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  • two women with whom I was talking a greater understanding of the attitude of our young people than one usually discovers in the older generation Our great writers and those of us of lesser degree have told youth how horrible and futile war is Honest people whether they are artists or just ordinary individuals must tell the truth as they see it and there are few of us today who believe that war is an instrument for good We know that it calls out in human beings fine qualities but so does any event requiring great self sacrifice November 12 1941 The gift of the fiction writer is to paint in words that heart of another so that for the first time you actually live somebody else s life You know their thoughts and feelings and follow their reasoning a thing often missed in real life October 15 1942 The pleasure of seeing a friend whom you love after a long separation is particularly satisfactory now when all of life seems precarious and the urgency for moments of happiness greater than ever November 21 1942 October 18 1943 November 5 1943 March 16 1959 One of her Gellhorn in her book The Face of War statements I think none of us today should ever forget From the earliest wars of men to our last heart breaking worldwide effort she writes all we could do was kill ourselves Now we are able to kill the future Special thanks to Michèle Midori Fillion for teaching me about Martha Gellhorn and women war reporters The image of Martha Gellhorn and the letter from President Roosevelt were found here on the No Job For a Woman website The photo of Martha Gellhorn is courtesy the John F Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum in Boston MA Thanks to the Franklin D Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum and the National Archives for providing all of the other documents available on this page Thanks to the Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project for publishing the My Day columns online here Mon 09 Nov 2015 22 18 19 GMT http valkill org intern blogs from the archives eleanor roosevelt and the department of the interior Eleanor Roosevelt and the Bureau of Indian Affairs by Julia Jardine Courtesy of the National Archives located at the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum from the correspondence between Oscar L Chapman former Secretary of the Interior and Eleanor Roosevelt former First Lady of the United States and first and former Chair of the United Nations Human Rights Commission As part of my ongoing research on Eleanor Roosevelt s relationship with Native Americans I found this gem of a letter in the National Archives at the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Presidential Library Museum recently Dated January 23 1951 the then Secretary of the Interior Oscar L Chapman and ongoing correspondent with Eleanor Roosevelt wrote to Mrs Roosevelt about her column that was published a month prior Without additional context of this letter it may appear that the language between Eleanor Roosevelt and Oscar L Chapman is friendly casual business However behind Chapman s words I realized there was some tension brewing between the two As most know Eleanor Roosevelt drove a hard bargain and it was one of the many reasons why she was able to get so much done She had a great deal of influence and by 1950 Mrs Roosevelt had certainly known it She was not one to let her husband Franklin Roosevelt or any others carry out any immoral activity In addition when she got involved on a project she almost always saw it through start to finish like a delegate to the UN even before its conception On December 30 1950 Eleanor Roosevelt published one of her daily My Day columns which she often used tactfully as a way to educate the public on social problems and encourage them to get involved In this particular column Eleanor Roosevelt respectfully but also loudly and skillfully criticized the actions of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs Dillon S Myer I am quite sure that the new Commissioner of the Indian Bureau Dillon S Myer whom I knew and admired when he was in charge of the relocation camps during the last war wants to do the best that can be done for the Indians His experience however has not been long with this particular question and he has around him men with whom he has previously worked on other matters It is possible therefore that interested people wanting to achieve personal objectives might present Indian affairs to Commissioner Myer in a somewhat misleading manner In fact certain bills which already have been presented lead one to feel that this may have been so The fact that the Indians have been deprived of their right to choose their own counsel a right which they long enjoyed is a serious infringement on their liberty Eleanor Roosevelt My Day December 30 1950 And so it goes on What she is saying here is that Dillon S Myer can do better and that Native Americans deserve better She blatantly points out that Myer is working with people who have no experience that the Bureau of Indian Affairs work is incompetent non representative and denying representation to Native Americans This is the important part Eleanor Roosevelt was in correspondence with Dillon S Myer for a while and as far as I know they considered each other dear friends So clearly her column was a way of reaching out to him in a way that a simple letter to him would not do Mrs Roosevelt was far wittier She drove a hard bargain She knew that creating national pressure was the least bureaucratic and most effective way for her to influence change And