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  • Egypt Ancient, Osiris and The history of Abydos
    Resuming the war of liberation against the Hyksos early in his reign Ahmose crushed the foreigners allies in Middle Egypt and advancing down the Nile River captured Memphis the traditional capital of Egypt near modern Cairo While his mother Queen Ahhotep ran the government in Thebes near modern Luxor he undertook a waterborne operation against Avaris the Hyksos capital in the eastern delta followed by a land siege When a rebellion flared in Upper Egypt he hastened upriver to quell the rising while the queen mother Ahhotep helped to contain it Having put down the rising he captured Avaris and then pursued the enemy to Sharuhen a Hyksos stronghold in Palestine which was reduced after a three year siege Before advancing into Palestine Ahmose in three campaigns advanced into Nubia whose ruler had been an ally of the Hyksos The rich gold mines of the south provided another incentive for Ahmose s expansion into Nubia After his borders were secure Ahmose established an administration loyal to him in Egypt and granted lands to distinguished veterans of his campaigns and to members of the royal family He reactivated the copper mines at Sinai and resumed trade with the cities of the

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/ahmose.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Egypt Ancient, Osiris and The history of Abydos
    great bow Amenhotep s first campaign was against uprisings in northern Syria during which he extracted loyalty oaths from other Asiatic princes Returning from Asia he forwarded the body of a rebel Asiatic chief to the Nubian capital where it was hung on the town wall as an example the gesture was sufficient to maintain peace in Nubia His second campaign was smaller reaching only to the Sea of Galilee

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/amenhotep_ii.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Egypt Ancient, Osiris and The history of Abydos
    the Second and Third cataracts attest to the importance of the region Peaceful relations prevailed with Asia where control of Egypt s vassals was successfully maintained A commemorative scarab from the king s 10th year announced the arrival in Egypt of the Mitannian princess Gilukhepa along with 317 women thus another diplomatic marriage helped maintain friendly relations between Egypt and its former foe Another Mitannian princess was later received into Amenhotep III s harem and during his final illness the Hurrian goddess Ishtar of Nineveh was sent to his aid At the expense of older bureaucratic families and the principle of inheritance of office military men acquired high posts in the civil administration Most influential was the aged scribe and commander of the elite troops Amenhotep son of Hapu whose reputation as a sage survived into the Ptolemaic period Amenhotep III sponsored building on a colossal scale especially in the Theban area At Karnak he erected the huge third pylon and at Luxor he dedicated a magnificent new temple to Amon The King s own mortuary temple in western Thebes was unrivaled in its size little remains of it today but its famous Colossi of Memnon testify to its proportions He also built a huge harbor and palace complex nearby Some colossal statues served as objects of public veneration before which men could appeal to the king s ka which represented the transcendent aspect of kingship In Karnak statues of Amenhotep son of Hapu were placed to act as intermediaries between supplicants and the gods Among the highest ranking officials at Thebes were men of Lower Egyptian background who constructed large tombs with highly refined decoration An eclectic quality is visible in the tombs certain scenes of which were inspired by Old Kingdom reliefs The revolutionary art of the succeeding

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/amenhotep_iii.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Egypt Ancient, Osiris and The history of Abydos
    were vassals of the Hyksos ruler Egyptians and Hyksos peacefully coexisted for some time as the Thebans grazed their cattle in the Nile delta which was ruled by the Hyksos Apopis quarreled with Seqenenre and war may have erupted The Theban king s mummy displays terrible head wounds His successor Kamose declared a Middle Egyptian town as his northern frontier He carried on the war as is shown by two

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/apopsis.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • The Art of Egypt
