archive-org.com » ORG » I » IDEBATE.ORG

Total: 108

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • Homework is a waste of time. (Junior) | idebate.org
    The teacher needs to design the homework explain it mark each piece individually and tell everyone what they got right and wrong If all this is not done then the homework loses its value as we need to be told individually what our mistakes are to be able to learn from homework Teachers could as easily use the classwork to find out who knows what they are doing and who are making mistakes and it would save them time Improve this Counterpoint Teachers will need to mark and go through work whether it is classwork or homework It is better that the teacher should spend their time in class teaching so leaving practising the methods taught to homework Improve this Appendix Questions to think about and discuss How much effort do you think goes into creating and marking your homework Homework puts students off learning Point Especially if we get too much homework it can take the enjoyment out of learning No matter how engaging the teacher is in class homework will almost certainly be stressful boring and tiring It is simply much harder to make homework engaging and interesting as it is often done on our own We know that there is no direct link between how much homework is set and grades Studies done on this come to different conclusions so teachers should only set homework when they are sure it is needed When we only get homework occasionally we will consider that piece more important and a better use of time Improve this Counterpoint Whether homework puts us off learning will always depend on what the homework we are given is Tasks that involve no interaction or are not engaging will discourage learning But homework could also mean reading an interesting book having to find something out create something or doing a task with family Homework can be as varied as classwork and just as interesting Improve this Appendix Questions to think about and discuss Do you find homework more boring than classwork What could be done to make you like homework Homework teaches us to learn on our own Point The main aim of education is to prepare us for the rest of lives Homework is teaching us a key skill that we will need in the future When we do homework we are learning to work on our own the discipline to get the work done without the teacher s prompting and when we come up against difficulties we learn how to overcome them without our teacher s help Millions of people work for themselves self employed or work from home they are using exactly the same skills doing homework teaches us This is not a waste of time Improve this Counterpoint Most homework is simply fulfilling a task that has already been explained so not truly teaching you to work on your own Working on your own means setting your own targets and working out how to overcome obstacles Improve this Appendix Questions to

    Original URL path: http://oas.idebate.org/debatabase/debates/education/homework-waste-time-junior (2016-02-14)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Kill One to Save Many (Junior) | idebate.org
    Improve this Counterpoint We do not always choose the most rational course of action If we do not know anything about who we are in the situation we still know that if the one person is killed then their life has been unfairly ended If the five people die then we know that this is an accident Therefore we might still choose to allow the five people to die This is because we can still decide the right or wrong of the situation and choose not to make the decision based on self interest Improve this Killing is worse than letting someone die Point People die in accidents and by natural cause all of the time However it is much rarer for a person to be actively involved in another person s death If one chooses to pull the lever and change the course of the train then one is actively participating in the death of the one person The other option involves no action it simply allows a set of events to run their course There is therefore a greater responsibility involved in being actively involved in the death of another Improve this Counterpoint Choosing not to act in the situation is still a choice and does not remove the responsibility in the situation If someone stands by and watched as another person drowns even though they could have rescued them then they are no better than the murderer who participates in a person s death The idea that active killing only relates to taking action to cause death is wrong When one has the ability to prevent death then one is actively involved in the situation whether one chooses to accept it or not Improve this We cannot make any judgments about whose life is valuable and whose is not Point It is impossible to know what any of the people involved in the situation will do with their life One might be a serial killer while another might be a life saving doctor By attempting to use some sort of calculation in the scenario we are presuming that we have more knowledge than we actually do In reality we are totally ignorant to the right course of action and doing anything in the situation could be a terrible mistake that causes a lot of pain and suffering in the future Improve this Counterpoint Given that we don t know anything about these individuals all we have to work with are the numbers If you take five random people and one random person then there is a greater chance that among the five people there is a life saving doctor The only time this is not true is if the average person has a negative effect on the world However if this is the case we would always have to act in a way that fewest people survived which is absurd Improve this We instinctively know killing is wrong Point While sometimes our feelings as to what is

    Original URL path: http://oas.idebate.org/debatabase/debates/philosophy/kill-one-save-many-junior (2016-02-14)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Obama vs. Romney: Does campaign finance in the United States need to be fixed? | idebate.org
