears in these reliefs The latter half of the eight and the first half of the seventh centuries were the climax of Assyrian greatness the rule of the Assyrian kings at its widest extent reached from Babylonia to Egypt but it was never a stable and well ordered empire and was maintained only by incessant wars which in the end exhausted the race as the Napoleonic wars exhausted France A new upheaval in those Asiatic steppes which so often in history have poured out the scourges of God set in motion the Scythian hordes who overran the weakened countries of western Asia a new power arose in Media the dynasts of the Sea Country on the shores of the Persian Gulf whose independent spirit the Assyrians had never been able to subdue made themselves masters of Babylon and allied themselves with the Medes against Assyria In 606 Nineveh fell and with that catastrophe the nation which but a generation before had seemed invincible disappears from history in a way that has hardly a parallel The Neobabylonian or Chaldean kingdom which arose upon its ruins had a national character which the old Babylonian states lacked Marduk was the national god in the same way that Assur had been in Assyria The exaltation of national consciousness expressed itself in a religious revival or restoration not only were the great temples of Marduk in Babylon and of Nabu at Borsippa rebuilt with unprecedented splendour but throughout all the land the gods great and small were honoured in similar fashion Nebuchadnezzar whom with our mind on the Old Testament we think of chiefly as a conqueror records in his inscriptions not his successes in war but his piety in building and renewing temples The last of the kings Nabonnedos was digging up long buried corner stones of ancient temples and rejoicing over them with archaeological enthusiasm while the Persians were knocking the empire to pieces about his head The signature of the

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/assyria_part_sixteen.htm (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Assyria, Ashurbanipal
    with the Kimmerians induced their kings to seek Assyria s aid in opposing these new enemies This is the reason assigned by Ashurbanipal for the appeal of king Gyges of Lydia for Assyrian help This ruler under whom the Lydian state comes forth into the world s history was establishing and extending his power chiefly through the employment of mercenary soldiers from Caria The Kimmerians assailing him in fresh swarms he was led by the revival of Assyrian influence in Tabal and Cilicia to send ambassadors to Ashurbanipal Before however any aid was rendered it appears that the Kimmerian crisis had passed away and Gyges had no intention of paying tribute to the far off monarch on the banks of the Tigris The latter however did not hesitate in his inscriptions to make the most of the appeal The affair is notable chiefly as showing how the world of international politics was widening toward the west and new factors were entering to make more complex the political relations of the times 251 The friendly relations with Elam which characterized the later years of Esarhaddon sect 239 gave place soon after his death to a renewal of hostilities By 665 B C Urtaki of Elam in conjunction with Kaldean and Aramean tribes raided northern Babylonia and besieged Babylon Ashurbanipal was satisfied to drive the invaders back into their own land where in a short time Urtaki was succeeded by his brother Te umman who attempted to kill off all members of the royal house Sixty of them succeeded in escaping to Assyria Teumman demanded that they be given up to him Ashurbanipal s refusal led to another Elamite invasion which was checked by the advance of an Assyrian army to Dur Ilu and thence toward Susa the Elamite capital The decisive battle was fought at Tulliz on the Ula River before Susa and resulted in an overwhelming defeat for Elam The king and his son were killed the army cut to pieces The event marked according to Billerbeck Susa p 105 the end of the old kingdom of Susa The Assyrians made Khumbanigash son of Urtaki king of Elam his son Tammaritu became prince of Khidal one of the royal fiefs The division of power was evidently made with the purpose of intensifying the dynastic conflicts in the kingdom which hitherto had contributed more to the overthrow of the Elamite power than had the defeats of its armies The punishment of the Gambulians the Aramean tribe whose secession from Assyria had played so large a part in inducing hostilities formed another and concluding stage of the war Their chiefs were captured and suffered shameful deaths in Assyria about 660 B C 252 For some years affairs in Babylonia and Elam remained on a peaceful footing The latter country had been too frightfully devastated and left too thoroughly in confusion to permit hostile movements there In Babylonia too Shamashshumukin had ruled in harmony with his brother content to administer the affairs of his city to direct the religious ceremonial and to enjoy the prerogatives which were the prized possession of the king of that wealthy capital and the holy seat of the great gods In the very nature of the situation however contradictions existed which were bound to produce trouble Babylon s claims to supremacy were secular as well as religious and her nobles never relinquished their rights to supremacy over the world of nations as well as over the world of the gods Their king too was an Assyrian with the ambitions of a warrior and a statesman as well as the aspirations of a priest Yet in the very nature of things Ashurbanipal was lord of the empire and the army the protector of the peace and conqueror of the enemies of the state the defender of Babylon from assailants its head in the political sphere A clash was therefore inevitable and it speaks well for the brotherly confidence of both rulers that for fifteen years they worked together peacefully Nor is it possible to indicate any special reasons which brought on the conflict that in its various ramifications shook the state to its foundations The ambition of the younger brother was doubtless intensified by the intrigues of his priestly advisers and his pride wounded by the achievements of Ashurbanipal and the glorification of them It appears also that an economic crisis caused by a series of bad harvests was imminent in Babylonia about this time which may have brought things to a head Shamashshumukin determined to declare his independence The course of events shows how carefully he laid his plans and how wide a sweep was taken by his ambitious design which in its fulness comprehended nothing less than the substitution of Babylon for Assyria as ruler of the world Two main lines of activity were followed 1 agents were employed to foment rebellion in the vassal states 2 the treasures of the temples were freely used to engage the help of the peoples about Babylon in driving the Assyrians from Babylonia and to raise an army of mercenaries to defend and maintain the new centre of the empire How far these emissaries succeeded in the former work is not certain but Ashurbanipal found traces of their activity in the provinces of southern Babylonia along the eastern mountains in Syria and Palestine and in western Arabia while Egypt and far off Lydia are supposed to have been tampered with by them Northern Babylonia was already secure for Shamashshumukin and his gold had found acceptance in Elam Arabia and among Kaldean and Aramean tribes Even some Assyrian officers and garrisons had been corrupted 253 The conspiracy was well advanced before any knowledge of it came to the surface The prefect