    coffin decays Statue of a Kneeling Official Late Period Twenty sixth Dynasty ca 664 525 B C Basalt Gift of the Connoisseurs 1988 4 1 This statue now missing its head shows a kneeling official offering a shrine containing the emblem of the goddess Hathor The virtuoso working of the hard stone is typical of the Twenty sixth Dynasty The smooth polished rounded forms give the end product a plasticity and softness that belie the hard nature of the material Like most Late Period statues the piece was placed in a temple so as to associate the donor in perpetuity with the cult performed there The figure exhibits the frontality typical of formal ancient Egyptian statues This goes back to the earliest times and probably derives from the function and context of cult statues Late Period ca 712 332 B C Bronze Lapis Lazuli Red Glass Gift of the Connoisseurs 1987 1 From the Late Period on it became common to dedicate appropriate bronze images in the temples and shrines of deities Many such statues take the form of deities themselves while others represent animals sacred to different deities The oxyrhynchus fish an African freshwater fish the name means sharp nosed in Greek was sacred to the goddess Hathor and is usually shown wearing her crown of cow s horns and sun disk on its head an image that may have reproduced an actual temple cult statue Sometimes as here a kneeling figure of the donor was included This rectangular coffin was put together from local timber for a priestess of the goddess Hathor called Nebetit The head end is identified by a pair of stylized eyes known as wedjat eyes painted in a panel on the side The coffin would have been oriented in the tomb with the head

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/art_of_ancient_egypt.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Egypt Ancient, Book Of The Dead, Part One
    me Let me gaze upon thy beauties Let me journey above the earth Let me smite the Ass Let me slit asunder the Serpent fiend Sebau Let me destroy Aepep at the moment of his greatest power Let me behold the Abtu Fish at his season and the Ant Fish with the Ant Boat as it piloteth it in its lake Let me behold Horus when he is in charge of the rudder of the Boat of Ra with Thoth and the goddess Maat on each side of him Let me lay hold of the tow rope of the Sektet Boat and the rope at the stern of the Matett Boat Let Ra grant to me a view of the Disk the Sun and a sight of Ah the Moon unfailingly each day Let my Ba soul come forth to walk about hither and thither and whithersoever it pleaseth Let my name be called out let it be found inscribed on the tablet which recordeth the names of those who are to receive offerings Let meals from the sepulchral offerings be given to me in the presence of Osiris as to those who are in the following of Horus Let there be prepared for me a seat in the Boat of the Sun on the day wheron the god saileth Let me be received in the presence of Osiris in the Land of Truth speaking the Ka of Osiris Ani Appendix From the Papyrus of Nekht Brit Mus No 10471 Sheet 21 Nekht the Captain Of Soldiers the Royal Scribe Singeth a hymn of praise to Ra and saith Homage to thee O thou glorious Being thou who art dowered with all sovereignty O Tem Heru Khuti Tem Harmakhis when thou risest in the horizon of heaven a cry of joy goeth forth to thee from all people O thou beautiful Being thou dost renew thyself in thy season in the form of the Disk within thy mother Hathor Therefore in every place every heart swelleth with joy at thy rising for ever The regions of the South and the North come to thee with homage and send forth acclamations at thy rising on the horizon of heaven and thou illuminest the Two Lands with rays of turquoise coloured light O Ra who art Heru Khuti the divine man child the heir of eternity self begotten and self born king of the earth prince of the Tuat the Other World governor of Aukert thou didst come from the Water god thou didst spring from the Sky god Nu who doth cherish thee and order thy members O thou god of life thou lord of love all men live when thou shinest thou art crowned king of the gods The goddess Nut embraceth thee and the goddess Mut enfoldeth thee at all seasons Those who are in thy following sing unto thee with joy and they bow down their foreheads to the earth when they meet thee the lord of heaven the lord of the earth the King of Truth the lord of eternity the prince of everlastingness thou sovereign of all the gods thou god of life thou creator of eternity thou maker of heaven wherin thou art firmly stablished The Company of the Gods rejoice at thy rising the earth is glad when it beholdeth thy rays the people who have been long dead come forth with cries of joy to behold thy beauties every day Thou goest forth each day over heaven and earth and thou art made strong each day be thy mother Nut Thou passest over the heights of heaven thy heart swelleth with joy and the Lake of Testes the Great Oasis is content thereat The Serpent fiend hath fallen his arms are hewn off the Knife hath severed his joints Ra liveth by Maat Law the beautiful The Sektet Boat advanceth and cometh into port The South and the North and the West and East turn to praise thee O thou First Great God PAUTA who didst come into being of thine own accord Isis and Nephthys salute thee they sing unto thee songs of joy at thy rising in the boat they stretch out their hands unto thee The Souls of the East follow thee and the Souls of the West praise thee Thou art the Ruler of all the gods Thou in thy shrine hast joy for the Serpent fiend Nak hath been judged by the fire and thy heart shall rejoice for ever Thy mother Nut is esteemed by thy father Nu Hymn To Osiris Un Nefer A Hymn of Praise to Osiris Un Nefer the great god who dwelleth in Abtu the king of eternity the lord of everlastingness who traverseth millions of years in his existence