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  • Blue LED Inventor Shuji Nakamura on Rewarding Innovators in Japan: Imported Corporate Notes: Articles: Multimedia: Japan Society
    the value he was creating Every time I went to these scholarly meetings my associates would say Dump those guys come over and join me I d say No I was a loyal Japanese salaryman and they d say My God you re a slave Slave Nakamura How did you select blue LED as your research topic because it had never been exploited or because you had an intuition Dr Nakamura said the project of synthesizing commercial grade blue LED was assigned to him We were all going after the blue it was the holy grail That was because with blue you could have all the primary colors and thereby the entire palette He also noted how at the time his research began some large Japanese corporations were spending 10 billion a year He was working at a small company without a research budget but his firm at the time was really serious about results so he poured his heart into it At some point the firm tried to get him to move on to other projects but he would not budge After working single mindedly and incessantly for 10 years he decided to consider himself as having left the company I went to the founder saying I want to do the research and he said go ahead and do it and he gave me the wherewithal to do the research I did it out of desperation and it s just lucky that I got paid he recounted Have you discovered a difference between filing a patent in a U S research institution and filing in a Japanese company I was working in the countryside in Japan we re talking hick and the idea was don t file for a patent you ll disclose know how Dr Nakamura recounted He was most interested in publishing papers which his firm strongly discouraged He published them anyway then he figured that filing a patent might mollify his employer He did so against the warnings of his section manager I told a new grunt that my section manager had hired that they were filing a patent The grunt said We ll get yelled at I said No we re going to file it Dr Nakamura also commented that ownership under Japan s revised patent law is ambiguous By contrast he found the arrangements in the U S to be clear At the outset you sign a contract and it s 50 50 at universities he commented Some would argue that American society has higher productivity for R D but it depends on the industry and the difference between the commercialization of research and development which is more unbundled in the U S It tends to be used by a variety of different areas In Japan the output is made by the company I don t think I said one environment was better than the other but I was trying to say in Japan we are strong in manufacturing while in the U S

    Original URL path: http://japansociety.org/page/multimedia/articles/imported_corporate_notes/blue_led_inventor_shuji_nakamura_rewarding_innovators_japan (2016-02-14)
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  • Design: Topics: Japan Society
    Topic Fashion Design Read More Topic Graphic Design Read More Topic Industrial Design Read More Calendar of Events February 2016 S M T W Th F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Language Center Event Nihongo Chat Related Events Module Under Construction About Overview Brief History

    Original URL path: http://japansociety.org/design_topic (2016-02-14)
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  • Articles: Multimedia: Japan Society
    of the Tokyo Stock Exchange visited Japan Society to offer his thoughts on Japan s way forward in a time of global financial turmoil Read More Business Atsushi Saito s speech from the program TSE s Saito Offers Strategies to Challenge Global Competition May 28 2009 Tokyo Stock Exchange Group President and CEO Atsushi Saito presents his views on the causes of the recent financial crisis and the status of capital market competition since the crisis Read More Business Acquisitions of U S Pharmaceutical Health Care Companies A Health Regulatory Focus May 21 2009 A distinguished panel of business and legal specialists met to discuss regulatory trends in health care and life sciences and their impact on Japanese acquisitions of U S health care companies Read More Business Acquisitions of U S Pharmaceutical Health Care Companies A Health Regulatory Focus May 21 2009 A distinguished panel of business and legal specialists met to discuss regulatory trends in health care and life sciences and their impact on Japanese acquisitions of U S health care companies Read More Business Tipping the Scales The Evolution of Shareholder Rights in Japan May 6 2009 A distinguished panel of experts met to discuss trends in shareholder activism and corporate governance in Japan Read More Business Way Out of Economic Financial Crisis Lessons Policy Actions April 23 2009 Bank of Japan Governor Masaaki Shirakawa discussed the current global economic crisis and offered lessons from Japan s recent experience Read More Business Policy Handling Major Employment Law Challenges Sparked by the Economic Downturn April 21 2009 A distinguished panel of specialists in employment law and employee benefits discussed the challenges that companies face in cutting staff costs during an era of economic turmoil Read More Business Dining Out Japan Takes Its Appetite for M A Overseas April