of Ur who had been approached in the interests of the plot sent word to his superior officer the prefect of Uruk that Shamashshumukin s envoys were abroad in that city The news was immediately sent to Ashurbanipal who seems to have been taken take utterly by surprise If he had had suspicions they had been allayed by a recent embassy of noble Babylonians who had brought to him renewed assurances of loyalty on the part of his brother His feelings are expressed in the following words of his inscription At that time Shamashshumukin the faithless brother to whom I had done good and whom I had established as king of Babylon and for whom I had made every possible kind of royal decoration and had given him and had gathered together soldiers horses and chariots and had intrusted them to him and had given him cities fields and woods and the men dwelling in them even more than my father had commanded even he forgot that favor I had shown him and he planned evil Outwardly with his lips he spoke friendly things while inwardly his heart plotted murder Rm Cyl III 70 81 ABL p 107 254 Shamashshumukin now threw off the mask and launched the rebellion 652 B C He closed the gates of his fortresses and cut off the sacrifices offered on his brother s behalf before the Babylonian gods The various kings and peoples were either summoned to his aid or invited to throw off the Assyrian yoke The southern Babylonians responded by besieging and overcoming Ur and Uruk The king of Elam entered Babylonia with an army Ashurbanipal though taken unawares was not disconcerted Obtaining a favorable oracle from the moon god he mustered his troops and sent them against the rebels Meanwhile his partisans in Elam also set to work Suspicion and intrigue however brought to naught all assistance expected by the Babylonians from that quarter Khumbanigash lost his throne to Tammaritu and he in turn to Indabigash who withdrew his forces from Babylonia about 650 B C Meanwhile Ashurbanipal s army had shut up the rebels in the great cities Sippar Kutha and Babylon and cleared the south of invaders driving the Kaldeans under their leader Nabu bel shume a grandson of Mardukbaliddin back into Elam The three sieges lasted a year or more and the cities yielded only when famine and pestilence had done their work The despairing king killed himself apparently by setting fire to his palace and throwing himself into the flames With his death the struggle was over 648 B C Wholesale vengeance was taken upon all who were implicated in the plot the streets of the cities ran with blood Ashurbanipal had conquered but the problem of Babylon remained He reorganized the government and himself took the hands of Bel becoming king of Babylon under the name of Kandalanu 647 B C 255 It remained to punish the associates of Shamashshumukin in the great conspiracy Elam was the first to suffer Ashurbanipal demanded of Indabigash the surrender of the Kaldean Nabu bel shume who had not only violated his oath but had captured and carried away Assyrian soldiers On the refusal of the Elamite an Assyrian army entered Elam Indabigash fell a victim to a palace conspiracy and was succeeded by Khummakhaldash III who retired before the Assyrians They set up in his place Tammaritu sect 251 who had escaped and made his peace with Assyria He too soon proved false to his patron and plotted to destroy all Assyrian garrisons in Elam The plot was discovered and the king thrown into prison Khummakhaldash III remained and met the advance of the enraged Assyrians in their next campaign They would not be restrained but drove the Elamites back on all sides devastated the land and encompassed Susa which was finally taken and plundered about 645 B C The royal narrative dwells with flowing detail upon the destruction wrought upon palaces and temples the indignities inflicted upon royal tombs and images of the gods and the rescue and return to its shrine of the famous statue of Nana of Uruk carried away by the Elamites sixteen hundred and thirty five years before sect 63 Again Ashurbanipal demanded the surrender of the Kaldean fugitive but the latter saved the wretched Elamite king the shame of yielding him up by falling upon the sword of his shield bearer Khummakhaldash himself together with another claimant to the Elamite throne Pa e finally fell into the hands of the Assyrians Elam was thus at last subdued under the Assyrian yoke and disappeared from the scene about 640 B C 256 The Arabians also felt the weight of Assyrian displeasure Yailu king of Aribi who had been placed upon his throne by Esarhaddon sect 242 had been persuaded to throw off allegiance to Assyria He sent a detachment to the aid of Shamashshumukin and also began to make raids into the Syrian and Palestinian provinces The Assyrian troops succeeded in holding him back and finally in defeating him so completely that he fled from his kingdom and finding no refuge was compelled to surrender His throne went to Uaite who in his turn made common cause with the enemies of Assyria uniting with the Kedarenes and the Nabateans Bedouin tribes to the south and southeast of Palestine in withholding tribute and harassing the borders of the western states Ashurbanipal sent an expedition from Nineveh straight across the desert to take the Arabians in the rear After many hardships by the way defeating and scattering the tribes it reached Damascus with much spoil Then the army marched southward clearing the border of the Bedouin and moving out into the desert to the oases of the Kedarenes and Nabateans The chiefs were killed or captured camels and other spoil were gathered in such numbers that the market in Nineveh was glutted camels bringing at auction from a half shekel to a shekel of silver apiece In connection with this campaign the Phoenician cities of Ushu Tyre on the mainland and Akko Acre were punished for rebellion It is strange that other states of Palestine had not yielded to the solicitations of the king of Babylon The Second Book of Chronicles xxxiii 11 indeed tells how Manasseh Mansasseh king of Judah was taken by the captains of the host of the king of Assyria and carried in chains to Babylon Does a reminiscence of punishment for rebellion along with Shamashshumukin linger here Possibly though neither the Books of Kings nor the Assyrian inscriptions refer to it Not improbably the excess of zeal on the part of the rebellious Arabians which led them to attack the frontiers of these Palestinian states soon discouraged any inclination in these communities to rise against Assyria whose armies protected them against just such fierce raids from their desert neighbors Those who had withheld tribute must have soon made their peace among them it may be Manasseh of Judah It was precisely the coast cities because they were in no danger from the Arabs that persisted in the rebelliousness for which they now suffered 257 The policy of his predecessors made the difficulties of Ashurbanipal upon his northern borders of comparatively slight moment That policy which was followed and developed by him consisted essentially in arraying the northern tribes against one another and in avoiding where possible direct hostilities with them Thus friendly relations were cultivated with the kings of Urartu Ursa Rusa III and Sarduris IV whose deputations to the Assyrian court were cordially received The Mannai however continued aggressively hostile and their king Akhsheri valiantly resisted an expedition sent against him When he had been defeated he fled a rising of his people against him followed in which he was slain his son Ualli was placed by Ashurbanipal upon the throne as a vassal