    by legally sanctioned anonymity would likely demoralize voters and funnel candidates priorities towards courting big business at great cost to the average American citizen during and after the election While it may be a stretch to assert that Citizens United granted corporations personhood the impacts of the ruling are far reaching for campaign finance law Even small corporations have disproportionate spending power compared to individuals Oftentimes decisions in corporations are made by boards of executives and not aggregates of working class citizens exacerbating the influence of those who already wield greater financial and political capital If money is indeed speech then corporations speak much much louder than individuals from the outset Some contend that the voices of unions which are similarly protected under the same ruling lend a degree of partisan balance implicitly acknowledging that the divide is indeed tinged with partisanship but realistically even the largest union contributions pale in comparison to those of Fortune 500 companies 2 Distortion in the marketplace of ideas increases reliance on negative campaigning which hurts voter turnout and morale while usually detracting from substantive dialogue about policy issues It also raises the barriers of entry for third party candidates and more moderate candidates during elections and primaries more deeply entrenching the two party system 3 1 McIntire Mike and Confessore Nicholas Tax Exempt Groups Shield Political Gifts of Businesses The New York Times 7 July 2012 2 Pilkington Ed Obama wants to see Citizens United Supreme court ruling overturned Guardian co uk 29 August 2012 3 United States Supreme Court Citizens United vs Federal Electoral Commission October 2009 Improve this Counterpoint Corporate entities have the right to be anonymous if they choose American elections have to reach an extremely large and spread out audience and this requires large amounts of funding which is provided by corporations and individuals There simply shouldn t be parity with corporations and individuals because they are not the same thing it is like comparing apples to beef you can eat both of them but they are nothing alike Corporations can represent thousands of people that they employ or are their shareholders They are speaking on behalf of their organisation not as individuals They are supporting candidates that they believe will help their business so they are speaking for those who wish to keep their jobs at the company It is however wrong to assert that citizens united is just about corporations it is about all groups and therefore about individuals The Supreme Court in this case recognised that limiting political spending limits speech by limiting citizens ability to deliver their view In practice the best way for individual citizens to deliver their views is to create groups with other like minded individuals Quite the contrary to what democrats may believe this is also necessary for third party candidates such as Ross Perot who would get nowhere without large scale contributions because they have at least initially a narrow base of support 1 1 Smith Bradley A The Myth of Campaign Finance Reform in Boatright Robert G ed Campaign Finance pp 46 62 p 57 58 Improve this Obama has already attempted to increase transparency Point Disclosure laws are intended to bring transparency to the electoral process By scrutinizing the sources of campaign funds voters can gain insight into how candidates intend to appoint justices and pass laws while in office Obama s attempt at transparency the DISCLOSE Act has so far failed to gather a majority of votes in Congress in 2010 1 but it shows how Obama would like to proceed This kind of transparency is necessary today because during the 2010 midterms the groups that don t need to disclose contributions outspent the PACs that must disclose donors by 3 to 2 spending 100million on issue ads 2 Without strict disclosure rules the legislative agendas of elected officials become more opaque and the public has fewer ways to hold them accountable Voters would be forced to rely on the goodwill of their elected officials to voluntarily disclose the sources of funding a system which generates negative incentives to bury the information that is perhaps most critical and relevant to the public interest 1 DISCLOSE Act New Donor Transparency Law Blocked in Senate The Washington Post 16 July 2012 2 McIntire Mike and Confessore Nicholas Tax Exempt Groups Shield Political Gifts of Businesses The New York Times 7 July 2012 Improve this Counterpoint Opponents have expressed other problems with the language of the DISCLOSE Act including seemingly arbitrary exemptions for large and long standing organizations criteria which capture most labor unions This makes the DISCLOSE act like any other campaign finance reform essentially it is party political benefiting aimed at the Republicans by the Democrats who passed it who have exempted those in their own camp who might be affected 1 It is designed to benefit the party that passed it rather than really increase transparency 1 Smith Bradley A The Myth of Campaign Finance Reform in Boatright Robert G ed Campaign Finance pp 46 62 p 53 Improve this There needs to be reform to campaign finance law Point Republican presidential nominee Mitt Romney has supported campaign finance law reform Most of Romney s recent comments on reform have been in regard to laws governing spending during primaries as opposed to general elections Primary campaign funds are earmarked as such and forbidden for use in general election campaigns until after the Republican National Convention so the Republican nominee is at a disadvantage against the Democratic candidate if the convention nomination outcome is evident before August 27 Over the years Romney has advocated various stances on spending limits in 1994 he supported capping congressional spending but in 2007 he disparaged McCain Feingold warning We step into dangerous territory when politicians start eviscerating our fundamental freedoms in the name of amorphous principles like campaign finance reform If I am elected President a top priority will be to push for the repeal of this deeply flawed measure and restore