    Original URL path: http://japansociety.org/content.cfm?page=/page/multimedia/articles&StartRow=81&SearchNum=10 (2016-02-14)
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  • Obama's Internet Initiative & Social Reform in the U.S. & Japan: Articles: Multimedia: Japan Society
    service for pension public insurance and medical information is slated for launch in 2013 though the timetable is now uncertain given the DPJ s defeat of the LDP last year In Okinawa the local government has set up an EHR or electronic health record that allows individuals health data to be shared quickly and efficiently among government medical institutes and others involved in health care Privacy and security protection are critical as are quality issues Professor Yoshihara said If Internet connections fail or are slowed due to network congestion users of applications such as telemedicine that depend on real time based data delivery could suffer very serious or even fatal harm One solution could be a managed IP network like NTT s Next Generation Network or NGN which can set priorities for communications that are particularly critical The extensive comment process used in crafting the U S national broadband plan is an important model for policy development he said The FCC solicited public input through its website and through workshops held around the country gathering some 75 000 pages of comments This was a very very open process In Japan the government does collect public comments before announcing major initiatives but the number of comments are very limited and also it is very unclear how those comments are reflected in the final version of the legislation Professor Yoshihara concluded However my feeling is that just importing the U S model doesn t work in Japan because of cultural differences IT literacy differences and so on The apparent dearth of innovation in IT in Japan has a variety of sources said Kazuya Okada of NTT Data AgileNet One is Japan s special devotion to tradition which overwhelmingly favors face to face meetings over videoconferencing and telework Thus while office phones in Japan typically have a conference call function workers may use it so seldom that they forget how to use it Japanese industry is famous for realizing the potential of kaizen or continuous improvement but kaizen is almost by definition incremental Mr Okada continued Disruptive change is seen as something to be avoided The IT and government services sectors haven t matched the innovativeness of Japan s hybrid vehicles or its consumer electronics such as the Walkman and Wii The mindset in Japan is one of farmers not hunters in his view cooperation and collaboration are the key qualities When innovators do decide to move forward other hurdles appear The persistent weakness of the economy discourages risk taking which is an essential part of innovation Legal obstacles including strict privacy laws may be too costly for startups to address The Japanese culture gives little reward to innovation and if you do fail then there is punishment and often irreparable damage to your standing in society Japan has tended to use IT not to transform its businesses but simply to automate its traditional processes Japan has imported many American IT trends Mr Okada noted The DOS V initiative which made it possible to use Japanese characters on the world standard IBM PC was like Commodore Perry arriving in Yokosuka and opening up Japan to the world Yet Japan has failed to follow through on the promise of some concepts such as enterprise architecture that have proved very useful to U S firms I fear that the same thing might be happening in open government he added I m not quite confident that Japan sees this opportunity as data democracy and will actually make use of public input to shape policy My key area of interest for the last 20 years has been improving cultural relations use of new technologies in a way that is contextually relevant and functional for the audience said Joshua Fouts of Dancing Ink Productions a creative and consulting firm based in New York Government is just one area where the use of new technologies could bear much improvement Mr Fouts said An example is the Twitter feed launched in 2009 by Michael Ranneberger the U S ambassador to Kenya Mr Ranneberger is a career foreign service officer with deep experience in Africa and his posts were lauded as the first example of Twitter diplomacy Yet even today he has not taken advantage of one of Twitter s most important avenues of communication namely the ability to follow other Twitter users including especially those who are following him In the culture of Twitter to follow someone means quite simply to tell that person that I am listening to you As we introduce these new forms of social media into our diet of our cultural engagement we need to understand that the rules don t change Mr Fouts continued Cultural engagement still requires that I have to listen to you as well as speak to you He quoted Judith McHale who recently took office as the new Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy We have to engage even when we disagree with others We have to communicate two way communication not one way messaging through both government to people and people to people dialogue For the Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs Mr Fouts and his colleague Rita King conducted a study of cultural dialogue in virtual worlds such as Second Life focused on cultural engagement with Islamic societies The study found that there was a massive untapped community in which dialogue was taking place that was substantive and meaningful Dialogue through virtual worlds would complement but not replace the opportunities provided by exchange programs he emphasized There is a perception among policymakers that the choices are binary that if you do technology for cultural relations that you are implicitly removing the physical world exchanges And actually we disagree with that We think that this should be an integral part of your outreach efforts U S foreign service officers whom he interviewed told him that training sessions in new media social media and immersive media were generally led not by cultural relations specialists but by engineers Thus when the officers