king Other chieftains of the Medes and Sakhi and Andaria a rebellious prince of the Lubdi were likewise subdued In the far northwest Gyges of Lydia sect 250 had fallen before a renewed attack of the Kimmerians under Tugdammi a fate in which Ashurbanipal saw the reward of defection from Assyria His son Ardys renewed the request for Assyrian aid and the forces of Tugdammi were met by the Assyrians in Cilicia and beaten back with the loss of their king about 645 B C Thus all along these mountain barriers Ashurbanipal might boast that he had maintained the integrity and the glory of the Assyrian empire He was not aware what momentous changes were in progress behind these distant mountains what states were rounding into form what new masses of migratory peoples were gathering to hurl themselves upon the plains and shatter the huge fabric of the Assyrian state 258 By the year 640 B C the campaigns of Ashurbanipal were over The empire was at peace Its fame and splendor had never seemed so great nor in reality had they ever been so impressive The king like his predecessors sought the welfare of his country and thus bears witness to its prosperity under his rule From the time that Ashur Sin Shamash Adad Bel Nabu Ishtar of Nineveh Queen of Kidmuri Ishtar of Arbela Ninib Nergal and Nusku graciously established me upon the throne of my father Adad has let loose his showers and Ea has opened up his springs the grain has grown to a height of five yards the ears have been five sixths of a yard long the produce of the land the increase of Nisaba has been abundant the land has constantly yielded heavily the fruit trees have borne fruit richly and the cattle have done well in bearing During my reign plenty abounded during my years abundance prevailed Rassam Cyl I 42 ff 259 Ashurbanipal too was a builder Temples in Nineveh Arbela and Tarbish in Babylon Borsippa Sippar Nippur and Uruk were embellished or rebuilt by him Nineveh owed almost as much to him as to his grandfather Sennacherib He repaired and enlarged its defences and reared on the northern part of the terrace upon the site of the harem built by Sennacherib a palace of remarkable beauty In form this palace did not differ from other similar structures but it was adorned with an extraordinary variety and richness of ornamentation and with sculptures surpassing the achievements of all previous artists Sennacherib had led the way but the sculptors of Ashurbanipal improved upon the art of the former day in the elaboration of the scenes depicted the delicacy and refinement of details and the freedom and vigor of the treatment For some of these excellences particularly the breadth and fulness of the battle scenes it has been said that the new knowledge gained of Egyptian mural art was responsible But in the hunting sculptures and the representations of animals the Assyrian artist of Ashurbanipal s time has attained the highest range of original and effective delineation that is offered by antiquity The reliefs of the wounded lioness of the two demonic creatures about to clinch and of a dozen other figures represented in the hunting scenes are instinct with life and power they belong to the permanent aesthetic treasures of mankind 260 Within the palace was also the remarkable library which has made this king s name famous among modern scholars Whether it was founded upon the nucleus of the royal library which Sennacherib had gathered in Nineveh or was an original collection of Ashurbanipal is uncertain but in size and importance it surpasses all other Assyrian collections at present known Tens of thousands of clay tablets systematically arranged on shelves for easy consultation contained besides official despatches and other archives the choicest religious historical and scientific literature of the Babylonio Assyrian world Under the inspiration of the king s literary zeal scribes copied and translated the ancient sacred classics of primitive Babylonia for this library so that from its remains can be reconstructed not merely the details of the government and administration of the Assyria of his time but the life and thought of the far distant Babylonian world It is not surprising then that the inscriptions of this king produced in such an atmosphere are superior

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/ashurbanipal.htm (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Assyria, Tiglathpileser
    the Elamites may have taken from Babylon He seized the opportunity on this occasion to re establish by taking the hands of Bel his own right to the Babylonian throne and proceeded to renew in a yet more striking and magnificent way the ancient glories of his kingdom 137 Centuries had passed since any Babylonian ruler either had set up the ancestral claim to possession of the West land or had done anything to make that claim good The Kassite kings had found Egypt in possession of the field and Assyria was from time to time pushing forward to cut off the road by occupying the upper waters of the Euphrates But Nebuchadrezzar in the spirit of a glorious past which he felt that he represented not only called himself conqueror of the West land but seems actually to have reached the Mediterranean and left his name upon the cliffs of the Nahr el Kelb 138 Such an expedition was certain to bring him into contact with Assyria and indeed was possible only by reason of Assyrian weakness His activities in the northeast were equally offensive to the rival state It is no wonder therefore that the Synchronistic History records a clash between the two kingdoms Neither the time nor the details of the campaigns can be satisfactorily determined It may be presumed that they took place toward the close of the king s reign about 1125 B C A new ruler Ashur rish ishi was king in Assyria and eager to try conclusions with the Babylonian veteran He invaded the south but was driven back and followed by Nebuchadrezzar who laid siege to a border fortress The Assyrian king succeeded in beating him off and destroying his siege train In a later expedition which the Babylonian sent against Assyria another and more serious repulse was suffered the Babylonian general Karastu was taken prisoner and forty chariots captured Nebuchadrezzar near the end of his career made no further attempt to avenge this disgrace but left the renewal of the contest to his successors Syn Hist col II Belnadinaplu sect 134 indeed seems to have taken no steps in this direction nor did the Assyrian king pursue his advantage unless his campaigns in the east and southeast against the highland tribes Ahlami Guti and Lullumi are to be regarded as an intrusion into territory already claimed as the conquest of Nebuchadrezzar sect 135 Evidently neither party was anxious to come to blows Babylonia needed yet a longer period of recuperation from the exhausting struggles for deliverance from Kassite and Elamite while the Assyrian had his task awaiting him in the restoration of Assyrian power in the north and northwest 139 The king who was to achieve this task for Assyria and to add a brilliant page to her annals of victory was already in the field For at least three generations the Assyrian crown had passed from father to son when Tiglathpileser I the fourth of the line in the flower of his youth mounted the throne about 1110 B C 140 To understand the significance of the career of this great king so fully detailed in his own inscription a glance must be given at what had come to be the traditional political policy of Assyria Linked to Babylonia by ties of blood and culture the state was constantly drawn into complications with the mother land The