    Original URL path: http://oas.idebate.org/debatabase/debates/politics/obama-vs-romney-does-campaign-finance-united-states-need-fixed (2016-02-14)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Obama vs. Romney: Should the U.S. Government continue to spend at current levels even if it means raising taxes | idebate.org
    and stimulate the economy 5 As the 2012 presidential election approaches President Obama s long term focus has been primarily on decreasing the federal debt estimated at about 15 trillion Specifically Obama s plan detailed on his website targets tax loopholes for households with annual incomes over 250 000 via efforts such as the Buffet Rule while simultaneously reducing taxes for middle class families and small business owners 6 In September President Obama revealed a plan to reduce the deficit by about 3 2 trillion in the next ten years 7 This will be achieved through an increase in taxation of the nation s wealthiest and cuts in spending to the armed forces as Obama plans to end American involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan 1 Centre on Budget and Policy Priorities A Guide to Statistics on Historical Trends in Income Inequality March 5 2012 http www cbpp org cms index cfm fa view id 3629 2 Nocera Joe Romney and the Forbes 400 The New York Times September 24 2012 http www nytimes com 2012 09 25 opinion nocera romney and the forbes 400 html r 1 3 Tax Policy Centre http www taxpolicycenter org taxfacts displayafact cfm Docid 213 accessed 8 10 2012 4 The White House http www whitehouse gov economy buffett rule accessed 8 10 2012 5 Politifact Barack Obama said he s cut taxes for middle class families small businesses http www politifact com truth o meter statements 2012 sep 07 barack obama barack obama said hes cut taxes middle class famil accessed 8 10 2012 6 Barack Obama Website http www barackobama com taxes source primary nav accessed 8 10 2012 7 The White House http www whitehouse gov omb budget accessed 8 10 2012 Improve this Counterpoint Raising taxes for individuals with income over 250 000 will have a hugely detrimental outcome This is because a huge number of small businesses are legally taxed as individuals Raising taxes may be manageable for wealthy individuals but small firms will be crushed by such huge tax increases proposed by Obama The effects of this will be hard felt across the country since small firms employ half of all private sector employees in the USA 1 These small companies will see their investing and spending power vastly reduced and will lead to thousands of redundancies that will ensure the American economy remains stagnant Low taxes are the key to economic growth not high taxes and government spending 1 US Small Business Administration FAQs http web sba gov faqs faqIndexAll cfm areaid 24 accessed 8 10 2012 Improve this A minimalist state enables a fairer and more competitive economy Point Romney believes the best way to improve society is not to spend huge amounts of taxpayer dollars on inefficient government programs but rather to tax citizens less and allow free market innovation to improve the quality of life in America Low taxes are necessary to stimulate innovation and the growth of business because people and businesses are self interested they will only invest when they believe they will get the profits from their investment and lowering taxes mean that they will get more of the profit from their investment 1 At the same time government is a poor manager of the economy because small numbers of people cannot calculate all the effects of central planning and the impact it will have on individuals choices essentially the market is simply too complex for the government to master so the best option is to reduce government interference as much as possible 2 For this reason Romney s policy preference of lower taxes is coupled with a proposal to cut spending on a wide range of social programs Romney also outright rejects the idea of redistribution of wealth 3 believing it is unfair to those who have worked hard to build businesses and establish their own well being The protection of private property is central to the American political system and taking from one group of citizens to give to another violates the right of private property 4 In addition to being unfair it is impractical as it creates a disincentive for business people to further increase their wealth by working and investing in businesses that would grow the economy and create more jobs 5 1 Thurow Lester C Profits The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics 2 nd Ed 2008 Library of Economics and Liberty http www econlib org library Enc Profits html 2 Friedrich August Hayek The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics 2 nd ed 2008 Library of Economics and Liberty http www econlib org library Enc bios Hayek html 3 Becker Kyle Mitt Romney We believe in free markets and free people not wealth redistribution Independent Journal Review September 19 2012 http www ijreview com 2012 09 16615 mitt romney free markets and free peoples 4 Dorn James A Ending Tax Socialism September 16 1996 http www cato org publications commentary ending tax socialism accessed 8 10 2012 5 Li Wenli Satre Pierre Daniel Growth Effects of Progressive Taxes US Federal Reserve November 2001 http www federalreserve gov pubs feds 2002 200203 200203pap pdf Improve this Counterpoint The private sector has indeed been the source of much innovation that has led to improvements in standards of living However the problem with relying solely on the private sector for social welfare is that it can only improve the lives of those who can pay for it It may well be the case that healthcare is better under the private sector but if only the top 60 say of the country can afford it there is a big problem Moreover as has already been mentioned there is often insufficient financial incentive for the private sector to invest in certain areas like pharmaceutical development or green energy research Here the government must step in and in the interest of public welfare provide the investment needed High level taxation on wealthy individuals may be hard on them but ultimately is desirable Ethically speaking we need

