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  • Egypt Ancient, Summary of Egyptian Gods
    himself She was the sister and wife of Osiris sister of Set and twin sister of Nephthys She was the mother of Horus the Child Harpocrates and was the protective goddess of Horus s son Imsety protector of the liver of the deceased Isis was responsible for protecting Horus from Set during his infancy for helping Osiris to return to life and for assisting her husband to rule in the land of the Dead Her cult seems to have originally centered like her husband s at Abydos near the Delta in the North Lower Egypt she was adopted into the family of Ra early in Egyptian history by the priests of Heliopolis but from the New Kingdom onwards c 1500 BC her worship no longer had any particular identifiable center and she became more or less universally worshiped as her husband was Khepri The creator god according to early Heliopolitan cosmology assimilated with Atum and Ra The Egyptian root kheper signifies several things according to context most notably the verb to create or to transform and also the word for scarab beetle The scarab or dung beetle was considered symbolic of the sun since it rolled a ball of dung in which it laid its eggs around with it this was considered symbolic of the sun god propelling the sphere of the sun through the sky Khnum Appearing as a ram headed human Khnum was worshipped most at Antinoe and Elephantine He was another creator god represented as fashioning human beings on his pottery wheel His consort was variously Heqet Neith or Sati Khons The third member with his parents Amen and Mut of the great triad of Thebes Khons was the god of the moon The best known story about him tells of him playing the ancient game senet passage against Thoth and wagering a portion of his light Thoth won and because of losing some of his light Khons cannot show his whole glory for the entire month but must wax and wane The main temple in the enclosure at Karnak is dedicated to him Maat Considered the wife of Thoth and the daughter of Ra by various traditions Maat s name implies truth and justice and even cosmic order but there is no clear English equivalent She is an anthropomorphic personification of the concept maat and as such has little mythology Maat was represented as a tall woman with an ostrich feather the glyph for her name in her hair She was present at the judgement of the dead her feather was balanced against the heart of the deceased to determine whether he had led a pure and honest life Mentu variant spellings Month Men Thu The principal god of Thebes before the rise of the Amen cult appeared as a falcon headed man and often united with Horus Primarily a war god Min variant spellings Menu Amsu A form of Amen depicted holding a flail thought to represent a thunderbolt in Egyptian art and with an erect penis his full name was often given as Menu ka mut f Min Bull of his Mother Min was worshiped as the god of virility lettuces were offered as sacrifice to him and then eaten in hopes of procuring manhood and he was later worshiped as the husband of the goddess Qetesh goddess of love and femininity Mut The wife of Amen in Theban tradition the word mut in Egyptian means mother and she was the mother of Khonsu the moon god Nefertum The youthful son of Ptah and Sekhmet connected with the rising sun depicted as a youth crowned with or seated upon a lotus blossom Neith variant spellings Net Neit A very ancient goddess of war worshiped in the Delta revered as a goddess of wisdom identified with Athena by the Greeks in later traditions the sister of Isis Nephthys and Selket and protectress of Duamutef the god of the stomach of the deceased Mother of the crocodile god Sobek Nekhbet Upper Egyptian patron goddess represented as a vulture in iconography and often part of the crown of the pharaoh along with her Lower Egyptian counterpart Edjo Nephthys Greek version of Egyptian Nebt het Lady of the House the youngest child of Geb and Nut The sister and wife of Set and sister of Isis and Osiris also the mother variantly by Set or by Osiris of Anubis She abandoned Set when he killed Osiris and assisted Isis in the care of Horus and the resurrection of Osiris She was along with her sister considered the special protectress of the dead and she was the guardian of Hapi the protector of the lungs of the deceased Nut variant spelling Nuit The goddess of the sky daughter of Shu and Tefnut sister and wife of Geb mother of Osiris Set Isis and Nephthys Nut was generally depicted as a woman with blue skin and her body covered with stars standing on all fours leaning over her husband representing the sky arched over the earth Aleister Crowley the English occultist connected her with Hadit This has no basis in Egyptology save only that Hadit was often depicted underneath Nut one finds Nut forming the upper frame of a scene and the winged disk Hadit floating beneath silently as always This is an artistic convention and there was no marriage between the two in Egyptian myth Osiris Greek version of Egyptian Asar variant Ausar The god of the dead and the god of the resurrection into eternal life ruler protector and judge of the deceased and his prototype where in English we use the euphemism the deceased or the late Egyptians referred to the Osiris His cult originated in Abydos where his actual tomb was said to be located Osiris was the first child of Nut and Geb thus the brother of Set Nephthys and Isis who was also his wife By Isis he fathered Horus and according to some stories Nephthys assumed the form of Isis seduced him thus