vicissitudes of these relations have been traced in preceding chapters But apart from this fundamental influence was the problem presented to each state of the relation to the larger environment For Babylonia this problem had already been solved Her central position on the Euphrates the connecting link between east and west indicated that her sphere of influence reached out through western Mesopotamia to Syria and the Mediterranean coast lands This predominance realized long before Assyria was born had been maintained with frequent lapses indeed and long intervals of inactivity down to the days of Nebuchadrezzar I From Babylon to Haran and from Haran to the sea stretched the recognized highroad as well of Babylonia s merchants as of her armies Assyria newly arrived upon the scene and once secure of her position as an independent power by the side of her more ancient rival found the outlook for progress leading to the more rugged pathways of the highlands to the north and northwest To this field her position in the upper corner of the Mesopotamian plain invited her The Tigris had broken through the mountains and opened up the road thither And when the Assyrian merchant moving westward in the shadow of the mountain wall which formed the northern boundary of the plain was halted at the Euphrates by Babylonian authority he turned northward into the highlands through which the upper Euphrates poured and thus brought to light wider regions for the extension of Assyrian commerce In all this mountain land the soldier had followed hard upon the heels of the trader so that for more than three centuries the campaigns of kings like Ashuruballit Adadnirari and Shalmaneser had built up the tradition that Assyria s sphere of influence was this northern highland Though in after years when Babylonia had yielded her supremacy of the west land the Assyrian kings devoted themselves to conquest in the richer lands of Syria they never forgot the field of their earlier campaigns they kept open the trade routes and held in check the restless peoples of this rugged region 141 This region in classical times known as Armenia containing in its fullest extent sixty thousand square miles is an irregular rectangle its greatest length five hundred miles its width two hundred and fifty miles A vast plateau lifted some seven thousand feet above sea level it is girt about and traversed by mountain ranges On its northern boundary lies the Caucasus along the southern border overlooking the Mesopotamian valley runs Mt Masius called by the Assyrians Kashiari Between these mountain boundaries two chains the Armenian Taurus and the Anti Taurus cross this lofty region from west to east at about equal distances from one another At its eastern border the mountains turn sharply to the southeast and the country becomes a trackless tangle of peaks and ravines Toward the northwest the plain runs out onto the plateau of Asia Minor or drops to the Black Sea To the southwest the Taurus throws out the ranges that pierce Armenia and then itself turns off to the south in the Amanus range which forms the backbone of Syria In this disintegration of the Taurus the entire surface of the land like its eastern counterpart is tossed about in a shapeless confusion of high and well nigh impassable summits Within Armenia between the long ranges lie fair and smiling plains Between Kashiari and the Armenian Taurus the springs of the Tigris gather to form that mighty stream which breaks through the former range on the east and pours down to the sea Behind the Armenian Taurus are the sources of the Euphrates which flows at first parallel to the Tigris but in the opposite direction until turning to the southward it tears its way through the knot of mountains in southwestern Armenia by innumerable windings and debouches on the plain at first to fall swiftly then to spread out more widely on its way to the Persian gulf The land threaded by the head waters of these rivers is wild and romantic with deep glens lofty peaks and barren passes In the midst of it lies the broad blue salt lake of Van eighty miles long The mountains are thickly wooded the valleys are genial Mineral wealth in silver copper and iron abounds Inexhaustible pasturage is found for flocks and herds All the fruits of the temperate zone grow in the valleys and harvests of grain are reaped in the plains The winters are cold and invigorating It is a country of rare picturesqueness capable of supporting a large population The people vigorous and hardy till the soil of the plains or lead flocks and herds over the hillsides The tribal organization prevails Villages nestle at the base of hills surmounted by rude fortresses The larger towns situated on the main roads which lead from Asia Minor to Mesopotamia are centres of trade in raw materials wool goat s hair and grain or in the rude vessels of copper and silver the spoil of the mines or in the coarse cloths of the native weaver The larger plains afford to the tribes opportunities for closer organization under chiefs mustering no inconsiderable number of warriors Border forays and the hunting of wild beasts vary the monotony of agricultural and pastoral existence At times under pressure of invasion the tribes unite to defend their valleys but fall apart again when the danger is past A free healthy and abundant if rude life is lived under the open sky 142 To secure control over the borders of this upland then Assyrian kings had girded themselves in preceding centuries But the foothold attained by them on the upper waters of the Euphrates had been as has been indicated sect 133 all but lost before Tiglathpileser became king Scarcely had he taken his seat when a new disaster was announced from the land of the Qummukhi This people occupied the extensive valley between the Armenian Taurus and the Kashiari range at the sources of the Tigris to the east of the gorge by which the Euphrates breaks through the former range to seek the Mesopotamian plain Tribes from the northwest known collectively as the Mushki not content with overpowering the Alzi and Purukuzzi sect 133 suddenly hurled themselves under their five kings with twenty thousand warriors upon the Qummukhi Tiglathpileser hurried with an army from Assur to the scene more than three hundred miles away His route led him up the Tigris half way across the upper Mesopotamian plain then northward over the range of Kashiari to a point where he could overlook the valley at its centre not far from the ancient town of Amid the modern Diyarbekr From here he descended with chariots and infantry upon the invaders below and crushed them in one tremendous onslaught Surprised and overwhelmed fourteen thousand were cut down and the remainder captured and transported to Assur The Qummukhi restless and rebellious were subdued with fire and sword one of their clans that fled into the eastern mountains the king followed across the Tigris and though they were aided by the Kirkhi Kurti a neighboring people in the eastern plateau he defeated them and captured their stronghold Returning he marched against the capital of another of their clans farther to the north They fled at his approach their chief submitted without fighting and was spared The king closed the campaign by taking a detachment of infantry and thirty chariots for a dash over the northern mountains into the haughty and unsubmissive country of Mildish which was likewise reduced to subjection Upon all the peoples he laid the obligation of regular tribute and laden with booty returned to Assyria By one vigorous advance he had not only removed the danger from the invading peoples but