    Original URL path: http://oas.idebate.org/debatabase/debates/Economy/obama-vs-romney-should-us-government-continue-spend-current-levels-even (2016-02-14)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Obama vs. Romney: Should the United States increase the foreign aid budget? | idebate.org
    it The number of people in absolute poverty less than 1 25 per day has declined from 1 91 billion in 1990 to 1 29 billion in 2008 despite a rapidly rising population 1 Moreover it is not foreign aid that is bringing about this decline but trade and the resulting economic growth in developing countries 2 It is therefore completely the wrong strategy to be increasing foreign aid to tackle these problems 1 Poverty The World Bank March 2012 2 Chandy Laurence and Gertz Geoffrey With Little Notice Globalization Reduced Poverty YaleGlobal 5 July 2011 Improve this Foreign aid benefits the United States Point While foreign aid is obviously for the benefit of the recipient country that country is not the only one that benefits U S business is often a major beneficiary It does this in two ways First they benefit directly through carrying out the contracts for supplying aid for example Cargill was paid 96million for supplying food aid in 2010 11 1 Secondly there are also indirect benefits Through the work of the United States Agency for International Development USAID the Obama administration hopes to develop partnerships with countries committed to enabling the private sector investment that is the basis of sustained economic growth to open new markets for American goods promote trade overseas and create jobs here at home 2 Essentially through foreign aid both the economies of the developing world and the United States come out ahead Even Microsoft founder and philanthropist Bill Gates has been quoted as saying that the 1 percent the United States spends on foreign aid not only saves millions of lives it has an enormous impact on developing countries which means it has an impact on our economy 3 1 Provost Claire and Lawrence Felicity US food aid programme criticised as corporate welfare for grain giants guardian co uk 18 July 2012 2 What we do USAID 12 September 2012 3 Worthington Samuel US foreign aid benefits recipients and the donor guardian co uk 14 February 2011 Improve this Counterpoint While it is undoubtedly true that some foreign aid money will flow into the hands of US firms it is wrong to argue that this is beneficial to the economy What needs to be considered is not just whether some aid money ends up in the hands of Americans but whether that same money could be spent in such a way where more of it would The answer is undoubtedly yes The same money would benefit the economy much more if handed back to the citizen to spend themselves or directly invested in the United States The developing world would then in turn benefit because more Americans spending means more purchasing of goods made in developing countries The United States exports 2 3billion worth of goods to Africa every month while it imports around 6billion 1 clearly then Africa is benefiting from trade with the United States and more spending in the United States will benefit Africa 1 Trade in Goods with Africa U S Department of Commerce United States Census Bureau 2012 Improve this The foreign aid budget can be made more effective and transparent Point While a second Obama administration is not going to cut back on foreign aid the Obama campaign however does argue for pragmatic budgetary approaches to foreign aid 1 creating transparency measures 2 to ensure that assistance is more transparent accountable and effective 3 The Obama administration has signed the Busan Partnership for Effective Development Co operation 4 which makes transparency a key pillar of overseas development 5 and has succeeded in significantly increasing transparency in 2010 the U S was ranked 24 th 6 in Quality of Official Development Assistance rankings on transparency by 2012 it had moved up to 9th 7 It is also clear how beneficial transparency is for the recipients of aid Uganda implemented Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys in 1996 Surveys had shown that only 13 of funds for schools was actually getting to the schools but the introduction of PETS increased this to between 80 90 simply because it was public that the school should have received money 8 1 U S Foreign Aid By Country Huffington Post 30 August 2012 2 Foreignassistance gov 3 Shah Rajiv Improving the Quality and Effectiveness of International Development Aid The White House Blog 1 December 2011 4 Busan Partnership for Effective Development Co operation busanhlf4 org 29 November 1 December 2011 5 Atwood Brian The Benefits of Transparency in Development OECD Insights 3 April 2012 6 Baker Gavin U S Scores Poorly on Transparency of Foreign Aid Spending OMB Watch 7 October 2010 7 Transparency and Learning Global Economy and Development at Brookings 2012 8 Empowerment Case Studies Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys Application in Uganda Tanzania Ghana and Honduras World Bank Improve this Counterpoint Everyone is for transparency when it is taxpayers money that is being spent however transparency does not make it a worthwhile investment Ban Ki moon the United Nations Secretary General says that Last year corruption prevented 30 per cent of all development assistance from reaching its final destination 1 This means huge amounts of money is not helping development as it is meant to Obama s transparency initiatives will no doubt help show what the US is spending and where but will it tell us who else benefits Moreover the administration s record on aid transparency is very patchy some budgets like the Millennium Challenge Corporation created by the Republicans during the Bush Administration are very transparent while big departments like State and Treasury are just the opposite 2 1 At high level discussion UN officials highlight costs of corruption on societies UN News Centre 9 July 