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  • Sumerian Inscription
    Lagash brother of the father of Entemena who put up this inscription for Enakalli ruler of Umma set the border to the land He carried a canal from the great river to Guedin He opened the field of Ningirsu on its border for 210 spans to the power of Umma He ordered the royal field not to be seized At the canal he inscribed a stele He returned the stele of Mesilim to its place He did not encroach on the plain of Mesilim At the boundary line of Ningirsu as a protecting structure he built the sanctuary of Enlil the sanctuary of Ninkhursag By harvesting the men of Umma had eaten one storehouse full of the grain of Nina goddess of Oracles the grain of Ningirsu he caused them to bear a penalty They brought 144 000 gur a great storehouse full as repayment The taking of this grain was not to be repeated in the future Urlumma ruler of Umma drained the boundary canal of Ningirsu the boundary canal of Nina those steles he threw into the fire he broke them in pieces he destroyed the sanctuaries the dwellings of the gods the protecting shrines the buildings that had been made He was as puffed up as the mountains he crossed over the boundary canal of Ningirsu Enannatum ruler of Lagash went into battle in the field of Ugigga the irrigated field of Ningirsu Entemena the beloved son of Enannatum completely overthrew him Urlumma fled In the midst of Umma he killed him He left behind 60 soldiers of his force dead on the bank of the canal Meadow recognized as holy from the great dagger He left these men their bones on the plain He heaped up mounds for them in 5 places Then Ili Priest of

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/sumerian_inscription.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • The Sumerian king list
    60 years Lugal ure ms P3 BT14 has instead Lugal kinice dudu ruled for 120 years Argandea ruled for 7 years ms L1 N1 has 3 kings they ruled for ms L1 N1 has 187 years Then Unug was defeated ms TL has instead destroyed and the kingship was taken to Urim In Urim Nani became king he ruled for ms vD has 120 X ms IB has instead 54 X years Mec ki aj Nanna the son of Nani ruled for ms vD has 48 years the son of ruled for ms IB has 2 years ms IB has 3 kings they ruled for ms IB has 582 ms TL has instead 578 years ms vD has instead 2 kings they ruled for 120 X years Then Urim was defeated ms TL has instead destroyed and the kingship was taken to Adab In Adab Lugal Ane mundu became king he ruled for mss L1 N1 TL have 90 years mss L1 N1 TL have 1 king he ruled for mss L1 N1 TL have 90 years Then Adab was defeated ms TL has instead destroyed and the kingship was taken to Mari In Mari Anbu became king he ruled for 30 ms TL has instead 90 years Anba the son of Anbu ruled for 17 ms TL has instead 7 years Bazi the leatherworker ruled for 30 years Zizi the fuller ruled for 20 years Limer the gudu priest ruled for 30 years Carrum iter ruled for 9 ms TL has instead 7 years 6 kings they ruled for 136 ms TL has instead 184 years Then Mari was defeated ms TL has instead destroyed and the kingship was taken to Kic In Kic Kug Bau the woman tavern keeper who made firm the foundations of Kic became king she ruled for 100 years 1 king she ruled for 100 years Then Kic was defeated ms TL has instead destroyed and the kingship was taken to Akcak In Akcak Unzi became king he ruled for 30 years Undalulu ruled for 6 mss L1 N1 S have instead 12 years Urur ruled for ms IB has instead was king for 6 years Puzur Nirah ruled for mss IB L1 N1 S Su1 have 20 years Icu Il ruled for mss IB L1 N1 S Su1 have 24 years Cu Suen the son of Icu Il ruled for mss IB L1 N1 S TL have 7 ms Su1 has instead 24 years mss S Su1 TL have 6 kings they ruled for mss L1 N1 S TL have 99 ms Su1 has instead 116 years ms IB has instead 5 kings they ruled for ms IB has 87 years Then Akcak was defeated ms S has instead Then the reign of Akcak was abolished and the kingship was taken to Kic mss IB S Su1 Su3 Su4 list the 3rd and 4th dynasty of Kic of ll 224 231 and ll 244 258 respectively as one dynasty In Kic Puzur Suen the son of Kug Bau became king he ruled for 25 years Ur Zababa the son of Puzur Suen ruled for 400 mss P3 BT14 S have instead 6 ms IB has instead 4 X years ms P3 BT14 adds 131 are the years of the dynasty of Kug Bau Zimudar ms TL has instead Ziju iake ruled for 30 ms IB has instead 30 X years Uß³i watar the son of Zimudar ms TL has instead Ziju iake ruled for 7 ms S has instead 6 years Ectar muti ruled for 11 ms Su1 has instead 17 years Icme Camac ruled for 11 years ms Su1 adds Cu ilicu ruled for 15 years Nanniya the jeweller ms Su1 has instead Zimudar ms IB has instead ruled for 7 ms S has instead 3 years 7 kings they ruled for 491 ms Su1 has instead 485 years ms S has instead 8 kings they ruled for ms S has 586 years Then Kic was defeated ms S has instead Then the reign of Kic was abolished and the kingship was taken ms P3 BT14 has instead was returned a third time to Unug ms IB omits the 3rd dynasty of Unug of ll 258 263 In Unug Lugal zage si became king he ruled for 25 ms P3 BT14 has instead 34 years 1 king he ruled for 25 ms P3 BT14 has instead 34 years Then Unug was defeated ms S has instead Then the reign of Unug was abolished and the kingship was taken to Agade In Agade Sargon whose father was a gardener the cupbearer of Ur Zababa became king the king of Agade who built Agade ms L1 N1 has instead under whom Agade was built he ruled for 56 ms L1 N1 has instead 55 ms TL has instead 54 years Rimuc the son of Sargon ruled for 9 ms IB has instead 7 ms L1 N1 has instead 15 years Man icticcu the older brother of Rimuc the son of Sargon ruled for 15 ms L1 N1 has instead 7 years Naram Suen the son of Man icticcu ruled for mss L1 N1 P3 BT14 have 56 years Car kali carri the son of Naram Suen ruled for ms L1 N1 Su Su4 have 25 ms P3 BT14 has instead 24 years ms P3 BT14 adds 157 are the years of the dynasty of Sargon Then who was king Who was the king ms Su3 Su4 has instead who was king Who indeed was king Irgigi was king Imi was king Nanûm was king in mss L1 N1 Su3 Su4 Imi and Nanûm are in reverse order Ilulu was king and the mss P3 BT14 S have 4 of them ruled for only mss P3 BT14 S have 3 years Dudu ruled for 21 years Cu Durul the son of Dudu ruled for 15 ms IB has instead 18 years 11 kings they ruled for 181 years ms S has instead 12 kings they