had re established Assyrian authority over one of the largest and most important of these mountain valleys that one which formed the entrance into the Mesopotamian plain 143 The second campaign undertaken in the first full year of his reign the year of his accession counting as only the beginning was directed chiefly against the still rebellious Qummukhi who were made again to feel the weight of Assyrian displeasure On their western border were settled the Shumashti Shubarti whose cities had been invaded by a body of tribes of the Khatti four thousand strong in infantry and chariots These invaders submitted on the king s advance and were transported to Assyria Two minor events of the year were the re establishment of authority over the Alzi and Purukuzzi and the subjugation of the Shubari an eastern hill tribe 144 In the narrative of the first year s exploits occurs a phrase which suggests that the plan subsequently followed by the king was already conceived Not only had Ashur the nation s god bidden him subdue rebellious vassals but to use the king s own words now he commanded me to extend the boundaries of my country It had become clear that to hold the peoples of these northern valleys to their allegiance a systematic extension of Assyrian territory there must be undertaken The task was formidable leading Tiglathpileser I into far districts hitherto unheard of by Assyrian kings and requiring a display of energy and resource that his predecessors had not approached Three well conceived campaigns are recorded In the first that of his second regnal year the tribes to the east of Qummukhi and the sources of the Tigris between Kashiari and the Armenian Taurus were subdued In the second that of his third regnal year the king climbed the Taurus and descended upon the sources of the Euphrates Here were the tribes known to the Assyrians as the Nairi living to the west of Lake Van The army pushed steadily westward through the mountains fighting as it advanced crossed the Euphrates marched along its right bank and reached the city of Milid the western end of the main road from Asia Minor later called the Royal Road and the chief city of a district separated from the Qummukhi only by the lofty Taurus mountains There remained only the peoples to the far west and against these after the interval of a year the king proceeded in his fifth regnal year In this region between Qummukhi and the gulf of Issus lived the Mucri whom Shalmaneser I had already encountered sect 120 In these mountain valleys had flourished centuries before one of the main branches of the wide kingdom of the Khatti and from thence this warlike people had descended upon the Syrian plain Here Tiglathpileser found great fortresses with walls and towers blocking his advance His reduction of the Mucri stirred up their neighbors and allies to the northwest the Qumani and sent him still farther away into the endless confusion of rugged mountain ranges to accomplish their overthrow One fierce battle with an army of twenty thousand warriors drove the defenders back upon Khunusa their triple walled fortress which was stormed by the king with great slaughter and demolished The way now lay open to their capital which surrendered on his approach Thereupon he accepted the submission of the tribes and laid the usual tribute upon them The first stage of his stupendous task was now practically completed The Assyrian border in this vast mountain region stretched in a huge arc from the upper Tigris and Lake Van around the head waters of the Euphrates to the northeastern corner of the Mediterranean Indeed it extended even farther for to use his own proud words I conquered in all from the beginning of my reign to my fifth regnal year forty two countries and their princes from the left bank of the lower Zab and the border of distant forest clad mountains as far as the right bank of the Euphrates the land of the Khatti and the Upper Sea of the setting sun Prism Inscription col vi 39 45 145 During the strenuous years of these campaigns the king had found occasion to make at least two expeditions in other directions The overthrow of the Shubari in the eastern hills took place in his first regnal year In the fourth he made a raid upon the Bedouin who were crossing the Euphrates into western Mesopotamia apparently for the purpose of settling in the upper plain They were the advance guard of the Arameans Crossing the plain due west from Assur Tiglathpileser drove them before him along the river from the Khabur to the city of Karkhemish followed them across into the desert burned their villages and carried off their goods and cattle to his capital Necessary as such a campaign was for Assyria s protection it had entered territory under Babylonian influence and could hardly have failed to stir up the Babylonian ruler to action against Assyria Marduknadinakhi sect 134 was a vigorous ruler and he seems to have responded by an invasion of Assyrian territory in the tenth year of his reign in which may have occurred the capture of the city of Ekallati and the removal of its gods to Babylon an event to which a later Assyrian king Sennacherib refers In the hostilities which inevitably ensued and continued for two years possibly the seventh and eighth regnal years of Tiglathpileser the Babylonian was severely beaten In the first campaign Marduknadinakhi had advanced beyond the lower Zab into Assyrian territory when he was driven back In the second the Assyrian king took the offensive and swept all before him The decisive defeat was administered in northern Babylonia Tiglathpileser captured one after another the chief northern cities Upi Dur Kurigalzu Sippar and Babylon and then marched up the Euphrates to the Khabur thereby bringing the river from Babylon to Karkhemish under Assyrian control Satisfied with this assertion of his superiority and the control of the chief trade routes he did not attempt to usurp the Babylonian throne but left Marduknadinakhi to resume his discredited authority 146 A few more campaigns of the great Assyrian are recorded An expedition against Elam may belong to his ninth year Other visits to the lands of the Nairi are mentioned in the last of which he set up at the mouth of a grotto whence flows one of the sources of the Tigris a stone slab upon which a full length effigy of the conqueror is sculptured with a proclamation of his victories over these northern peoples It would not be surprising if he reigned little more than ten years The numerous and fatiguing campaigns in which he led his troops sometimes in

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/tiglathpileser.htm (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Assyria, Nineveh