2012 2 2011 Pilot Aid Transparency Index Publish What You Fund 2012 Improve this Aid benefits National Security Point In Obama s 2012 campaign promoting good governance through foreign aid makes sense for a range of foreign policy and development objectives Through contributions in healthcare education poverty alleviation and infrastructure investing in foreign aid and increasing the foreign aid budget will help create a more peaceful and safe global environment Robert Gates former US Secretary of Defense has stated that cutting aid jeopardizes US national security It also creates a greater vacuum in so called fragile states which can easily be filled by those who do not have US interests at heart There is no doubt that foreign assistance helps ward off future military conflicts 1 In much the same way as encouraging people to eat healthily will likely reduce expenditures on healthcare in the future so some spending on aid with resulting development and better perceptions of the United States can reduce conflicts in the future so saving money in the long run by preventing the need for expensive armed interventions 1 Worthington Samuel US foreign aid benefits recipients and the donor guardian co uk 14 February 2011 Improve this Counterpoint Aid does not benefit national security there are two ways to increase national security First is to increase spending on those agencies that maintain national security the Department of Defense and the intelligence agencies Second is by expanding the economy which provides the necessary wealth to maintain national security Foreign aid clearly does not benefit national security because the recipient will spend it how they want and often this will be in ways that are detrimental to U S security whether this is though the aid being spent on products from China or being lost to corruption Aid from the United States has often not been beneficial in the past the U S gave Egypt 1 5 billion per year in aid 1 yet is now controlled by the Muslim Brotherhood Pakistan received 963 million and yet supports the Taliban fighting against the US in Afghanistan 2 1 Holan Angie Drobnic Egypt got more foreign aid than anyone besides Israel says New York Times Columnist Ross Douthat Tampa Bay Times 4 February 2011 2 Bajoria Jayshree The ISI and Terrorism Behind the Accusations Council on Foreign Relations 4 May 2011 Improve this We should not be borrowing to fund foreign aid Point As a fiscal conservative Governor Mitt Romney believes that Americans and the United States economy will be better off cutting foreign aid expenses In an October 2011 Republican primary debate Romney passionately defended the GOP stance of questioning humanitarian assistance and foreign aid He said I happen to think it doesn t make a lot of sense for us to borrow money from the Chinese to go give to another country for humanitarian aid We ought to get the Chinese to take care of the people that are taking that borrowed money 1 This was a reference to the size of the deficit currently Obama s projected deficit for 2012 is 1 33 trillion 2 and much of that is borrowed from other countries and China has most holding 1 164 trillion as of June 3 Romney s campaign often compares President Barack Obama s policies to those of Europe He criticizes the Obama administration s foreign assistance efforts as largely squandered by a fragmented Washington bureaucracy 1 Full Transcript CNN Western Republican Presidential Debate CNN 18 October 2011 2 Budget Overview Office of Management and Budget 2012 3 Capaccio Tony and Kruger Daniel China s U S Debt Holdings Aren t Threat Pentagon Says Bloomberg 11 September 2012 Improve this Counterpoint Foreign aid is a minute part of the US budget as Obama has correctly argued it is wrong to suggest that we can somehow close our entire deficit by eliminating things like foreign aid even though foreign aid makes up about 1 of our entire budget 1 So very little of the money the US is borrowing is being spent on foreign aid It is also wrong to assert that the US government debt is borrowing money from China as most government borrowing comes from the US private sector 2 China owns a mere 9 3 of US government debt with the majority being owed either to US individuals and institutions 41 7 or to the Social Security Trust Fund 17 1 3 1 Geiger Jacob Barak Obama says foreign aid makes up 1 percent of U S budget Tampa Bay Times 13 April 2011 2 Krugman Paul Fear of China Syndrome The New York Times 30 August 2012 3 Who Owns U S Debt RealClearPolicy 2 April 2012 Improve this The focus should be on trade not on aid Point Governor Romney does not prioritize encouraging good governance and stability abroad through foreign aid and there have been no mentions of any plans to reduce global poverty improve healthcare and engage in sustainable development While foreign aid is not specifically mentioned in any campaign materials Mitt s Plan regarding Africa for instance declares a Romney administration will encourage and assist African nations to adopt policies that create business friendly environments and combat governmental corruption Despite wanting to cut economic aid and contributions to the United Nations World Bank and IMF his campaign further argues greater market access across the continent for U S businesses will bolster job creation in Africa as well as in the United States 1 It is notable that the countries that have been most successful in reducing poverty have been those that have focused on trade to create economic growth rather than relying on aid China has succeeded in bring its poverty down from 84 thirty years ago to 16 today through economic growth 2 In spite of Romney s calls for cutting foreign aid spending his foreign policy is going to focus on international trade and job creation both domestically and abroad which will benefit both the United States and international economies 1 Africa Romney Ryan 2 Chandy Laurence and Gertz Geoffrey With Little Notice Globalization Reduced Poverty YaleGlobal 5 July 2011 Improve this Counterpoint Yes trade can help lift people out of poverty But in order to do so there needs to be the right conditions