    Original URL path: http://japansociety.org/page/multimedia/articles/obamas_internet_initiative__social_reform_in_the_us__japan (2016-02-14)
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  • APEC Japan 2010: In Search of a New Vision: Articles: Multimedia: Japan Society
    are recovering smartly Korea and China among them The U S is showing some signs of coming around as is Japan Yet the fundamental conclusion that has been reached by the leaders and by many of the APEC economies is that growth as usual cannot be sustained that there needs to be a new look at how economic growth takes place in the Asia Pacific region As the U S prepares to participate in the 2010 Yokohama summit and to host the 2011 summit the themes of balanced inclusive sustainable knowledge based growth that Mr Nakamura described are permeating the discussions within APEC Ambassador Tong continued The Asia Pacific region accounts for 60 percent of U S exports so it s really a critical part of our growth strategy as a nation to be more tightly linked to the region Notwithstanding APEC s small budget consensus based nature and limited infrastructure the forum can indeed act as a locomotive both for trade agreements and for individual initiatives by member countries This is I think why our private sector engages with APEC so much is that the issues and ideas that are discussed within the APEC context are brought back to each economy and implemented domestically An example of this is APEC s model free trade agreement Ambassador Tong observed In putting FTAs in place members haven t followed the model slavishly but it has a significant impact on those agreements and on raising the general level of ambition towards economic liberalization in the Asia Pacific region The region is on track to meet the APEC goal of reducing trade transaction costs by an additional 5 percent by 2010 Another example is APEC s ease of doing business program which sets improvement targets for member economies that are outliers in terms of the level of effort required to start a new business or to manage business contracts and trade transactions Two big priorities for the U S as it works with APEC are food security and food safety Ambassador Tong concluded We are a large agricultural economy and there are enormous opportunities here in a business sense but also an understanding permeating the economies of the Asia Pacific region that food security going forward is going to be one of the major challenges to human security in the Asia Pacific region Moderator Monica Whaley of the National Center for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation asked How does APEC strike a balance between broad fundamental issues such as food security and energy and more granular problems like starting a business How can the private sector help to move some of these issues forward The APEC Business Advisory Council or ABAC helps member governments understand the desires of the business community and business people also appreciate APEC s work on technical issues such as ease of doing business and customs documentation responded Ambassador Nakamura What happens is that as economies get more and more closely intertwined the issues that remain become more and more

    Original URL path: http://japansociety.org/page/multimedia/articles/apec_japan_2010_in_search_of_a_new_vision (2016-02-14)
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  • Economic Recovery & Future Challenges in Asia & the Pacific: Articles: Multimedia: Japan Society
    2010 is the deadline for industrialized economies to achieve APEC s Bogor Goals The goals were set in 1994 to establish free trade and investment in the region but progress for the past 10 years has been limited Addressing investment levels and quality will substantially raise the region s medium term growth prospects Moderator Daniel Bases of Reuters asked How do Asian countries exit their stimulus programs while maintaining growth and without beggar thy neighbor policies We see inflation in food prices and there s always a concern that it spins out of control Although exit strategies should be discussed and coordinated by regional countries exits need not be synchronized Mr Kuroda replied Japan is in deflation and China doesn t appear to have general rising inflationary pressures however Vietnam has seen inflation and has already raised interest rates and India may soon do so as well Would you expect any kind of exit strategy or tightening of monetary policy or reducing the fiscal measures to happen in 2011 rather than 2010 And regarding India what would be the main reason for this inflationary pressure Generally speaking inflation at this stage is not a serious problem although in some countries including India food prices have risen and may show some sign of future inflationary pressures Mr Kuroda replied Some adjustment is already taken in China not to address a general price rise but to address some overheated real estate sectors in cities Come April you re going to have a new economic outlook for 2010 and 2011 your initial estimates What s the estimate going to be ADB s initial forecast for 2010 growth in developing Asia was 6 1 percent the forecast was subsequently raised to 6 4 percent and by December 2009 to 6 6 percent Mr Kuroda said At this stage the staff is working so I can t say anything concrete but if you just extrapolate this trend the forecast could easily reach around 7 percent for the region overall Could you comment on ADB spending this year and next In 2009 ADB lent some 16 billion twice the typical level he said This reflected emergency program loans to support aid to the poor countercyclical stimulus measures and the like This year also some program loans remain but significantly reduced Next year emergency program loans would hopefully completely phase out and ADB will return to its typical function as a project bank funding developing countries improvements in such areas as infrastructure the environment and education Mr Kuroda then responded to questions from the audience We read dire reports about the Japanese economy both on the macro and microeconomic level aging population retirement pensions industry problems structural problems How can the Japanese economy contribute in a rather dynamic way and be actually quite competitive even though it s on a different cycle from say developing countries in particular China Up to now trade and investment between Japan and China have been complementary due to the differences in

