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  • Japan-U.S. Security Treaty 50 Years On: Articles: Multimedia: Japan Society
    continues as a two party system both parties in the two party system might have these elements Dr Auslin asked the panel Have we moved to a different phase for both countries compared with the golden era of 2004 05 that Evans described In political economic terms there is no question that there s a major change China for example is roughly double the GDP of what it was in 2004 05 Professor Calder responded Trade dependence within Asia of course has risen sharply even from what it was then There are both a new government and an active national security debate in Japan I think to a much sharper degree than we have seen probably since the Vietnam War days perhaps the days of the Gulf War Prescriptively I couldn t agree more with the rising China with the rising defense technology terrorism there are many areas where the Alliance actually is more important than ever I think in economic and political economic terms I tend to disagree a little from what Professor Sahashi says we can just segment the two Professor Calder continued But if the relationship with China grows so huge economically in the end ultimately won t China be tempted to try to manipulate that economic dependence to narrow the scope of the U S Japan Alliance or to turn it into a shell It worries me that the political changes do make it more difficult to achieve Alliance goals even as the Alliance itself in defense terms becomes more important To the junior members of the panel Presume you will be the policymakers in 10 years or so What is your take on whether the Alliance is necessary The Alliance allows Japan to afford its security which frankly in its current demographic and financial climate would be hard for Japan to do on its own Mr Easley said It s incredibly important as a stabilizing force in the East Asian region And it s a very useful and very capable platform for building other mechanisms of multilateral security cooperation to deal with nuclear nonproliferation search and rescue and natural disasters like the 2004 tsunami I think the U S has been waiting for the Japan China relationship to mature Ms Mori said The current problem is that the DPJ government caused friction with the U S and then at the same time they tried to push East Asian policies Japanese politicians should work to stabilize the relationship between the U S and Japan and then work on more coordination with the U S and talk about how we as allies engage Asia together And others on the panel It s a noble endeavor for Japan to pursue a more harmonious relationship with its neighbors Mr Revere said But recognize that dialogue on basic principles will help us figure out whether some of the assumptions that we have had about the overall trajectory of China may be a bit off base and a bit too optimistic To what extent would the current flap over Futenma and to what extent would the current evident disagreements over the value of the U S Japan security relationship disappear were the DPRK to launch a Taepodong missile over the Japanese Archipelago tomorrow morning he asked Responding to the 2004 tsunami involved moving thousands of U S soldiers sailors airmen and Marines a carrier battle group a Marine Corps amphibious ready group hundreds of aircraft thousands and thousands of sorties by aircraft into Banda Aceh and Indonesia None of that would have been possible without the bases that we have in Japan We would not have saved the hundreds of thousands of lives that we saved It s indeed very highly unlikely that Japan would end the Security Alliance in favor of an alliance with China unless Japan can get strong confidence on China and Chinese leaders which there s no reason to suspect is the case Professor Sahashi commented At the same time the purpose of more friendship with China shouldn t be understood in a negative way always So now I think it is a time for the U S to understand Japan as a gateway to Asia and Asian dynamism Is the DPJ really the driver of these changes in Japan or instead a reflection of the changed environment The DPJ came to power because of voter frustration over domestic policy issues Mr Easley replied including the relationship between elected officials and the bureaucracy perceived issues of corruption and what was seen as the LDP s stale and ineffective leadership Several DPJ campaign positions on security policy including Futenma the Indian Ocean refueling mission and the neither confirm nor deny nuclear policy kind of stirred the pot with the U S he said These are issues that I think the two sides can work together on and move past However the Hatoyama government s promise to reach out to Asia made things more complicated In an environment of strained trust things can be interpreted very differently than if trust was strong I think many U S officials if you told them in 2005 when Japan China relations were at a low point that there would be this sort of engagement with China just a few years later they would say that s great we re looking forward to that he said But in the context of these trust problems when the kind of king maker behind the scenes of the DPJ if we refer to Ozawa san that way goes to China with this huge delegation this huge entourage and also pulls strings to have the successor to Hu Jintao Xi Jinping when he comes to Tokyo meet the emperor in a rush and put pressure on the imperial household to make that meeting happen those things which normally wouldn t be a big deal start to raise some flags for Japan watchers and strategists in the U S So that s why trust is so important not