there needs to be infrastructure an educated and healthy population and of course the country must be able to feed itself No country is going to be able to trade its way to growth if its goods cannot reach international markets Freer trade has not obviously been a driver of growth poverty has fallen while the Doha round of trade liberalisation has got nowhere 1 Instead the policies that have succeeded for China have been mercantilist policies China may rely on trade to export its goods but it succeeded in creating its manufacturing capacity because of currency manipulation and government subsidies things that anyone for free trade would be against 2 1 Chandy Laurence and Gertz Geoffrey With Little Notice Globalization Reduced Poverty YaleGlobal 5 July 2011 2 Prestowitz Clyde China s not breaking the rules It s playing a different game Foreign Policy 17 February 2012 Improve this US spending should focus on defence rather than aid Point Romney believes that the United States should be focusing more on national security however this in turn does benefit other nations so could be considered aid Governor Romney was quoted as saying foreign aid has several elements One of those elements is defense is to make sure that we are able to have the defense resources we want in certain places of the world That probably ought to fall under the Department of Defense budget rather than a foreign aid budget 1 When it focuses on its own national security the United States is providing public goods for the rest of the world These include reducing the incentives for others to engage in the use of force the global policeman maintaining open global markets maintaining a virtual commons in cyberspace preventing weapons proliferation 2 and maintaining freedom of navigation just as the United States is doing in the South China Sea 3 All of these to a greater or lesser extent need US military forces to maintain them The Romney campaign rejects the notion that the United States has an obligation to rely on foreign aid in its international development efforts wanting to cut the ongoing foreign aid commitments and you start everything from zero Vice Presidential candidate Paul Ryan has proposed a budget that includes cutting international affairs and foreign assistance by 29 percent in 2012 and 44 percent by 2016 which would dramatically cut funds for USAID and their foreign aid programs 4 The Republican party believes that cutting down all sorts of government spending including international spending would help bring the economy out of the deficit and back towards a balanced budget 1 Rosenkranz Rolf At GOP debate presidential candidates vow to cut foreign aid devex 20 October 2011 2 Nye Joseph S America and Global Public Goods Project Syndicate 11 September 2007 3 Cronin Dr Patrick M Averting Conflict in the South China Sea Center for a New American Security 4 September 2012 4 Smith Adam et al U S foreign aid is not a luxury but a critical investment in global stability The Seattle Times 17 April 2011 Improve this Counterpoint The Obama administration accepts the need to maintain these global public goods Secretary of State Hillary Clinton has written Strategically maintaining peace and security across the Asia Pacific is increasingly crucial to global progress whether through defending freedom of navigation in the South China Sea countering the proliferation efforts of North Korea or ensuring transparency in the military activities of the region s key players 1 However it is wrong to maintain that this should be considered as a part of foreign aid instead the U S maintains the global commons because it gains most out of them the U S military is the biggest beneficiary of freedom of navigation and of the maintenance of space as a global commons as they allow the military s global reach to be maintained 2 The United States may not be legally obligated to provide foreign aid and international development efforts but there are moral obligations as President Kennedy recognised when creating USAID There is no escaping our obligations our moral obligations as a wise leader and good neighbor in the interdependent community of free nations our economic obligations as the wealthiest people in a world of largely poor people as a nation no longer dependent upon the loans from abroad that once helped us develop our own economy and our political obligations as the single largest counter to the adversaries of freedom 3 Today this is just as true as it was then the United States is still one of the richest states on earth Moreover there is an international target of 0 7 of GDP being spent overseas development assistance which the United States has signed up to and has been repeatedly re endorsed since it was first adopted in 1970 4 1 Clinton Hillary America s Pacific Century Foreign Policy November 2011 2 Denmark Abraham M Managing the Global Commons Washington Quarterly 30 June 2010 3 Kennedy John F 90 Special Message to the Congress on Foreign Aid The American Presidency Project 22 March 1961 4 The 0 7 ODA GNI target a history OSCE Improve this Voting Results Bibliography Atwood Brian The Benefits of Transparency in Development OECD Insights 3 April 2012 http oecdinsights org 2012 04 03 the benefits of transparency in development Bajoria Jayshree The ISI and Terrorism Behind the Accusations Council on Foreign Relations 4 May 2011 http www cfr org pakistan isi terrorism behind accusations p11644 Baker Gavin U S Scores Poorly on Transparency of Foreign Aid Spending OMB Watch 7 October 2010 http www ombwatch org node 11319 Busan Partnership for Effective Development Co operation busanhlf4 org 29 November 1 December 2011 http www aideffectiveness org busanhlf4 images stories hlf4 OUTCOME DOCUMENT FINAL EN pdf Capaccio Tony and Kruger Daniel China s U S Debt Holdings Aren t Threat Pentagon Says Bloomberg 11 September 2012 http www bloomberg com news 2012 09 11 china s u s debt holdings aren

    Original URL path: http://oas.idebate.org/debatabase/debates/international/obama-vs-romney-should-united-states-increase-foreign-aid-budget (2016-02-14)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Obama vs. Romney: Should the United States scale back the War on Drugs? | idebate.org