    Original URL path: http://japansociety.org/page/multimedia/articles/economic_recovery__future_challenges_in_asia__the_pacific (2016-02-14)
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  • The New Post-Recession Paradigm: Articles: Multimedia: Japan Society
    to GDP In both Japan and the U S companies have cut jobs and salary expenses in order to show better net earnings despite drops in sales she said This has dragged on for a decade in Japan where it s become a structural problem You have no growth in salaries no growth in wages and you have for Japan a record high unemployment rate and yet companies refuse to go out and hire or to pay higher bonuses and salaries The hope is that the U S will avoid repeating the pattern Are the U S and Japanese governments going too far with proposals on a new global bank tax or not far enough We looking at corporates get nervous about huge amounts of additional reporting burdens being put on companies Ms Jansen said Comprehensive regulation of financial markets protecting the consumer is a hot button and certainly is very debatable I only hope that regulations as they come out of the other end of the political sausage factory end up with more transparency and help us all to understand where we are going and where we are investing In Professor Ogawa s view the bank tax proposals are really a response to a much more structural problem namely the artificially low cost of capital being paid by financial companies that are still judged too big to fail or too important to fail I would like to see them pay the kind of cost of capital that their risk profile really would represent which would solve all kinds of problems including compensation you can only pay in compensation what is left over after you pay for raising capital Business finance in Japan needs to become less bank dominated and more flexible she added One of the CEOs of one of the largest Japanese banks operating here told me that a year ago he was looking at very large losses on his credit portfolio but that over the past year he had been managing to trade those up and his P L was looking pretty good and he said There is no way I could have done that in Japan Dr Resler commented It s pretty easy to define the rough outlines of what ought to be done to re regulate the financial markets but it s another matter altogether to do so in a way that gets it right Sarbanes Oxley which was supposed to fix the Enron and WorldCom problems has done no good that I can detect whatsoever In 1982 the Garn St Germain bill raised the level of federal deposit insurance from 40 000 to 100 000 but literally the fingerprints of guilt were all over that legislation for creating the thrift crisis The audience joined in the Q A Maybe to pick up on this last point about regulation It s difficult to understand the specifics of what the financial sector would actually propose to improve the regulatory situation Your point is well taken that

    Original URL path: http://japansociety.org/page/multimedia/articles/the_new_post-recession_paradigm (2016-02-14)
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  • The United States & Japan in the Post-Crisis World: Articles: Multimedia: Japan Society
    the country s reliance on exports is a clearly stated and welcome goal of the Hatoyama administration But the more important contribution is likely to come from actions to increase the dynamism of the Japanese economy Current discussions on this center on three issues Mr Dohner said labor market reform to lessen the divide between regular and temporary workers and increase labor force flexibility pension system reform which will boost the ability of workers especially in mid career to move from one job to another and raising productivity growth particularly in the service sector which accounts for over 70 percent of total output and employment in Japan Raising productivity growth in services involves a variety of policies to increase competition and innovation among them regulatory reform Mid 1990s reforms in Japan s telecom market led to a 60 percent drop in prices and a 20 fold increase in demand Deregulation likewise brought lower prices and higher demand in electricity trucking and petroleum products Going forward the DPJ growth strategy identifies medical and nursing services as a sector that can generate 45 trillion in additional demand and 2 8 million new jobs through promoting the entry of private firms reducing approval lags for drugs and medical equipment and other measures There are likely to be significant gains from opening services to foreign competition Mr Dohner added Japan has the lowest contribution of imports to services supply of any OECD country and the lowest share of foreign affiliates in services turnover among the OECD Of course Japan is not alone in this regard he concluded The U S needs to increase its investment in infrastructure education clean energy and green jobs to ensure that we remain competitive Thus the president s budget for the next fiscal year calls for an increase of 6 4 percent in civilian R D funding Presider Jeff Shafer of Citi asked the first question Will the U S and Japan find a way to approach China about these rebalancing issues more effectively together than they could individually China s leadership clearly recognizes that the sources of Chinese growth need to be rebalanced towards stronger dependence on domestic demand greater reliance on household consumption Mr Dohner responded Discussion with advice from other Asian emerging markets past emerging markets like Japan and Korea or current emerging markets is particularly influential both on its merits but also not casting these issues as U S China issues when in fact they are global issues Audience members joined in For Germany Japan perhaps Canada it s taken for granted that we need to see less dependency on exports more growth in services more promotion of innovation But they have bank centric domestic systems where the basis of all credit decisions is collateral Service companies don t tend to have a lot of capital and need access to a broader capital market Is all attention now on China or are there interested parties in Japan that are trying to discuss with us how

    Original URL path: http://japansociety.org/page/multimedia/articles/the_united_states__japan_in_the_post-crisis_world (2016-02-14)
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