is this really all that surprising Just recently President Obama rejected the Keystone Pipeline For the past year at least online petitions and letters addressed to President Obama have been circulating to pressure him to reject the Pipeline even if it was costly for him or the government to some short term degree In addition Human Rights Watch and most other large scale international human rights organizations are able to function on the very basis that they can reach the public on a large scale educate them on human rights abuses and then shame and pressure the targeted governments into fighting the human rights abuses from the top down Eleanor Roosevelt functioned on the idea that if one reaches out to the masses from a position of power and they listen and agree they are able to take on that individual s power and use it HRW s shaming and pressuring tactics exemplify Mrs Roosevelt s legacy Sure other male and female leaders may have done this before but nobody did it like Eleanor Roosevelt Nobody did it on this scale as a woman in the 1950s with so much influence in the name of checking government for the self determination of a people That made Mrs Roosevelt unique This lady didn t mess around So when I read the above letter to Mrs Roosevelt from Commissioner Dillon S Myer to Mrs Roosevelt while sitting in the Archives I let out an audible chuckle at Eleanor Roosevelt s wit and her clamorous and public criticism of the Department of the Interior And I thought about how carefully he must have constructed this letter because if he stepped on Mrs Roosevelt s toes again the most powerful woman in the world might have more to say about Mr Myer s experience the experience of those he chooses to ally himself with and his level of competence to carry out his job Tue 18 Aug 2015 17 54 14 GMT http valkill org intern blogs 95th anniversary of womens suffrage Happy 95th Anniversary of the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment Photo courtesy The Franklin Delano Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum Photo ID 63 187 5 October 7 1955 Eleanor Roosevelt visiting the Institute of Gerontology in Cold Spring New York Still photograph Original in black and white Women who want to lead must stand up and be shot at More and more they are going to do it and more and more they should do it Eleanor Roosevelt September 11 1943 Australian Women s Weekly 1870 1878 Aug 18 1920 Aug 20 1920 Aug 26 1920 1922 1924 1965 African Americans allowed citizenship Bill passes for women s voting rights All states have finally ratified the 19th Amendment prohibiting discrimination of voting based on sex The 19th Amendment becomes part of the US Constitution The 19th Amendment finally becomes effective after being passed by all 50 states White women can vote in all 50 states across the US Native Americans born in the US granted citizenship African Americans and Native Americans can vote across all 50 US states VRA Today s anniversary is worth celebrating because the Nineteenth Amendment was a tangible catalyst for the coming successful fights for equal citizenship voting rights and representation in America Happy 95th Anniversary of the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution which we so commonly refer to as the Amendment that gave the right to vote to all women in the US to the Amendment which was passed 42 years after the bill was proposed which would would allow most white women to vote 93 years ago which set a precedent for legislation that would allow African Americans and Native American women the right to vote 50 years ago and a precedent for legislation that would allow Filipinos and Indigenous people from India the right to vote 69 years ago and for legislation that would allow US residents of Asian decent citizens 63 years ago and for legislation which would allow the illiterate and ESL citizens to go out of their way to ask for assistance to vote 40 years ago for legislation which would allow adults old enough to enlist in the military the right to vote 44 years ago This week 95 years ago was really important as a milestone but if we re going to celebrate this week 95 years ago we ought to celebrate some of these other milestones for voting and citizenship rights too If you grew up somewhat like me you might know the year 1920 to be a milestone for women receiving voting rights in the US but not 1975 not 1971 not 1965 not 1946 not 1925 not 1922 1920 was a milestone for women s voting rights but it didn t put an Amendment in the Constitution for ALL of women s voting rights Keep that in mind when you re reading your cheery media about today s anniversary and next week when President Obama declares Women s Equality Day 2015 It s fine to celebrate but know for what you are celebrating If Eleanor Roosevelt taught me anything it is this It s not freedom unless it s equal freedom It s not justice unless it s equal justice We tend to think of suffrage as an on off switch Women didn t have the right to vote then women did in 1920 The story is quite different Victoria Bissell Brown historian And in some cases when the vote for women was supported it was supported for other political means Wilson wants women s votes for a number of reasons He wants as much support for the war as he can get half of the American population Ronald Schaffer historian And how people go about making their voices heard can be viewed as more controversial than what they are fighting for Wilson did not think women should be chaining themselves to the White House fence His reaction was not very gentlemanly and not very democratic Victoria