    doesn t even work The Washington Post 8 August 2010 3 Breaking the Cycle of Drugs and Crime 1999 National Drug Control Strategy 1999 Improve this The War on Drugs has failed and there needs to be a new dialogue to decide on the course forward Point The Obama administration has indicated that it will publicly address the failures of the War on Drugs if it wins a second term 1 In terms of the direction of drug policy as a whole several Obama aides and associates have indicated that the President will bring drug policy to the forefront of the national discussion if he is reelected but it is unclear what specific steps he would take going forward This would be welcome to most Americans only 10 of people believe the policy of the war on drugs has been a success against 66 who consider it a failure 2 A national discussion is the only way to determine whether there should be a fundamental shift in policy 1 Ambinder Marc Exclusive In His Second Term Obama Will Pivot to the Drug War GQ 2 July 2012 2 AngusReid Americans Decry War on Drugs Support Legalizing Marihuana 6 th June 2012 Improve this Counterpoint Presidents are meant to lead not simply open up national discussions and follow whatever the public wants While discussion is always welcome it is unlikely to actually provide any answers except telling us what the public wants most people may consider the war on drugs a failure but that does not mean that they have any idea of what policies they want to replace it A dialogue also simply kicks the problem down the road how long is a national discussion going to take If it is comprehensive this is likely to delay any decisions until after the next election Improve this Drugs policy must be punitive Point Governor Romney would not scale back the War on Drugs as he supports the punitive approach that characterizes drug policy in the status quo Romney supports punitive strategies toward criminal justice in general such as three strikes and you re out laws which impose mandatory sentences for people who have committed three offenses 1 These policies can be effective in reducing crime in California after three strikes was implemented the crime rate declined by 43 although the three strikes was only one factor 2 Romney maintains that those who break current laws should be punished and therefore has proposed that states should contract with for profit prison companies to continue expanding prison populations in order to keep up with current rates of incarceration If larger prisons are necessary in order to keep drug users and dealers off the streets then they are a necessary cost 1 Mitt Romney on Crime Former Republican Governor MA presidential nominee apparent On The Issues 2012 2 A Primer Three Strikes The Impact After More Than a Decade Legislative Analyst s Office October 2005 Improve this Counterpoint Privatising prisons does not work of course it will result in more prisons but it will also result in more convictions and soon those new prisons will be full too This is because if prisons are privatised they become an industry often literally meaning the prisoners manufacture goods for as little as 17 cents an hour 1 and those engaged in law enforcement have a stake The local sheriffs often run these for profit facilities and so have a financial incentive to keep the prisons full so as to keep the money coming in 2 It is not correct that the three strikes rule in California have caused crime to fall it has been similar to declines in states that don t have the rule instead there are other explanations for why crime has fallen such as a reduction in the consumption of alcohol 3 The Punitive policy towards drugs has been tried it has resulted in one of the highest incarceration rates in the world and little appreciable drop in crime It is time to change the policy 1 Bowie Nile Profit Driven Prison Industrial Complex The Economics of Incarceration in the USA Centre for Research on Globalization 6 February 2012 2 Talbot Margaret Prisons Colleges and the Private sector Delusion The New Yorker 14 June 2012 3 Miller Bettye Three strikes Law Fails to Reduce Crime UCR Today 28 February 2012 Improve this Allowing drug use is wrong Prohibition must remain Point Romney also has a record of preferring prohibitory policies over those that allow drug use with the intention of making it safer For example as Governor of Massachusetts he vetoed a bill to allow the sale of syringes without a prescription 1 He has not since stated that he would take a different approach as president and his position on marijuana use suggests that he would continue to support prohibitory laws Romney has staunchly opposed calls to legalize and regulate marijuana making a moral argument against such a change by claiming that pot legalization is simply a pet issue of a pleasure seeking generation that never grew up 2 While President Obama has not supported the legalization of marijuana Romney is stronger in calling for harsh penalties for marijuana users in order to demonstrate the seriousness of the crime He has also gone further than Obama in his opposition to marijuana by coming out against the legalization of the drug for medical use 3 1 U S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Massachusetts Needle Sales OK d After Legislature Barely Trumps Veto The Body 18 July 2006 2 Mitt Romney on Drugs Former Republican Governor MA presidential nominee apparent On The Issues 2012 3 Mooney Alexander Romney confronted with medical marijuana issue CNN 8 October 2007 Improve this Counterpoint Dismissing drug users as a pleasure seeking generation that never grew up almost concedes the point These people have a right to make the choice for themselves whether to use drugs the government should make sure the risks are known and the

    Original URL path: http://oas.idebate.org/debatabase/debates/health/addiction/obama-vs-romney-should-united-states-scale-back-war-drugs (2016-02-14)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Poetry should not be taught in schools (Junior) | idebate.org