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/sumerian_king_list.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Sumerian Proverbs
    no savior 5 Wealth is hard to come by but poverty is always at hand 6 He acquires many things he must keep close watch over them 7 A boat bent on honest pursuits sailed downstream with the wind Utu has sought out honest ports for it 8 He who drinks too much beer must drink water 9 He who eats too much will not be able to sleep 10 Since my wife is at the outdoor shrine and furthermore since my mother is at the river I shall die of hunger he says 11 May the goddess Inanna cause a hot limited wife to lie down for you May she bestow upon you broad armed sons May she seek out for you a place of Happiness 12 The fox could not build his own house and so he came to the house of his friend as a conqueror 13 The fox having urinated into the sea said AThe whole of the sea is my urine 14 The poor man nibbles at his silver 15 The poor are the silent ones of the land 16 All the households of the poor are not equally submissive 17 A poor man does

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/sumerian%20proverbs.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Sumerian Art
    gold and lapis lazuli Partially restored London British Museum A vessel in the form of an ostrich egg gold lapis lazuli red limestone shell and bitumen Ram Caught in a Thicket The so called Standard of Ur which was an inlaid work found crushed in a royal tomb at Ur Ca 2600 B C The original shape and purpose of this object is unknown but depicted a victory celebration at

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/sumer_photos.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Harpist from Ur
    his own Arched bough silver and gold Lapis lazuli ivory and pearl Sumerian Queen Shub Ad Asleep in eternal silence The harpist from the Royal Tomb Distant memory of Atlantis Amidst the ruins of a ziggurat where the City once existed an inscription carved in cuneiform adorns the blazing wall of the temple For the gods have abandoned us like migrating birds they have gone blood flows as the river

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/urpoem.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Spread and development of cuneiform
    No effort was made until very late to alleviate the resulting confusion and equivalent graphies like ta am and tam continued to exist side by side throughout the long history of Akkadian cuneiform The earliest type of Semitic cuneiform in Mesopotamia is called the Old Akkadian seen for example in the inscriptions of the ruler Sargon of Akkad died c 2279 BC Sumer the southernmost part of the country continued to be a loose agglomeration of independent city states until it was united by Gudea of Lagash died c 2124 BC in a last brief manifestation of specifically Sumerian culture The political hegemony then passed decisively to the Akkadians and King Hammurabi of Babylon died 1750 BC unified all of southern Mesopotamia Babylonia thus became the great and influential center of Mesopotamian culture The Code of Hammurabi is written in Old Babylonian cuneiform which developed throughout the shifting and less brilliant later eras of Babylonian history into Middle and New Babylonian types Farther north in Mesopotamia the beginnings of Assur were humbler Specifically Old Assyrian cuneiform is attested mostly in the records of Assyrian trading colonists in central Asia Minor c 1950 BC the so called Cappadocian tablets and Middle Assyrian in an extensive Law Code and other documents The Neo Assyrian period was the great era of Assyrian power and the writing culminated in the extensive records from the library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh c 650 BC The expansion of cuneiform writing outside Mesopotamia began in the 3rd millennium when the country of Elam in southwestern Iran was in contact with Mesopotamian culture and adopted the system of writing The Elamite sideline of cuneiform continued far into the 1st millennium BC when it presumably provided the Indo European Persians with the external model for creating a new simplified quasi