Bissell Brown historian Let us celebrate But let us make strides forward with each of our celebrations Human Rights peace foreign diplomacy and policy begin at home In our efforts to win the trust of the uncommitted nations throughout the world we must remember that the treatment of our own citizens has a great deal to do with the confidence they put in us as a world power Eleanor Roosevelt January 23 1959 My Day Rights Come With Responsibilities The riches of a nation are its people but they must have a vision of what they can accomplish or they will fall short of their desired achievement Eleanor Roosevelt July 22 1944 My Day Gladioli August 2015 More Inspirational ER Quotes To Help You Celebrate ER on Feminism There is a great consciousness of feminism only when there are many wrongs to be righted ER December 17 1944 White House press conference ER on Women s One Advantage Over Men Women have one advantage over men Throughout history they have been forced to make adjustments The result is that in most cases it is less difficult for a woman to adapt to new situations than it is for a man ER Circa 1960 You Learn By Living ER on Women s Equality in the Workforce A woman will always have to be better than a man in any job she undertakes ER November 29 1945 My Day ER on Women As Minorities Women find themselves in many cases a minority group and are isolated in just the way that certain nationality and religious groups are ER October 9 1945 My Day ER on Femininity as Strength The thing I wanted to take you to task for is that phrase she has the mind of a man Why can t a woman think be practical a good business woman still have a mind of her own ER May 30 1934 letter to Lorena Hickock ER on Citizenship Our impact on the rest of the world is the sum total of what each of us does as a private citizen ER Circa 1963 Tomorrow is Now We must all of us come to look upon our citizenship as a trustee ship something that we exercise in the interest of the whole people ER February 6 1941 New York Times Further RESOURCES View this fantastic timeline of Women s Rights by Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics A timeline of voting rights in America from 1776 to 1975 by Women of the West Museuem National Women s History Project s Women s Suffrage Brochure and Tool Kit National Archives The Nineteenth Amendment Eleanor Roosevelt and the Women s Movement The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project PBS s Battle For Suffrage article Val Kill July 2015 Quotations by Eleanor Roosevelt come from The Quotable Eleanor Roosevelt edited by Michele Wehrwein Albion Print edition Published by University Press of Florida in Gainesville FL 32611 2079 Copyright 2013 Mon 10 Aug 2015 19 11 03 GMT http valkill org intern blogs eleanor roosevelt native americans Thank you a great deal to the scholar and historian Laurence M Hauptman who inspired this post and supplied most of the historical background for it Albuquerque NM Din é Navajo Different rug designs have different meanings depending on the type and area in which it was made More on these rugs coming soon Did you know that Navajo Diné rugs have no fringe 99 5 of the time often have a side selvage cord to keep a straight edge and usually have a wool warp Eleanor Roosevelt on Native Americans These lands are all these people have and they own them by treaty with the United States government What we do for our Indians is watched by people all over the world And the Indians feel quite rightly I believe that our treatment of them is not enhancing the respect for democracy nor the feeling that we try to give all of our people equal freedom in our country and equal justice In our efforts to win the trust of the uncommitted nations throughout the world we must remember that the treatment of our own citizens has a great deal to do with the confidence they put in us as a world power Both in the United Nations and in our contacts with nations outside there is a realization that a great nation must respect small nations and must keep its word Otherwise there is no security for any small nation To many people the problem of our own American Indians may seem very small but it is really a concern of every citizen For these were the first owners of the country in which we now live and they have a right to have the treaties they made with the U S Government respected and carried out with justice E R Eleanor Roosevelt January 23 1959 My Day There are currently 566 Federally recognized Tribal Nations in the United States alone and each of them is very distinct from the next As we refer to the whole of all Native Americans they have been treated with great disrespect from the whole of the United States And as a whole the United States often refers to these peoples as a homogenized name Native Americans or American Indians And there is something to be said about these names we use for our Native Americans With one name about native hood of a land Native Americans and one a historical reference to the mistakes of our colonialist roots American Indians The homogenized names the US has given to our vastly diverse Native Americans ironically exemplifies these tribes shared experience of immense disrespect and tragedy endowed by their namers Most ironically the country that named these culturally and ethnically diverse people with a homogenized name to refer to the whole is the country that is responsible for one of their greatest shared experiences that shared experience being immense disrespect and tragedy to a vast amount of nations However these tribes always have been and are still distinctive from