    Original URL path: http://japansociety.org/page/multimedia/articles/japan-us_security_treaty_50_years_on (2016-02-14)
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  • JCIE's Hitoshi Tanaka: Changes in Japan's Foreign Policy: Articles: Multimedia: Japan Society
    Marines going out to the front line and fighting against an invasion of forces do the U S and Japan really need this much of a military presence in Okinawa and in Japan Or is this a matter of Pentagon convenience and saving costs Given technological progress I think clearly there need to be constant efforts for consolidation reduction of troops in Okinawa said Mr Tanaka China and Taiwan is relatively calm but the situation with North Korea is tense and the other fact is China is growing Chinese military expenditure is growing Yokosuka is the home port of U S vessels that are operating in the Indian Ocean for the sake of stability in the Middle East and other regions So it s a bit premature for us to talk about the situation in East Asia getting less tense We have to remind you that there has been a real change in the government he added There is a change of policy But for the sake of the benefit of the United States and Japan let us sit down and talk If the United States refuses to talk and sticks to one statement fulfill the obligation under the agreement then the end result may lead to much worsening of the U S Japan relationship I m afraid Audience members posed their own questions Do you feel the Marine base in Okinawa will benefit Japan because of concurrent terrorism And will the Okinawan people protest on that issue I do think that some Marines and the Marine Corps facilities do indeed contribute to the creation of deterrence against possible aggression from North Korea for instance and to an ability to respond rapidly Mr Tanaka responded So yes the concentrating in Okinawa the various facilities and the existence of the Marines has indeed contributed to the enhancement of security in Japan and in Indonesia as well But the whole point is can it not be replaced by some other devices That s what needs to be explored as well Do you feel that the quality of exchange of critical intelligence information about the situation in East Asia meets your needs and meets the U S needs How would you describe the state of honest sharing of information between the U S and Japan The U S and Japan may not have the same degree of sharing of information as do the U S and the UK which is very intense and that is probably one area we need to develop Mr Tanaka said It s not just a question of willingness to provide intelligence but yet it is a question of the protection of those secrets so there are differences in terms of methodology legal framework and also it may not be an easy issue Katherine Hyde January 14 2010 SPEAKER Hitoshi Tanaka Senior Fellow Japan Center for International Exchange PRESIDER Gerald L Curtis Burgess Professor of Political Science Columbia University Hitoshi Tanaka formerly Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and now at the Japan Center for International Exchange spoke about the new DPJ government and the implications for the U S Japan alliance On domestic issues the DPJ had a relatively easy time finding common ground with its coalition partner the Social Democrats Mr Tanaka began Foreign affairs were another matter The DPJ hoped to focus on domestic matters at least until after the upper house elections this coming summer As it turned out however the DPJ has been obliged to address a handful of foreign policy issues early on On CO2 targets and other environmental issues the DPJ actually had an advantage over the LDP because clearly the change of the government is indeed creating a situation where you don t have to give too much consideration to vested interests he said Concerning the refueling operations in the Indian Ocean the DPJ had less room to maneuver being essentially captive to its long held position of opposition As for the debate over relocating the Futenma base on Okinawa the party decided to postpone it probably the right thing to do in his view because pressing too hard on the issue would jeopardize the coalition with the Social Democrats DPJ politicians were trained on domestic matters during the legislative process but they fatally lack the sort of experience expertise to deal with the foreign countries he said Though the party says it wants to reduce excessive dependency on bureaucracy clearly without professional support from the bureaucracy decision making on foreign policy would become very very tentative All this has led to the somewhat troublesome state of affairs regarding the U S Japan relationship Based on his own experience during 37 years in the foreign service including leading roles in fashioning the 1996 U S Japan security declaration and the 1996 agreement on reversion of Futenma to Japan when I talk to the leadership of DPJ I recommend a couple