Thou art the eldest son of the womb of Nut Thou was begotten by Keb the Erpat Thou art the lord of the Urrt Crown Thou art he whose White Crown is lofty Thou art the King Ati of gods and men Thou hast gained possession of the sceptre of rule and the whip and the rank and dignity of thy divine fathers Thy heart is expanded with joy O thou who art in the kingdom of the dead Thy son Horus is firmly placed on thy throne Thou hast ascended thy throne as the Lord of Tetu and as the Heq who dwelleth in Abydos Thou makest the Two Lands to flourish through Truth speaking in the presence of him who is the Lord to the Uttermost Limit Thou drawest on that which hath not yet come into being in thy name of Ta her sta nef Thou governest the Two Lands by Maat in thy name of Seker Thy power is wide spread thou art he of whom the fear is great in thy name of Usar or Asar Thy existence endureth for an infinite number of double henti periods in thy name of Un Nefer Homage to thee King of Kings and Lord of Lords and Prince of Princes Thou hast ruled the Two Lands from the womb of the goddess Nut Thou hast governed the Lands of Akert Thy members are of silver gold thy head is of lapis lazuli and the crown of thy head is of turquoise Thou art An of millions of years Thy body is all pervading O Beautiful Face in Ta tchesert Grant thou to me glory in heaven and power upon earth and truth speaking in the Divine Underworld and the power to sail down the river to Tetu in the form of a living Ba soul and the power to sail up the river to Abydos in the form of a Benu bird and the power to pass in through and to pass out from without obstruction the doors of the lords of the Tuat Let there be given unto me bread cakes in the House of Refreshing and sepulchral offerings of cakes and ale and propitiatory offerings in Anu and a permanent homestead in Sekhet Aaru with wheat and barley therein to the Double of the Osiris the scribe Ani The Chapters Of Coming Forth By Day Here begin the Chapters of coming forth by day and the songs of praising and glorifying which are to be recited for coming forth and for entering into Khert Neter and the spells which are to be said in beautiful amentet They shall be recited on the day of the funeral entering in after coming forth The Osiris Ani the Osiris the scribe Ani saith Homage to thee O Bull of Amentet Thoth the king of eternity is with me I am the great god by the side of the divine boat I have fought for thee I am one of those gods those divine chiefs who proved the truth speaking of Osiris before his enemies on the day of the weighing of words I am thy kinsman Osiris I am one of those gods who were the children of the goddess Nut who hacked in pieces the enemies of Osiris and who bound in fetters the legion of Sebau devils on his behalf I am thy kinsman Horus I have fought on thy behalf I have come to thee for thy name s sake I am Thoth who proved the truth of the words of Osiris before his enemies on the day of the weighing of words in the great House of the Prince who dwelleth in Anu I am Teti the son of Teti My mother conceived me in Tetu and gave birth to me in Tetu I am with the mourners and with the women who tear out their hair and make lament for Osiris in Taui Rekhti proving true the words of Osiris before his enemies Ra commanded Thoth to prove true the words of Osiris before his enemies what was commanded for Osiris let that be done for me by Thoth I am with Horus on the day of dressing Teshtesh I open the hidden water springs for the ablutions of Urt ab I unbolt the door of the Shetait Shrine in Ra stau I am with Horus as the protector of the left shoulder of Osiris the dweller in Sekhem I enter in among and I come forth from the Flame gods on the day of the destruction of the Sebau fiends in Sekhem I am with Horus on the day s of the festivals of Osiris at the making of offerings and oblations namely on the festival which is celebrated on the sixth day of the month and on the day of the Tenat festival in Anu I am the Uab priest libationer in Tetu Rera the dweller in Per Asar I exalt him that is upon the high place of the country I look upon the hidden things the mysteries in Ra stau I recite the words of the liturgy of the festival of the Soul god in Tetu I am the SEM priest and perform his duties I am the Ur Kherp Hem priest on the day of placing the Henu Boat of Seker upon its divine sledge I have taken in my hand the digging tool on the day of digging up the earth in Hensu Hail O ye who make perfect souls to enter into the House of Osiris make ye the well instructed soul of the Osiris the scribe Ani whose word is true to enter in and to be with you in the House of Osiris Let him hear even as ye hear let him have sight even as ye have sight let him stand up even as ye stand up let him take his seat even as ye take your seats Hail O ye who give cakes and ale to perfect souls in the House of Osiris give ye cakes and ale twice each day in the morning and in the evening to the soul of the Osiris Ani whose word is true before the gods the Lords of Abydos and whose word is true with you Hail O ye who open up the way who act as guides to the roads in the Other World to perfect souls in the House of Osiris open ye up for him the way and