one another each with different governments lands cultures and histories 566 Federally recognized Tribal Nations in the United States alone February 8 1943 Eleanor Roosevelt at the launching of the wooden bardge Pine Tree at Shipbuilding Marine Railways Co in Camden Maine Franklin D Roosevelt Presidential Library Museum In the quote above These lands are all with justice Eleanor Roosevelt was not talking about small ideas And honestly was she ever It may appear so because of how smoothly and plainly she is able to articulate herself When she says democracy equal freedom and equal justice she does not mean equality and justice and freedom she means that every individual should be granted with dignity and rights She means equal to be an adjective to justice and freedom and isn t that a profound and radical thought When she speaks about a great nation and a small nation she means to say that the small nation is just as great as the great nation its size does not make it less significant and value systems cannot be only sprinkled over convenient places if we are to expect progress or mutual respect and peace When she says that the small countries problems are a concern of every one s she is talking about a necessary universal respect for each individual s dignity and humanity Now the Indians in our midst were the original owners of our country and it seems ironical to me to practice discrimination against them Eleanor Roosevelt October 3 1960 My Day It s plain and seems obvious but for some reason it is not easy Like Anne Frank I believe people are genuinely good at heart and I think Eleanor probably did too Even in our blackest moment we have to acknowledge that there is something very fine in human beings Eleanor Roosevelt November 3 1943 My Day She had moments in response to WWII and other times of tragedy where it almost appeared that she lost hope in humanity but at the end of the day her perseverance in communicating with the world about what could and should be done was a sign of hope During those times she knew that uniting a people was the most important thing especially if they were unlikely alliances And her ability to articulate so plainly yet so boldly gives more hope that something as small as thoughtful words can make a huge difference And some of the darker moments arise from miscommunication a lack of language of education of story telling Language is the source of misunderstandings Antoine de Saint Exupéry Eleanor Roosevelt displayed a remarkable sense for the importance of a people s dignity and she believed in the power of unity equal justice equal freedom and she noted that Native Americans too should be receiving their equal justice and freedom For a long time American liberalism and Eleanor Roosevelt included struggled with how to handle and how to even think about what ER called our Native Americans not a pronoun of possession but a pronoun of love and responsibility I have found time and time again scholars notice the moments that ER acted like a mother ER scholars Laurence Hauptman and Brigid O Farrell discuss it in respect to workers rights and the Native Americans Here I don t see the pronoun as a threat of possession but as her challenging the people to take responsibility for their suffering and to offer service and respect But I digress What was the best way to restore their dignity equal justice and freedom For a while assimilation was thought to be the answer by Eleanor Roosevelt included Since FDR s presidency ER worked very hard to restore dignity to Native Americans She felt it her duty to express humility for the country and the more she learned the more she advocated for these peoples in a way that they found most respectful Eleanor Roosevelt was a champion of Human Rights everything she did she did gracefully and yet the question of what to do with Native Americans may be one of the questions she struggled with the most I am grateful to have had the pleasure of learning about this sort of respect from my best friend Kalen who is of the Diné Navajo and the Mandan Hidatsa and Tsimshian tribes It is because of this friend that I began looking into Eleanor Roosevelt s history with the Native American peoples What I found was extraordinarily fascinating and I ll try to share just some of it with you Just from being friends with this brilliant person from sharing conversations and from asking questions I have learned so much He is currently working on a multi year long long photo journalist project in Fort Berthold ND studying the affects of the oil boom on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation home of the Mandan Hidatsa and Arikara nations The Three Affiliated Tribes You can read the national award winning article here and read more about him and view his photography here As you know The Partnership is currently working on programming and an exhibit called Contemporary Voices which you can learn more about here and so I have been thinking a lot about the people around me who are FollowingInHerFootsteps and Kalen a huge inspiration has been like ER in his passionate and intimate advocacy and outreach and in some ways as a teacher for me too The story of Eleanor Roosevelt s relationship with the Native Americans is a story of changing heart and internal growth that expressed itself also on the changing world s attitudes Eleanor Roosevelt is a person with very few shortcomings and it only becomes harder to criticize her the more you learn of all she was able to do in a normal human life span As you know Eleanor Roosevelt was bold but also interested in hearing from other people One of