    late 4th millennium In these levels also large metal vases occur again characteristic of southern Babylonia and technologically this district of the Tigris had much in common with the cities of the lower Euphrates Valley at this period This similarity is of particular interest because it indicates that some time before 3000 BC a period of economic prosperity had united the commercial interests of north and south later these two civilizations diverged widely A little before and after 3000 BC unpainted Ninevite pottery was similar to that used at Sumerian sites to approximately the same period belongs a series of attractively painted and incised ware known as Ninevite V which is a home product distinct from that of the south Beads found in these strata may be dated c 2900 BC The most remarkable object of the 3rd millennium BC is a realistic bronze head life size cast and chased of a bearded monarch This the finest piece of metal sculpture ever recovered from Mesopotamia may represent the famous king Sargon of Akkad c 2334 c 2279 BC This bronze head however now in the Iraq Museum Baghdad because of its brilliant technique and elaborately modeled features is thought by some authorities to belong to a rather later stage of the Akkadian Period c 2334 c 2154 BC if so the head might represent King Naram Sin c 2254 c 2218 BC The hypothesis for the earlier period seems preferable for metal work advanced more rapidly in style in Mesopotamia at that period than did stone sculpture and it is known from inscriptions that Sargon s second son Manishtusu had built the temple of E Mashmash at Nineveh by virtue of being the son of Sargon thus a model of the founder of the dynasty would have been appropriately placed there Surprisingly there is no large body of evidence to show that Assyrian monarchs built at all extensively in Nineveh during the 2nd millennium BC Later monarchs whose inscriptions have appeared on the Acropolis include Shalmaneser I and Tiglath pileser I both of whom were active builders in Ashur the former had founded Calah Nimrud Nineveh had to wait for the neo Assyrians particularly from the time of Ashurnasirpal II ruled 883 859 BC onward for a considerable architectural expansion Thereafter successive monarchs kept in repair and founded new palaces temples to Sin Nergal Nanna Shamash Ishtar and Nabu Nebo Unfortunately severe depredations have left few remains of these edifices It was Sennacherib who made Nineveh a truly magnificent city c 700 BC He laid out fresh streets and squares and built within it the famous palace without a rival the plan of which has been mostly recovered and has overall dimensions of about 600 by 630 feet It comprised at least 80 rooms of which many were lined with sculpture A large part of the famous K collection of tablets was found there see below some of the principal doorways were flanked by human headed bulls At this time

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/nineveh.htm (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Assyria, Fall Of Assyria
    Medo Persian tradition as represented by Herodotus lays emphasis on the part taken by the Medes According to him Deioces the founder of the Median kingdom about the beginning of the seventh century was followed by his son Phraortes who attacked and subdued the Persians Not satisfied with this success Phraortes engaged in war with Assyria now shorn of its allies The Assyrians however defeated him he lost his life in the decisive battle His son Cyaxares reorganized the Median army and proceeded against Nineveh to avenge his father The Assyrian army had been defeated and Nineveh was besieged when the Scythians led by Madyes fell upon Media compelled the raising of the siege and defeated and overcame Cyaxares They then overran all western Asia as far as the borders of Egypt whence by gifts and prayers they were induced by Psamtik to retire Their dominion lasted twenty eight years Cyaxares however succeeded in recovering his kingdom by slaying the Scythian leaders assembled at a banquet He then took Nineveh and brought the Assyrian state to an end 268 In the Babylonian tradition Sardanapalus Ashurbanipal is succeeded by Saracus Sinsharishkun Hearing that an army like a swarm of locusts was advancing from the sea he sent Busalossorus Nabupalucur his general to Babylon The latter however allied himself with the Medes by marrying his son Nebuchadrezzar to the daughter of the Median prince Ashdakos and advanced against Nineveh Saracus on hearing of the rebellion of his vassal and the contemplated attack set fire to his own capital and perished in the flames In another form of the story which seems to combine elements of both traditions it is said that the Babylonian chief united with the Median in a rebellion against Sardanapalus and shut him up in Nineveh three years In the third year the Tigris swept away part of the walls of the city and the king in despair heaped up the treasures of his palace upon a funeral pyre four hundred feet high and offered himself to death in the fire together with his wives 269 The inscriptions of Nabupalucur contain no reference to his relations to Assyria beyond his claim to be king of Babylon and to have conquered the Shubari a people of North Mesopotamia sect 143 The stele of Nabuna id ABL p 158 however set up about 550 B C while it offers difficulties of its own throws a welcome light upon the exaggerations and confusions in the traditions It declares that Nabupalucur found a helper in the king of the Umman manda who ruined the temples of the gods of Assyria and the cities on the border of Akkad which were hostile to the king of Akkad and had not come to his help and laid waste their sanctuaries Both traditions therefore contain elements of truth The Babylonians were at war with Assyria and in alliance with another people in this war yet not the Babylonians but this other people actually overthrew Assyria Whether this people whom the royal chronicler calls the Ummanmanda is to be identified with the Medes or was one of the Scythian hordes of which Herodotus writes is uncertain So long as this is undetermined an important part of the historical situation cannot be cleared up What is tolerably plain however is that when Nabupalucur set himself up as king in Babylon the Assyrian rulers sought to maintain their power there and succeeded in bringing the Babylonian usurper into straits A happy alliance with the people of the eastern mountains whether Medes under Cyaxares as is indeed most probable or Scythians delivered him from his difficulties and opened the war which closed with the destruction of Nineveh and the disappearance of the Assyrian monarchy The vicissitudes of the struggle the length and details of the siege and the fate of the last Assyrian king may well have lived on in the Median and Babylonian traditions and in their essential features he preserved in the narratives of Herodotus and Berosus In the series of references of the prophet Nahum to the defences and dangers of the city of Nineveh have properly been thought to lie the observations of an eyewitness of the splendors of that mighty capital His predictions of its overthrow and particularly of the one soon to come that dasheth in pieces Nah ii 1 may have had their occasion in his own experiences upon Assyrian soil during these troubled years A gruesome memorial of the assault is a fractured skull preserved in the British Museum supposed to have belonged to the soldier who was on guard in the palace of the king BMG p 102 The date of the capture of the capital the final blow which crushed Assyria while not exactly determined is probably 606 B C Scarcely twenty years after the close of the brilliant reign of Ashurbanipal the empire had disappeared 270 Assyria s sudden collapse is so startling and unexpected as properly to cause surprise and demand investigation The series of events which culminated in the catastrophe and gave occasion for this fall were it is true such as could not have been prepared for in advance and they would have sorely strained the resisting power of any state Yet evidently the causes for Assyria s disappearance before this combined onslaught of her enemies must lie deeper The problem involves a consideration of the elements and forces which made this monarchy so great and enabled it to attain so wide and magnificent an empire Attention has already been called to the conditions of soil and climate in which a population hardy vigorous and warlike would be nourished This people was from the first environed by adverse forces that called forth its aggressive energies The wild beasts of the upper Tigris and the rude tribes of the mountains must be held in check while a hard living was wrung from the ungracious soil The effect was to give to the nation a peculiarly warlike character