of things Mr Tanaka said First I urge that the government produce a consistent broader concept regarding Japanese diplomacy Prime Minister Hatoyama talks about equal partnership with the United States some distance to the U S At the same time he talks about the creation of an East Asia Community but the relationship between these two ideas has yet to be explained Further Mr Tanaka said the DPJ must recognize that given the fact that East Asia is going to be the center of growth the stability of East Asia is going to be crucial for the future of Japan Many things get in the way of East Asia s prosperity from political freedom income disparity and treatment of ethnic minorities to inefficient use of energy environment and untransparent military buildup on the part of China the government must address these issues Finally the DPJ must understand that a strong U S Japan alliance is vital and that strengthening the relationship between Japan and the United States can perfectly go along with the concept of a much stronger much more intimate relationship

    Original URL path: http://japansociety.org/page/multimedia/articles/jcies_hitoshi_tanaka_changes_in_japans_foreign_policy (2016-02-14)
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  • Liberal Democratic Party Diet Member Taro Kono Discusses Japanese Politics and the Role of the LDP: Articles: Multimedia: Japan Society
    can attract people with vision and ideas who will stay with the party in and out of power The LDP s new vision must address immigration bringing women and senior workers into the workforce though an important step won t be enough to fill a labor shortage that by 2040 is predicted to reach several million The only way to solve the problem is we have to ask foreign labor coming in to Japan he said This means closing the back door that brought in Japanese South Americans and Chinese trainees as cheap labor and open ing up the front door with a labor visa The labor visa should be based not on ethnicity but on the ability to speak Japanese lest the country repeat the problems experienced by foreign workers who spoke only Portuguese or Spanish and weren t able to integrate into the community despite their Japanese heritage Our agriculture can actually be very competitive Mr Kono continued The DPJ s agricultural subsidy policies are unacceptable instead Japan needs to get small part timers to exit from the market and consolidate the fields to those who are really willing to put effort into agriculture The new LDP must also address agricultural reform the lack of which has held back free trade agreements he said The first free trade agreement that we made was with Singapore because Singapore has no agriculture But during the negotiation we found out that they have a goldfish industry in Singapore and that delayed the negotiations by six months FTAs with other Asian countries are of vital importance because that s where the growth is in the 21st century or at least the first half of it If we integrate the Japanese market into the Asian economy I think that s where we want to go Medical care childcare and care for the aging ought to be looked at not merely as costs but as sources of employment he reflected In the past care for the aged was totally dependent on the sacrifice of women who left the workplace to care for aging family members at home but we cannot continue doing it If women are to go into the workforce in large numbers Japan has to invest tax monies to care for the elderly Finally we have to pay more attention to the Japanese American community in the United States who hopefully would always pay attention to Japan if we don t forget about them Q A from the audience followed With upsets in countries like Poland Greece and Spain many people worry that Japan will be next Is concern over Japan s budget deficit justified If you were the government party what would you do to get the deficit under control The budget deficit is the major concern replied Mr Kono Japan needs to raise the consumption tax channel tax revenues to local governments and give them greater authority to reduce overlap and trim costs and shrink the number of government workers

    Original URL path: http://japansociety.org/page/multimedia/articles/liberal_democratic_party_diet_member_taro_kono_discusses_japanese_politics_and_the_role_of_the_ldp (2016-02-14)
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  • View from the IMF: Building a Post-Crisis Global Economy: Articles: Multimedia: Japan Society