my favorite quotes about ER is featured in Brigid O Farrel s book She Was One of Us Mrs Roosevelt asked many questions but she was particularly interested in why I thought women should join unions Rose Schneiderman All for One 1967 Whenever we would talk about human rights atrocities that even well intending Human Rights organizations could cause I would begin to lose faith I remember one time I expressed my cynicism about this to Kalen and he said to me you still have to try you have to do your best and most importantly you have to be mindful of the people you are acting for He was the first person to really teach me cynicism is not allowed and atrocities can be avoided by making positive relationships and just getting to know the people you wish to help That is the first step to solving the Savior Complex manifesting in Human Rights outreach Relationships The story of Eleanor Roosevelt s relationship with the Native American peoples is a story of how bettering relationships between two groups of people can change the course of history A Timeline of Some Things I Learned With huge thanks to Laurence M Hauptman Maurine H Beasley Holly C Shulman and Henry R Beasley and The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project 1936 In September 1936 ER became an honorary member of the Tonawanda Indian Reservation Community Building Association 1945 Perhaps when a baby is born on our soil or when an individual becomes naturalized he ought to be given the opportunity if he desires it to change his foreign name to its American equivalent What is wrong about changing Lowenstein to Livingston Rabinowitz to Robinson or any of these comparatively foreign names to simpler versions We should welcome and honor people willing to take this step toward Americanization It may prove to be a most important factor in bringing about a more unified American people Eleanor Roosevelt July 14 1945 Liberty 1947 From ER s My Day column in September 1947 I learned that Eleanor advocated for increased land education working rights health conditions and infrastructure for Navajos She praised and wished to educate the people about how dedicated Navajo peoples were to the country in WWII 3 400 Navajos were in World War II and 15 000 were engaged in war work Their bond purchases and involvement in Red Cross affairs were massive especially considering their low incomes comparable to the avg American 1948 ER on American Coercion of the Indians There is a constant effort going on to transfer Indian property to whites and one of the most successful ways in the past has been to disrupt the Indian social system Between 1887 and 1933 through land allotment we transferred 90 million acres of the best Indian land to whites This was largely done by the method of persuading or compelling the individualization of tribal properties ER October 5 1948 My Day 1949 From ER s My Day column in October 1949 I learned that Eleanor urged Pres Truman to veto a bill and the American people to not be indifferent to the way our Indians are treated The bill would have put the Navajo and Hopi lands more directly under Arizona state law 1950 ER tells the public WE RE NOT FINISHED Had we done a really good job it seems to me that our Indians today would be educated there would be no need of reservations they would be fully capable of taking their places as citizens and the tribes would have full compensation for lands they owned Our inability to work out this small problem satisfactorily and fairly is one of the real blots on our history ER August 25 1950 My Day What I can infer from this quote based on my reading of Laurence M Hauptman s piece is that this is how ER came to see America s failures concerning the Native Americans up to this point However later she would see the main failures of America in a new light Here at this time she saw the failure as being about how the country handles dependent peoples Later in the 50s and 60s she saw the failure as being about how the country respected independent peoples 1956 From ER s My Day column in January 1956 I read two poems that Eleanor Roosevelt left in her My Day column by one of her Navajo correspondents from Albuquerque New Mexico You can view those poems here 1958 In the late fifties ER s attitudes shifted and she became more interested in self determination began advocating for treaty rights promoting native peoples independent growth alongside and with the nation of the United States She said that the American people knew too little about what the Native Americans were facing Hauptman 10 In April 1958 she took up the issue of the Tuscarora and Mohawk Indians in My Day she demanded that they be fully compensated or given the equivalent amount of land of equal value somewhere else if they desired Things happen to the government s wards the Indians because most of us are not aware of what is being done to them ER April 1958 My Day In late June 1958 the UN finally had brought Navajos in to represent the Native Americans 1961 In June 1961 when the world was preoccupied with The Cold War Eleanor Roosevelt made a point to remind the public the importance of practicing what you preach Her My Day article drew attention to the proposed legislation that would remove 800 persons from their land and the land under water These people were of the Seneca tribe located in Pennsylvania and NYS She said to the public about this event When we fail to face up to a moral problem we not only harm ourselves at home but place us in a bad light all over the world 1962 Eleanor Roosevelt passed away a year and five months later Post Script I remember the