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/summary_of_egyptian_gods.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Egypt Ancient, Significance of seasonal renewal in ancient Egypt
    Osiris the god of the afterlife the world of the dead was believed to be embodied in the recently deceased pharaoh who passed on his sacred powers and position to the new pharaoh his son At the sd festival the new pharaoh as the son of Horus and of Re as well as of Osiris was invested with both kingly and priestly powers At his coronation festival the pharaoh was believed to gain the power to restore ma at after the death of the previous pharaoh and also to restore economic prosperity During the royal festivals i e ascension to the throne the coronation and the sd festival feasting presumably occurred Festivals associated with seasonal renewal however involved sacrifices eating drinking and sometimes dramatic or carnival like events Some scholars hold that the Egyptian terms for festival however contain concepts that became extremely significant in later Hellenistic Greco Roman religions e g the mystery or salvatory religions such as those of Mithra Isis and the Eleusinian mysteries and Semitic based religions e g Judaism Christianity and Islam According to this view Egyptian terms for festival such as hb h and pr t all contain concepts of resurrection and epiphany i e the manifestation of a god In Eastern Orthodox Christianity for example the festival of the Epiphany January 6 celebrates Christ s manifestation to the Magi of the East presumably followers of Zoroaster a 6th century BC Iranian prophet and his Baptism in the Jordan River The usual Greek designation for Epiphany is the day of the light he hemera tou photou in reference to the words in the Bible in John 1 4 that Jesus is the light of men Under the influence of the Christian Catechetical school at Alexandria led by Clement and Origin in the 2nd and

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/significance_of_seasonal_renewal.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Egypt Ancient, CHAMPOLLION, Jean-Francois(1790-1832) and the Rosetta Stone
    to be read and the French linguist Jean Francois Champollion who worked on the stone in 1821 and 1822 Their work enabled scholars to understand all forms of Egyptian hieroglyphics The Rosetta stone is an irregularly shaped stone of black basalt that was found near the town of Rashid or Rosetta Egypt in 1799 It bears inscriptions in the two ancient languages of Greek and Egyptian Jean Francois Champollion used this stone to figure out for the first time the meaning of Egyptian hieroglyphics In addition to his role in translating this ancient picture language he was the founder of scientific Egyptology and a brilliant historian and linguist Champollion was born in Figeac France on Dec 23 1790 By the age of 16 he had mastered six ancient Middle Eastern languages as well as Latin and Greek When only 19 he was named professor of history at the Lyceum of Grenoble His constant preoccupation became the deciphering of hieroglyphics He succeeded at this difficult task because the Rosetta stone is inscribed with known Greek equivalents of the ancient Egyptian writing He published his first papers on hieroglyphics in 1821 and 1822 and established a list of the signs and their Greek translations In 1826 Champollion became director of the Egyptian collection at the Louvre museum in Paris and two years later he conducted an archaeological expedition to Egypt In 1831 he was given the professorship of Egyptian antiquities which had been created especially for him at the College of France His published works included an Egyptian grammar and dictionary the Primer of the Hieroglyphic System and a book entitled Egyptian Pantheon 1822 Rosetta Stone deciphered Visitors to the British Museum in London can inspect a piece of black basalt measuring 45 inches 114 centimeters by 28 5 inches 72 centimeters

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/champollion.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Egypt Ancient, Thutmose I and Thutmose II
    Queen while Thutmose III was King There is thus a certain ambiguity in the treatment of Hatshepsut as king Her temple reliefs depict pacific enterprises such as the transporting of obelisks for Amon s temple and a commercial expedition to Punt her art style looked back to Middle Kingdom ideals Some warlike scenes are depicted however and she may have waged a campaign in Nubia In one inscription she blamed the Hyksos for the supposedly poor state of the land before her rule even though they had been expelled from the region more than a generation earlier During Hatshepsut s ascendancy Egypt s position in Asia deteriorated because of the expansion of Mitannian power in Syria Shortly after her death the Prince of Kadesh a Syrian city stood with troops of 330 princes of a Syro Palestinian coalition at Megiddo such a force was more than merely defensive and the intention may have been to advance against Egypt The 330 must have represented all the places of any size in the region that were not subject to Egyptian rule and may be a schematic figure derived from a list of place names It is noteworthy that Mitanni itself was not directly involved Thutmose III proceeded to Gaza with his army and then to Yehem subjugating rebellious Palestinian towns along the way His annals relate how at a consultation concerning the best route over the Mount Carmel ridge the King overruled his officers and selected a shorter but more dangerous route through the Arunah Pass and then led the troops himself The march went smoothly and when the Egyptians attacked at dawn they prevailed over the enemy troops and besieged Megiddo Thutmose III meanwhile coordinated the landing of other army divisions on the Syro Palestinian littoral whence they proceeded inland so that the strategy resembled a pincer technique The siege ended in a treaty by which Syrian princes swore an oath of submission to the King As was normal in ancient diplomacy and in Egyptian practice the oath was binding only upon those who swore it not upon future generations By the end of the first campaign Egyptian domination extended northward to a line linking Byblos and Damascus Although the Prince of Kadesh remained to be vanquished Assyria sent lapis lazuli as tribute Asiatic princes surrendered their weapons including a large number of horses and chariots Thutmose III took only a limited number of captives He appointed Asiatic princes to govern the towns and took their brothers and sons to Egypt where they were educated at the court Most eventually returned home to serve as loyal vassals though some remained in Egypt at court In order to ensure the loyalty of Asiatic city states Egypt maintained garrisons that could quell insurrection and supervise the delivery of tribute There never was an elaborate Egyptian imperial administration in Asia Thutmose III conducted numerous subsequent campaigns in Asia The submission of Kadesh was finally achieved but Thutmose III s ultimate aim was the defeat