act ye as guides to the roads to the soul of the Osiris the scribe the registrary of all the offerings made to the gods Ani whose word is true with you May he enter the House of Osiris with boldness and may he come forth therefrom in peace May there be no opposition made to him and may he not be sent back therefrom May he enter in under favour of Osiris and may he come forth gratified at the acceptance of his true words May his commands be performed in the House of Osiris may his words travel with you may he be glorious as ye are May he be not found to be light in the Balance may the Balance dispose of his case In the Turin Papyrus ed Lepsius this Chapter ends with the following Permit thou not me to be judged according to the mouths of the multitude May my soul lift itself up before Osiris having been found to have been pure when on earth May I come into thy presence O Lord of the gods may I arrive at the Nome of Maati Truth may I rise up on my seat like a god endowed with life may I give forth light like the Company of the Gods who dwell in heaven may I become like one of you may I lift up my footsteps in the town of Kher Aha may I look upon the Sektet Boat of the god Saah the holy one as it passeth across the sky may I not be repulsed may I look upon the Lords of the Tuat or according to another reading the Company of the Gods may I smell the savour of the divine food of the Company of the Gods may I sit down with them may my name be proclaimed for offerings by the Kher Heb priest at the sacrificial table may I hear the petitions which are made when offerings are presented may I draw nigh unto the Neshem Boat and may neither my Heart soul nor its lord be repulsed Homage to thee O Chief of Amentet thou god Osiris who dwellest in the town of Nifu ur Grant thou that I may arrive in peace in Amentet May the Lords of Ta Tchesert receive me and may they say unto me Hail hail welcome welcome May they make ready for me a seat by the side of the President of the Chiefs may the Nursing goddesses receive me at the seasons and may I come forth into the presence of Un Nefer true of word May I be a Follower of Horus in Ra stau and of Osiris in Tetu and may I perform all the transformations which my heart may desire to make in every place wherein my Double KA wisheth to be Rubric If this text be known by the deceased upon earth or if he causeth it to be done in writing upon his coffin then will he be able to come forth on any day he pleaseth and to enter into his habitation unrepulsed Cakes and ale and joints of meat from those which are on the altar of Ra shall be given unto him and his homestead shall be among the fields of the Field of Reeds Sekhet Aaru and wheat and barley shall be given unto him therein and he shall flourish there even as he flourished upon earth Appendix From the Papyrus of Nekhtu Amen ed Naville I 5 The Chapter of making the Sahu to enter the Tuat on the day of the funeral when the following words are to be said Homage to thee O thou who dwellest in the Holy Hill Set Tchesert of Amentet the Osiris the royal scribe Nekhtu Amen whose word is true knoweth thee he knoweth thy name Deliver thou him from the worms which are in Ra stau which live upon the bodies of men and women and feed upon their blood for Osiris the favoured servant of the god of his city the royal scribe Nekhtu Amen knoweth you and he knoweth your names Let the order for his protection be the first command of Osiris the Lord to the Uttermost Limit who keepeth his body hidden May he give him release from the Terrible One who dwelleth at the bend of the River of Amentet and may he decree the acts that will make him to rise up Let him pass on to him whose throne is placed within the darkness who giveth light in Ra stau O thou Lord of Light come thou and swallow up the worms which are in Amentet Let the Great God who dwelleth in Tetu and who is himself unseen hear his prayers and let those who cause afflictions hold him in fear as he cometh forth with the sentence of their doom to the Divine Block I the Osiris the royal scribe Nekhtu Amen come bearing the decree of Neb er tcher and I am the Horus who taketh possession of his throne for him His father the lord of all those who are in the Boat of his Father Horus hath ascribed praise unto him He cometh bearing tidings let him see the town of Anu Their chief shall stand on the earth before him the scribes shall magnify him at the doors of their assemblies and thy shall swathe im with swathings in Anu He hath led heaven captive and he hath seized the earth in his grasp Neither the heavens nor the earth can be taken away from him for behold he is Ra the firstborn of the gods His mother shall nurse him and shall give him her breast on the horizon Rubric The words of this Chapter shall be said after the deceased is laid to rest in Amentet by means of them the region Tenn t shall be contented with her lord And the Osiris the royal scribe Nekhtu Amen whose word is truth shall come forth and he shall embark in the Boat of Ra and his body upon its bier shall be counted up and he shall be established in the Tuat Giving A Mouth To Ani The Chapter of giving a mouth to the Osiris Ani the scribe and teller of the offerings which are made to all the gods whose word is true who saith I rise up out of the Egg in the Hidden Land May my mouth be given unto me that I may speak therewith in the presence of the Great God the Lord of the Tuat Let not my hand and my arm be repulsed in the presence of