cold winter months when I stumbled upon Laurence M Hauptman s Eleanor Roosevelt and the American Indian The Iroquois as a Case Study I remember being mad at ER for the first time ever because she too was human and couldn t fix all suffering I remember telling Kalen that she wasn t perfect as I read excerpts of Hauptman s piece to him and told him all about how I thought she could have done even more for native peoples and maybe she should have done lots of it differently and I remember him reassuring me that nobody could be perfect in any period and that what matters is the people that we know the relationships that we make and that we grow as individuals and as a people That we are accepting of others that we apologize for what we and our predecessors have done and that we show humility love and respect This ER could do This ER advocated for frequently So why in the world did I get upset that ER didn t do something I wish she had done like re focus her advocacy efforts concerning Native American peoples Why did I lose her as a superhero figure for even a moment when she has done SO MUCH GOOD and even though she didn t do everything right she still helped strong voices be heard that hadn t been beforehand I have come to realize that I was afraid that amazingly well intended actions could sometimes not be the right actions That you could be 99 perfect and that 1 still left out certain people and voices from the equation And for a moment it made me feel stuck scared threatened The point is nobody is perfect And we hear the words don t worry nobody is perfect all the time as a thing that should make us feel better about our failures But in reality maybe the saying isn t useful anymore There are greater and higher reasons to understand and believe that perfection is not reachable beyond self confidence for self confidence s sake Because striving for perfection is not even useful We need things to strive for and to learn from at the same time and that is the point of looking back at history but holding onto the idea of perfection is counter preservation and counter innovation Being both critical and being forgiving are fundamental That is what ER s relationship with the Native Americans has helped me come to better understand What I have learned from this research is also in part what I want this organization and other preservation and innovation organizations to be able to help others in advocacy to learn ER is an icon and always will be now I ll probably have many days where I say she is perfect and many of us find ourselves so in love with her that we can easily get defensive about her But in these moments of absolute admiration there is always room to look humility and humanity in the face for the sake of today and tomorrow after all what s the difference between today and tomorrow for a Roosevelt fan We can only learn and innovate with the full truth in mind and that doesn t mean Eleanor isn t still the closest thing to perfection that I know It just means her lessons are even more dynamic and valuable There is so much to learn from her life her words and her choices Imperfection is something to be thankful for and she is still the closest thing I know to this bizzare concept I can t shake of perfection Imperfection not only makes us feel better but puts us back into reality so we can strive for higher I challenge everyone who has read this far to learn about ER and identify the people today in your life who are like ER and then to strive for higher than ER Since ER s first columns about native peoples I can see that the country thinks differently and we may call this growth And as I look back at how she grew and changed her attitudes and politics I realized all the while she was acting to give other people the power to have a voice There is always something to be done even when all of America is unsure or in fear there is always something that can be done Eleanor Roosevelt proactively put herself into a position of power and she used that position of power to bring others into power who could do good She wasn t born in power it wasn t handed to her like I used to think it was There was nobody like Eleanor before or after her She educated and informed the public Not for nothing because she genuinely believed democracy only works with a well educated public If she were here today I would have absolutely no doubt that Eleanor would be far ahead of the curve and persistently advocating for the self determination of and the equality and justice for the 566 Federally recognized tribes we share this country with so that America a greater country may have allies with the smaller countries And ER if anyone always knew equality and justice for all is not a charity for the underdogs it s about mutual respect human rights and dignity for all people There is still a large amount of inequality for the native peoples of American higher suicide rates many are under the poverty lines governmental representation and higher education can be hard to come by and there is a huge amount of stereotyping of their cultures that homogenizes the diverse peoples cultures histories and value systems with complicated long term negative effects However strides are being made today For example recently a legal battle was fought and won advancing strides against the homogenization and hate speech of native peoples The Washington Football Team has been renamed from what you likely knew it to be the Washington Redskins Lots of native news media rejected to print the word redskin in protest of its commercial use

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