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/cuneiform%20developement.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Egypt Ancient, Part Two, Egypt from the predynastic through the Roman period
    the waters of the new Aswân High Dam and halls of the entire temple were cut out of the mountain and moved to a higher location As in all periods domestic and palace architecture was of perishable mud brick Enough remains have been preserved however to convey an idea of well planned multiroomed palaces with painted floors walls and ceilings Houses for the upper classes were arranged like small estates with residential and service buildings in an enclosed compound Examples of the modest workers dwellings can even be found clustered together in villages very much like those of modern Egypt Sculpture The art of sculpture in the New Kingdom reached a new height The severe stylization of the Old Kingdom and the bitter realism of the Middle Kingdom were replaced with a courtly style combining a sense of nobility with a careful attention to delicate detail Begun in the reigns of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III this style reached a maturity in the time of Amenhotep III that was never again equaled in Egypt Portraits of rulers were imbued with grace and sensitivity as were depictions of the courtiers The art of the time of Akhenaton son of Amenhotep III reflects the religious revolution this king set into motion Akhenaton worshiped Aton the sun god and he believed art should have a new direction Early in his reign a realism bordering on caricature was employed but this developed into a style with a subtle beauty and a deep sense of feeling qualities embodied in the painted limestone head circa 1365 BC Staatliche Museen Berlin of Nefertiti Akhenaton s queen Painting While relief carving was used during the New Kingdom principally for the decoration of religious structures the art of painting came to dominate the decoration of private tombs The necropolis at Thebes is a rich source of information on the slowly changing artistic tradition as well as of vivid illustrations of life at the time The medium of painting made possible a wider range of expression than sculpture allowing the artist to create colorful tableaus of life on the Nile Officials are shown inspecting the exotic tribute brought to Egypt from all parts of the known world The crafts of the royal workshops are depicted in meticulous detail illustrating the production of all manner of objects from massive sculptures to delicate jewelry Funerary rites are illustrated from the procession to the tomb to the final prayers for the spirit One of the standard elements in Theban tomb painting known as early as the Old Kingdom is a representation of the deceased hunting and fishing in the papyrus marshes pastimes he would have wanted to enjoy throughout eternity Decorative Arts The decorative arts of the New Kingdom are equal to the sculpture and painting in their high level of accomplishment Ordinary objects for the use of the court and the nobility were exquisitely designed and made with great care Nowhere is this better shown than in the funerary items from the tomb

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/egyptian_art_and_architecture2.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Egypt Ancient, Osiris and The history of Abydos
    Ramses III and Ahmose II Some pharaohs had a cenotaph or a mortuary temple at Abydos The temple of Seti I was one of the most beautiful of all such temples Its plan is unique for it has no fewer than seven sanctuaries approached through two broad hypostyle halls The sanctuaries are dedicated to the pharaoh and the principal gods of Egypt In a long gallery leading to other rooms is a relief showing Seti and his son Ramses making offerings to the cartouches of 76 of their dead predecessors beginning with Menes This is the so called Abydos list of kings The reliefs decorating the walls of this temple are of particular delicacy and beauty Only 26 feet 8 m behind the temple of Seti I is a remarkable structure known as the Osireion but probably in reality Seti s cenotaph This curious monument is an underground vaulted hall containing a central platform with 10 monolithic pillars surrounded by a channel of water Around and between the various temples of Abydos is a vast complex of cemeteries used in every period of early Egyptian history from the prehistoric age to Roman times Osiris The origin of Osiris is obscure he was a local god of Busiris in Lower Egypt and may have been a personification of chthonic underworld fertility or possibly a deified hero By about 2400 BC however Osiris clearly played a double role he was both a god of fertility and the embodiment of the dead and resurrected king This dual role was in turn combined with the Egyptian concept of divine kingship the king at death became Osiris god of the underworld and the dead king s son the living king was identified with Horus a god of the sky Osiris and Horus were thus father and son The goddess Isis was the mother of the king and was thus the mother of Horus and consort of Osiris The god Seth was considered the murderer of Osiris and adversary of Horus According to the form of the myth reported by the Greek author Plutarch Osiris was slain or drowned by Seth who tore the corpse into 14 pieces and flung them over Egypt Eventually Isis and her sister Nephthys found and buried all the pieces except the phallus thereby giving new life to Osiris who thenceforth remained in the underworld as ruler and judge Isis revived Osiris by magical means and conceived her son Horus by him Horus later successfully fought against Seth and became the new king of Egypt Osiris was not only ruler of the dead but also the power that granted all life from the underworld from sprouting vegetation to the annual flood of the Nile River From about 2000 BC onward it was believed that every man not just the deceased kings became associated with Osiris at death This identification with Osiris however did not imply resurrection for even Osiris did not rise from the dead Instead it signified the renewal of

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/osiris_and_the_history_of_abydos.htm (2016-02-11)
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