    chance of success in preventing crisis in a world of securitized finance It s taken another decade and the mother of all crises to get the membership to finally agree on a preventative instrument that has a chance of success and that s the Flexible Credit Line Mr Lipsky said Meanwhile official reserve assets have been increased by 283 billion in the IMF s Special Drawing Rights and the IMF s New Arrangements to Borrow NAB are about to be expanded by up to 600 billion providing new resources to backstop the Fund s new facilities if needed We hope that by improving our crisis prevention facilities our members will opt for collective insurance in preference to self insurance against global capital market volatility he commented Piling up massive international reserves in an effort to self insure is a strategy that simply cannot be pursued successfully simultaneously by everyone The IMF membership has agreed to shift quota shares toward dynamic under represented emerging markets and developing countries Mr Lipsky said This change which is to take effect by January 2011 will represent a landmark achievement in the shift to a post crisis global economy You can be sure that the role played by Asian economies in a new Fund will be enhanced Notably Japan was the first country to provide extra resources to the IMF in 2009 In a sense Japan s provision of 100 billion in liquid resources was a catalyst of the agreement at the London Leaders Summit to provide around 1 trillion in anti crisis funding As the IMF deepens its relations with APEC ASEAN and other regional organizations it s actively exploring ways to strengthen ties with the Chiang Mai initiative Asia s regional reserve pool which already provides an important complement to IMF financing Mr Lipsky concluded Asia has an important leadership role to play in helping to guide the global economy toward a new revitalized global growth model The challenges are daunting but the opportunities to create a new period of progress are exhilarating and they are real Presider Mark Whitehouse of The Wall Street Journal got the Q A ball rolling For collective insurance to be credible countries would have to be pretty sure that the IMF would step in and bail them out if they got into trouble But if they had that insurance wouldn t that encourage them to pursue irresponsible policies That s a good question although I object to the term bailout but I ll pass on that detail Mr Lipsky replied Does insurance create moral hazard Yes of course it does Does that mean it s bad No Does having fire insurance mean that you re more likely to set fire to your house Yes Does that mean fire insurance is bad I don t think so The issues of consequence are the ones you pointed out is the insurance likely to be effective and is it reliable How would you assess the effectiveness of government policies linked

    Original URL path: http://japansociety.org/page/multimedia/articles/view_from_the_imf_building_a_post_crisis_global_economy (2016-02-14)
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  • The Aftermath: Articles: Multimedia: Japan Society
    and Japan remains one of the world s largest savings pool Meanwhile the U S has a low savings rate and over half of America s debt is held abroad 13 percent of U S Treasury debt by China alone What will the U S cut when the debt becomes unsupportable No one is offering to reduce spending on defense health care or social security he observed If defense is targeted the history of indebted empires is it s defense that goes first do we keep the two theater strategy that the U S has maintained since 1945 And if we don t which theater will we pick And what on earth does that mean for our geopolitical arrangements And once we withdraw our fleets or our armies what happens to our economic interests Elaborating on a Financial Times article by Martin Wolf Sir Deryck declared that the notion that financial markets should freely allocate economic resources has been damaged In his own view he said either the G 20 embraces new global standards or globalization will suffer as national solutions are found As Wall Street accrues 120 billion in compensation reserves public anger over Wall Street s role in the financial crisis hasn t gone away President Obama did say when meeting with Wall Street CEOs at the White House that his administration was the only thing between the bankers and the pitchforks I think that is true And I think large parts of the financial industry have been slow to recognize that he said The reforms to come in his view will include a consumer financial protection agency enhanced resolution authority likely the FDIC and a systemic regulator of some sort Fannie and Freddie will stay nationalized Yet the fundamental asymmetry of the financial system where when the risk pays off you take the benefit and when it goes wrong we underwrite the losses will not change The system will protect itself by requiring the financial industry to hold more capital against these risks to reduce leverage and to align incentives with the risks that are taken but the asymmetry will remain For many other issues spotlighted by the financial crisis outcomes are less simple to predict Sir Deryck said How will the country deal with the too big to fail question what capital standards will be set by the Financial Stability Board the BIS and the world s central banks how to sort out capital markets mortgages derivatives securitization and the non banks these questions are still wide open Turning to Japan s current situation he read from a recent Foreign Affairs article by Yoichi Funabashi of the Asahi Shimbun The Democratic Party of Japan wants to reinforce Japan s economic and cultural identity as an Asian nation and follow a European style of governance while maintaining strong political and military ties to the United States The way I read that is we will do more business with Asia and America can protect us Sir Deryck said

    Original URL path: http://japansociety.org/page/multimedia/articles/the_aftermath (2016-02-14)
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