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/thutmose_i_and_thutmose_ii.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Egypt Ancient, Thutmose III
    about 10 at the time and was betrothed to the heiress his half sister Neferure Neferure s mother Hatshepsut the daughter of Thutmose I and wife and sister of Thutmose II acted as regent In the second year of his reign this strong minded and ambitious woman herself assumed the attributes dress and insignia of a king and to all intents and purposes reigned in his stead As one of her courtiers says she directed the affairs of the whole land according to her wishes Still Thutmose was given an education befitting his royal station He was taught all military skills especially archery which he demonstrated in public display and horsemanship in which he showed considerable prowess He was later to boast that none among his followers could equal him in physical strength and in marksmanship As he grew up Thutmose may even have been entrusted with command of the army on campaign in Nubia whether he also fought in Palestine is doubtful His grandfather Thutmose I had penetrated into northern Syria Thutmose II though far from a weakling had not followed this success and Hatshepsut as a woman may have been unwilling to send an army into the field

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/thutmose_iii.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Etruscans, Part Two: Organization
    by many to be the ancient Volsinii As for the Twelve Peoples no firm list of these has survived indeed they seem to have varied through the years but they are likely to have come from the following major sites Caere Tarquinii Vulci Rusellae Vetulonia Populonia all near the coast and Veii Volsinii Clusium Perusia Perugia Cortona Arretium Arezzo Faesulae Fiesole and Volaterrae Volterra all inland There also are reports of corresponding Etruscan leagues in Campania and in northern Italy but it is far more difficult to generate a list of Etruscan colonies or Etruscanized cities that would be likely candidates for these The names of some magistracies both in the league and in individual cities such as lauchme zilath maru and purth are known though there is little certainty as to their precise duties Lauchme Latin lucumo was the Etruscan word for king The title of zilath rasnal translated into Latin as praetor Etruriae and meaning something like the justice of Etruria was evidently applied to the individual who presided over the league The men holding such magistracies belonged to the aristocracy which derived its status from the continuity of the family Onomastic formulas show that persons of free birth normally had two names First came an individual name or praenomen relatively few of these are known for men Larth Avle Arnth and Vel were frequent for women Larthia Thanchvil Ramtha and Thana it was followed by a family name or nomen derived from a personal name or perhaps the name of a god or a place This system was in use by the second half of the 7th century replacing the use of a single name as in Romulus and Remus and reflecting the new complexity of relationships developing with urbanization The Etruscans rarely used the cognomen family

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/etruscanorganization.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Etruscans, Part Three, Geography
    by the Tiber River This area corresponds to a large part of modern Tuscany as well as to sections of Latium and Umbria The chief natural resources of the region undoubtedly playing a crucial role in Etruscan commerce and urban development were the rich deposits of metal ores found in both northern and southern Etruria In the south in the maritime territory stretching between the first great Etruscan cities Tarquinii and Caere modern Cerveteri the low lying Tolfa Mountains provided copper iron and tin These minerals also were found inland at Mount Amiata the highest mountain in Etruria in the vicinity of the city of Clusium modern Chiusi But the most productive area turned out to be in northern Etruria in the range known as the Catena Metallifera Metal Bearing Chain from which copper and especially iron were mined in enormous amounts The city of Populonia located on the coast played a leading role in this industry as did the adjacent island of Elba evidently renowned from an early date for the wealth of its deposits The forests of Etruria constituted another major natural resource providing abundant firewood for metallurgical operations as well as timber for the building of ships

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/etruscangeography.htm (2016-02-11)
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  • Etruscans, Part Four: Historical Periods
    the Etruscans were present in Italy before this time and that the prehistoric Iron Age culture called Villanovan 9th 8th century BC is actually an early phase of Etruscan civilization Inasmuch as no Etruscan literary works have survived the chronology of Etruscan history and civilization has been constructed on the basis of evidence both archaeological and literary from the better known civilizations of Greece and Rome as well as from those of Egypt and the Middle East Contact with Greece began around the time that the first Greek colony in Italy was founded c 775 750 BC when Greeks from the island of Euboea settled at Pithekoussai in the Bay of Naples Thereafter numerous Greek and Middle Eastern objects were imported into Etruria and these items together with Etruscan artifacts and works of art displaying Greek or Oriental influence have been used to generate relatively precise dates along with more general ones In fact the basic nomenclature for the historical periods in Etruria is borrowed from corresponding periods in Greece the assigned dates are usually though perhaps erroneously conceived of as being slightly later than their Greek counterparts to allow for cultural time lag Thus the Etruscan Orientalizing period belongs

    Original URL path: http://history-world.org/etruscanhistorical_periods.htm (2016-02-11)
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