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/Book%20of%20the%20Dead.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Egypt Ancient, Osiris and The history of Abydos
    while the civil calendar would move through the seasons because the civil year was about one fourth day shorter than the solar year Hence every four years it would fall behind the solar year by one day and after 1 460 years it would again agree with the lunisolar calendar Such a period of time is called a Sothic cycle Because of the discrepancy between these two calendars the Egyptians established a second lunar calendar based upon the civil year and not as the older one had been upon the sighting of Sirius It was schematic and artificial and its purpose was to determine religious celebrations and duties In order to keep it in general agreement with the civil year a month was intercalated every time the first day of the lunar year came before the first day of the civil year later a 25 year cycle of intercalation was introduced The original lunar calendar however was not abandoned but was retained primarily for agriculture because of its agreement with the seasons Thus the ancient Egyptians operated with three calendars each for a different purpose The only unit of time that was larger than a year was the reign of a king The usual custom of dating by reign was year 1 2 3 etc of King So and So and with each new king the counting reverted back to year One King lists recorded consecutive rulers and the total years of their respective reigns The civil year was divided into three seasons commonly translated Inundation when the Nile overflowed the agricultural land Going Forth the time of planting when the Nile returned to its bed and Deficiency the time of low water and harvest The months of the civil calendar were numbered according to their respective seasons and were

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/egyptian_calendar.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Egypt Ancient, Osiris and The history of Abydos
    her as most Romans did with rancor Caesar s assassination put an end to Cleopatra s first campaign for power and she retired to Egypt to await the outcome of the next round in the Roman political struggle When at the Battle of Philippi in 42 Caesar s assassins were routed Mark Antony became the heir apparent of Caesar s authority or so it seemed for his great nephew and personal heir Octavian was but a sickly boy When Antony bent on pursuing the eternal mirage of Roman rulers an invasion of Persia sent for Cleopatra she was delighted Here was a second chance of achieving her aim She had known Antony when he had been in Egypt as a young staff officer and she had been 14 She was now 28 or 29 and completely confident of her powers She set out for Tarsus in Asia Minor loaded with gifts having delayed her departure to heighten Antony s expectation She entered the city by sailing up the Cydnus River in the famous barge that Shakespeare immortalized in Antony and Cleopatra Antony was captivated and Cleopatra subtly exploited his raffish and unstable character Forgetting his wife Fulvia who in Italy was doing her best to maintain her husband s interests against the growing menace of young Octavian Antony put off his Persian campaign and returned as Cleopatra s slave to Alexandria where he treated her not as a protected sovereign but as an independent monarch Her design of attacking Rome by means of Romans as one historian put it was one of such stupendous audacity that we must suppose that she saw no other way Her first effort had been frustrated by Caesar s death she felt now that she could win all by using the far more pliant and apparently equally powerful Antony In Alexandria Cleopatra did all she could to pander to his weaknesses They formed a society of inimitable livers whose members in fact lived a life of debauchery and folly Cleopatra however knew how to handle her catch Yet the final struggle for the dominion of Rome was to last for 10 years and was to end in disaster for Cleopatra no less than for Antony largely promoted by Cleopatra herself In 40 BC Antony left Alexandria to return to Italy where he was forced to conclude a temporary settlement with Octavian whose sister Octavia Fulvia having died he married Three years later Antony was convinced that he and Octavian could never come to terms He went east again and again met Cleopatra he needed her money for his postponed Parthian campaign He then took the fatal step of marrying her The union was not only utterly insulting to Octavia and her brother but in Roman law it was also invalid Henceforward all Rome was united against him Meanwhile during Antony s absence Cleopatra had committed another act of disastrous folly She had antagonized Herod of Judaea by far the ablest richest and most powerful of

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/cleopatra.htm (2016-02-11)
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