    poet 7 Musicians must be allowed the chance to develop their poetic style and be recognized for their lyrical writing skills Rap gives the listener an insight into the plight of the artist It shows the harsh conditions in which people live and gives a voice to those that we otherwise might not hear William Blake s famous poem London is often described a social protest a voice of discontent with the conditions of life in 1790 s London Rap does the same thing social protest put to music and designed to describe the racial and economic inequalities that exist within society Rap even with its sometimes offensive lyrics reflects the society the artist sees and it should be accepted as it is We must not judge the poetry on the basis of the poet s life Dylan Thomas Wales national poet was an adulterer and an alcoholic However this does not make his poetry any less worthy Improve this As an artistic form of a core subject poetry offers a creative method of teaching English Point Pupils in schools must learn English and poetry offers a creative outlet for a subject that would otherwise be repetitive and boring Poetry also introduces the reader to new concepts which hold the learner s interest and improve vocabulary and spelling Poetry offers a fun method of teaching subjects that can otherwise be exhaustive and repetitive For example Shirley Hughes poems for young readers such as Best Friends introduce young readers to the vowel sounds of English and Zoe s Earrings by Kit Wright teaches pre GCSE students about accents 8 Improve this Counterpoint Learning the basics of literature and language is not designed to be fun or enjoyable it is an essential requirement It is important that students can get to grips with the basics of their home language A standard look cover write check method is an effective way to learn spelling and vocabulary as it requires the learner to write the words themselves Simply reading them is not enough especially not in the context of a poem which can be complex and difficult for a pupil whose priority is to learn writing and reading It is much more effective to develop the pupils reading skills through standard literature where the structure is easier to follow Improve this Poetry is cross curricular Point Poetry has benefits beyond the English curriculum by teaching about other subjects In History for example war poetry offers the modern reader the chance to understand the horrors of war Poet Wilfred Owen suffered from shellshock as a result of fighting in the First World War In his poem Mental Cases he describes his time and experiences at Craiglockhart psychiatric hospital in Scotland where he and Siegfried Sassoon another World War 1 poet were treated W ho are these Why sit they here in twilight Wherefore rock they purgatorial shadows 9 While we might never be able to properly understand the terrifying experiences that people go through during

    Original URL path: http://oas.idebate.org/debatabase/debates/education/poetry-should-not-be-taught-schools-junior (2016-02-14)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Raise the school leaving age to 18 (Junior) | idebate.org
    the UK for example 84 of pupils in year 10 stated that they would remain in education after the age of 16 5 Improve this Counterpoint The cost of extending the period of compulsory education is just too high The increase in numbers would require a huge investment in teachers books new school buildings computers etc As well as these direct costs there is also a huge amount of losses that a country would face Young people who leave school and enter the workforce contribute to the economy through taxes and contributions to pensions which the country would no longer receive if people remained in school It is impossible to spend more while also earning less This means that raising the school leaving age is not something that countries can afford to do because they won t have the money to cover the short term cost even if there are some long term gains Improve this Raising the school leaving age promotes equal opportunities Point Making sure that everyone gets the same amount of time at school promotes equality At the moment leaving school early is linked to economic and social disadvantage those from poorer areas and families are more likely to leave school early than those from wealthier families Parents who left school at a young age are also more likely to have children who leave school early only 60 of those children stay in education past 16 6 Forcing all children to stay in school longer will help break this cycle of disadvantage 7 Improve this Counterpoint Unfortunately equality in the job market is unlikely to emerge simply because everyone now stays in school for the same amount of time As noted above not everyone will get the same out of school just because they are there for the same amount of time Those who achieve the best exam results will still be the most employable especially if they go to university before finding a job Improve this Forced Education Achieves Little Point Being in school does not guarantee that a student is actually learning If the student lacks interest or ability then the extra time spent in school is unlikely to benefit them especially if they would not have chosen to be there This applies even more to the problem of how to deal with those who are disruptive If they are excluded from school then they are disadvantaged for a longer period of their life However if they are included then they continue to disrupt the learning of other students As Henry Phibbs argues Increasing the school leaving age will not result in more being learned just more broken windows in the locality of the school Children fed up with school need an escape route not an extension of their sentence 8 Improve this Counterpoint UK statistics show There is no evidence that raising the minimum school leaving age made people who had not intended to leave school at the minimum age raise their educational standard

    Original URL path: http://oas.idebate.org/debatabase/debates/education/raise-school-leaving-age-18-junior (2016-02-14)
    Open archived version from archive



  •