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/Assyrian%20Fall.htm (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Babylonia, A History of Ancient Babylon Part Two
    between Babylonian kings and the Pharaohs are given in the Tel el Amarna letters We hear now for the first time of the brotherhood of nations First establish good brotherhood between us are words contained in a letter of Amenhotep III to Kadashman Bel Winckler TAL letter 1 Ambassadors pass to and fro between the courts on the Euphrates and the Nile They carry safe conducts for passage through the Egyptian provinces of Syria Their persons are sacred and the king in whose provinces an insult has been offered to them must punish the offender Between the royal personages who figure in these letters it has been thought that the relations were something more than formal and the message of a Mitannian king to Amenhotep IV on hearing of the death of his father has a pathetic ring Never did Nimmuriya your father break his promises I have mourned for him deeply and when he died I wished to die myself May he whom I loved live with God Tiele Western Asia p 12 127 The influence of Egypt upon the life of the Babylonians resulting from this enlarged intercourse cannot be followed into detail with any materials at present available Medical science may have been improved One might expect that religion would have been affected The dogma of the divinity of the Pharaoh might be regarded as likely to emphasize and encourage claims of the Babylonian kings for like honors not unknown in the past sect 75 yet not only is no evidence presented for this but it is even maintained that the Kassite kings definitely set aside the remnants of the Babylonian usage in the case and regarded themselves as delegates and representatives of the gods of whom they were the adopted sons Sayce BA p 171 In the sphere of trade and commerce the influence of Egypt was unmistakable and far reaching No doubt at the beginning of the advance of Egypt into Asia and throughout her domination of Syria Babylonian commerce with the west suffered and was at times entirely cut off But the traders on the Euphrates directed their energies only the more toward opening and developing new markets in the north and east According to testimony drawn from the finds at Nippur they brought gypsum from Mesopotamia marble and limestone from the Persian mountains cedar and cypress from the Zagros lapis lazuli from Bactria and cobalt for coloring material presumably from China Peters Nippur II p 134 It is not impossible that the eastern affinities of the Kassite kings assisted the development of trade in this direction On the other hand when with some possible restrictions commerce was revived with the Egyptian provinces of Syria under royal agreements the unification of these regions under one authority gave at that time as often later a substantial stimulus to trade both in its security and its extent This fact is proved by the striking discovery at Nippur of votive offerings of magnesite which must have been brought for the Kassite kings from the island of Euboea Nippur ibid Egypt itself had in its Nubian mines the pre eminent source of gold for the oriental world world and the letters of the eastern kings to their brethren the Pharaohs are full of requests for gifts of more of the precious metal and of better quality for which they send in return lapis lazuli enamel horses and chariots slaves costly furniture and works of art 128 From the facts already stated it is clear that Karduniash flourished under its Kassite rulers Industry was active Manufacturing was represented not only by the objects already enumerated as gifts to the Pharaohs but by a multitude of materials found at Nippur and mentioned in the royal inscriptions Among the former were the ornamental axe heads These analysis has disclosed to be made of glass colored with cobalt and copper and resembling in character the famous Venetian glass of the fourteenth century A D moulded probably by Phoenician artists employed at the temple Nippur II p 134 Agumkakrime s description of his rehabilitation of the deities Marduk and Zarpanit of Babylon gives a picture of the superabounding wealth of the king who clothes the images of the deities with gold embroidered robes heavy with jewels and houses them in a cella of cedar and cypress woods made by cunning workmen its doors banded with bronze and its walls lined with strange carved animal figures Unfortunately no large sculptures of these kings have yet been discovered nor do the remains of the Nippur temple ascribed to them afford any judgment as to the architecture of the time The so called boundary stones of Milishikhu and Mardukbaliddin I carved with rude representations of animals and of the heavenly bodies symbols of uncertain significance were probably the work of provincial artists Smith AD pp 236 ff It is strange that these stones are the chief evidence for the legal element in the life of the time The inscription on that of Mardukbaliddin I conveys a tract of land to one of his officials as a reward The boundaries of the tract are carefully stated the ancestry of the beneficiary is traced to the fifth generation witnesses are named and curses are invoked upon all who in the future may interfere with this award Excavations yet to be made on temple sites like that of Nippur will probably reveal in sufficient abundance the deeds contracts and other documents which were indispensable in so active and enterprising a commercial and industrial community as was Babylonia in those days A similar silence broods over the literature Beyond the few royal inscriptions and letters already sufficiently described no evidence exists to show either that the masterpieces of old were studied or that new works were being produced This gap in our knowledge will also sometime be filled 129 If the successful seizure of the Babylonian throne by the Kassites had given a mighty impetus to the development of Assyria

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/bab3.htm (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Babylonia, A History of Ancient Babylon Part Three
    economic resources of the land absorbed in military campaigns were by no means compensated for by the inflowing of treasure from the conquered lands most of which went into the royal coffers These losses could not but disable the national strength Yet the great king seems to have sought to guard against this danger by the statesmanlike measures already described sect 148 and during the reigns of his two sons some opportunity for recuperation was afforded The prime fact was that coincident with this period of internal decline a series of mighty movements of peoples took place in the world without which swept away Assyria s authority over her provincial districts encroached upon her territory threw Babylonia into civil war paralyzed all foreign trade and afforded opportunity for the consolidation of rival powers on the borders of both nations The most important of these movements was a fresh wave of Aramean migration which welled up in resistless volume from the Arabian peninsula At various periods during preceding centuries these nomads had crossed the Euphrates and roamed through the middle Mesopotamian plain as far as the Tigris At times they were a menace to the commerce of the rivers but usually were held in check by the armies of the great states driven back by systematic campaigns or absorbed into the settled population But in these years they came in overwhelming multitudes Apparently by the mere force of numbers they crowded back the Assyrians and Babylonians and occupied the entire western half of the plain They poured over into Syria as well until stopped by the sea and the mountains At the first they may have moved to and fro fighting and plundering and not without reason has it been held Tiele BAG pp 167 178 that they carried fire and sword into the heart of Assyria itself In course of time they yielded to the influences of civilization and began to settle down in the rich country of upper Mesopotamia around the Euphrates where their states are found a century after The causes of such a movement are difficult to determine In this case something more than the ordinary impulse to migration seems to be required May it not be found in the rise of the kingdoms of southern Arabia which whether Minean or Sabean seem to have reached the acme of their prosperity just before this period Their extension toward the north and east may have driven the Bedouin upward and precipitated the onward movement which forced the Arameans out into Mesopotamia and Syria 155 Such a cause would account also for the other irruption from the same Arabian region which in this period brought confusion to Babylonia It has already been remarked sect 69 that Babylonian trade with southern Arabia centred about the border city of Ur near the mouth of the rivers Along this open and attractive highway came a new horde that fell upon the coast lands and river bottoms and appear henceforth in Babylonian history

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/bab4.htm (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Babylonia, A History of Ancient Babylon Part Four
    the old tragedy was re enacted and for the last time It is true that Hophra had made a demonstration against the Kaldeans during the siege of Jerusalem that had compelled a temporary raising of the siege but the lack of concerted action on the part of the rebels was followed by the usual disaster Edom and Moab had already made their peace with their overlord Ammon and Tyre do not seem to have played any active part in the struggle Judah stood alone and perished 281 Nebuchadrezzar seems to have proceeded against Tyre and besieged it The siege is said to have lasted thirteen years 585 573 B C after which the city came to terms although it was not entered by the Kaldean king The death of its king Itobaal II coincided with its submission Egypt was attacked by Nebuchadrezzar in 568 B C at a the time when Hophra had been followed by Amasis as a result of internal strife Of the success or extent of the campaign there is no definite knowledge It was little more than a punitive expedition from which Egypt speedily recovered 282 If the knowledge of Nebuchadrezzar s wars and the administration of his empire must be derived largely from others than himself the case is different with respect to his activity in Babylonia To this long inscriptions are devoted and small tablets stamps and bricks from many famous sites add their testimony He describes particularly his building operations in the city of Babylon the fortifications the palaces and the temples reared by him Utility and adornment were his guiding principles but not without the deeper motives of piety and patriotism In Babylonia at large he labored at the restoration of the canal system so important for agriculture commerce and defence One canal which was restored by him led from the Euphrates south of Hit directly to the gulf through the centre of Babylonia another on the west of the Euphrates opened up to irrigation and agriculture the edge of the Arabian desert The river as it passed along before Babylon was lined with bricks laid in bitumen which at low water are visible to day The city canals were similarly treated Those connecting the two rivers and extending through the land between them were reopened A system of basins dykes and dams guarded and guided the waters of the rivers works so various and colossal as to excite the admiration of the Greeks who saw or heard of them A system of defences was planned by the erection of a great wall in north Babylonia stretching from the Euphrates to the Tigris it was flanked east and west by a series of ramparts of earth and moats filled with water and extended southward as far as Nippur It was called the Median wall Restorations of temples were made in Borsippa Sippar Ur Uruk Larsam Dilbat and Baz More than forty temples and shrines are mentioned in the inscriptions as receiving attention Bricks bearing the king s name are said to have come from every site in Babylonia from Bagdad to the mouth of the rivers He may well stand as the greatest builder of all the kings of the Mesopotamian valley 283 An estimate of the policy and achievements of Nebuchadrezzar while limited by the unequal amount of information on the various phases of his activity and subject to revision in the light of new material can be undertaken with a reasonable expectation of general accuracy Tiele has called him one of the greatest rulers of antiquity BAG p 454 and when his operations in Babylonia are considered that statement has weight and significance A century and a half of war in which Babylonia had been the field of battle had reduced its cities to ruins and its fields to waste lands Its temples had been spoiled or neglected and its gods in humiliation or wrath had abandoned their dwelling places Warring factions had divided up the country between them or vied with one another in handing it over to foreign foes The first duty of the king who loved his people and considered the well being and prosperity of his government was to restore and unite Recovery and consolidation these were the watch words of public policy for the time and these Nebuchadrezzar set himself to realize It is no chance then that his inscriptions deal so uniformly with Babylonian affairs with matters of building and canalization and religion It has been pointed out also that his far seeing policy contemplated the danger from the Medes his present allies and that his elaborate scheme of defences was intended to make Babylon impregnable in the conflict which he saw impending All this was sagacious and states manlike 284 In the fulfillment of this policy the king conceived it indispensable to lay the emphasis on the pre eminence of his capital the city of Babylon Here were his most extensive and costly buildings erected For its protection the vast system of fortifications was designed To beautify and adorn its streets and temples was his supremest desire as the exaltation of its gods was the deepest thought of his heart He or his successors even went so far as to destroy the famous temple of the elder Bel in the immemorially sacred city of Nippur the sanctuary of the whole land an act which has its explanation only in this purpose to glorify Marduk of Babylon Peters Nippur II p 262 But one title is borne by him in all his inscriptions and that is King of Babylon and in them he declares With the exception of Babylon and Borsippa I did not adorn a single city and Because my heart did not love the abode of my royalty in another city in no other human habitation did I build a residence for my lordship Property the insignia of royalty I did not establish anywhere else ABL pp 140 141 Reasonable question may

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/bab5.htm (2016-02-11)
    Open archived version from archive



  •