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  • On to the 21st Century
    including inheritance interface specification exception handling and so on with a simple and well know syntax based on the C language It is ideally suited to distributed applications via RMI and or CORBA object request brokers It supports reuse of code through classes packages and Java beans and represents a realistic way to move from line level programming to the component level There are many Java packages such as JDBC

    Original URL path: http://jeffsutherland.org/oopsla97/marshall/tsld033.htm (2016-04-27)
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  • mts_pos
    methods and they act upon one or more business objects Moving the data along with the methods into distributed business objects is certainly possible but not necessarily desirable The automatic transactions in which MTS wraps components do not fit well with the design of the current CMS business objects Under this mode a transaction is started when an object is created and committed or rolled back only when the object is destroyed CMS business objects tend to persist for relatively long periods of time and holding open transactions throughout these periods would severely reduce concurrency and consume lots of resources at the application server To use MTS to its fullest it seems that data should stay with the client while only the methods are moved to an application server How can the business transactions methods be physically separated from the data while still maintaining a good object design The business object conceptually should be thought of as a single unit From the point of view of the user it still presents both data and methods For purposes of implementation however it may be desirable to physically partition methods and data of the business object The business object will normally be created in the physical process space of the client When a method is invoked however only a stub of code will be executed in the client process The stub code will create a new business transaction object remotely in the MTS environment This business transaction object will implement the code to actually do work The work will automatically be wrapped by MTS in a transaction and the transaction will be completed when that method is complete Conceptual Business Object Client Application Server MTS BusinessObject1 Property1 5 Property2 x Method1 stub Method2 local BusinessTransactionObject1 Method1 An implementation candidate for MTS CMS Dictionary lookup and update A Data Access Layer DAL for CMS is currently under development The DAL will abstract the data access methods from the business objects When complete these data access methods will be ideal candidates for implementation as MTS components The DAL however will not be included in the upcoming release of CMS IDX wants to implement some part of the CMS application in MTS in this next release MTS Version 1 0 has been released only since December of 1996 and still lacks debugging facilities and any sort of auditing capabilities For these reasons IDX has decided to implement only a subset of the CMS application within MTS Lookups in and updates to CMS dictionaries were judged to be good candidates since they are fairly simple objects and have code which can be partitioned from the rest of the application with relative ease On the other hand access to dictionaries generates a large number of queries against the CMS database so performance should be easily measurable The role played by dictionaries CMS stores definition data in a set of application dictionaries Dictionaries include lists of such things as medical diagnoses allergies and medications These define the domain

    Original URL path: http://jeffsutherland.org/oopsla97/mts_pos.html (2016-04-27)
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  • Here I just add something more on the opportunities for practical rather than theoretical lessons on software, software architecting and the software business
    IMS Univac s DMS and Cincom s Total One of our teams implemented a CICS DL 1 pilot application 1975 While still in the above job gave a 10 lecture evening course entitled Philosophy and Education at the University of Cape Town s Extra Mural Studies Department It was an extension of my ubiquitous Scylla and Charybdis theme now with extra flavours from computing One of many lessons for me the most surprising people passionately keep looking to the most abstract philosophy for relevance to their daily lives MACK as a tool to help us simplify complexity is directed to that task in all encompassing scope and detail 1976 Left the large company to start concentrating on my still vaguely conceived mission Worked as freelance programmer cleaning up a Datapoint site that hadn t been doing so well Contrasting it with our earlier and successful applications led to the IDIOM related in my 1996 faq and whose lengthy saga has played a seminal role in the evolution of MACK even though the full IDIOM product itself No subsets never got off the ground The basis of IDIOM Interpretable Design for Integrated Operation and Management lay in the definition of the system context of a program One influence was mainframe JCL Job Control Language but so as not to put off ex mainframers I must add that it had a far more fine grained approach addressing OLTP as well as Batch Its core was Boolean logic based usage specifications for virtual as well as real resources and crucially end user oriented logical design specifications via logical chains could be used to manage run time resource usage and possible conflict Hence also the acronym 1977 Thanks to loud talk about IDIOM at the 1976 Sicob expo in Paris and on account of our then free access to the Datapoint source code as well as our 1975 tests on a new and fairly compatible competitor was called as a witness for over two days of sworn testimony in a U S lawsuit alleging theft of trade secrets and a countersuit alleging restrictive trade practices Many useful lessons for me there I also told both parties that neither side could win Over two years later they settled by dropping both suits In Irvine California designed and programmed PROBE a debugger that became one of the standard utilities for Computer Automation s Sybol high level language In Irvine and later Paris and London researched and conferenced in DBMS and other IT architectural issues in further pursuit of IDIOM s potential though with no immediately concrete result 1978 Co founder with Robert Gibson of Synergy Computing as a software house in Cape Town explicitly concentrating on the more complex minicomputer based multi user application as distinct from the microcomputers then starting towards their impending ubiquity as PC s and with a relative simplicity and higher level of package use that left fewer comparative advantages for local development and support enterprises We first specialized in Datapoint where we consolidated our standard IDIOM rooted techniques for building resilient though fully end user driven applications Later concentrated on the HP3000 starting off in COBOL and extensively using their excellent Image DBMS derived from Cincom s Total which in those pre Relational days was the world s most heavily used DBMS Full 1980 s Synergy Computing was the exclusive distributor in South Africa for several HP3000 based application development and system tool vendors including Robelle VESoft and Cognos Cognos flagship product at the time was their PowerHouse 4GL soon ported to DEC VAX DG AOS IBM AS 400 and PC Cognos later also sold the InterBase RDBMS on their prime platforms Our main tasks were selling including frequent benchmarking against competitors and language training and technical support We also sought and had much in depth involvement with customers in consulting handholding and actual doing of application development DB design data migration and implementation in a great variety of organizations and applications Along the way we had various salutary experiences with Big Seven style now Four high profile consultants and methodologies Many good lessons in real user needs and more technical aspects such as portability DBMS application and data migration and the system software and software tool industries Ample close contact with high level tool extensibility or lack thereof as well as the often limited need for it in the real world and how tool architectures limit extensibility both by design and unintentionally 1983 On an idea of Robert s was instrumental in the local equivalent of the ACM organizing a one day shoot out between locally available 4GLs The occasion triggered a quantum leap in our ability to sell our product the local market for 4GLs suddenly became more demand driven Oh the fickleness of markets but sometimes how happily 1982 to 1985 Revived IDIOM for the HP3000 platform but it crunched to a halt again the first halts having been at least partly due to hardware platform switches in some good lessons on portability issues after it went off on a language and compiler tangent rather than keeping to its original hyper or linked database design That was another good lesson now also firmly applied to Metaset Far more flexible and extensible roots than HTML XML s Unix text stream roots A subset Synq for synchronizer and queue manager was worked on Thank you Bob Green of Robelle Consulting in Vancouver for the name A Synq subset was eventually implemented and sold as PowerManager in the PowerHouse environment That was a precursor of the messaging services now emerging for distributed environments 1984 As part of the Synq work wrote a paper presented in Anaheim California which like this one s Part 1 took Charlie Bachman s Copernican Revolution metaphor as a starting point It introduced the concept of relativistic realtime which demands a time component of data and associated transformations between viewpoints It was presented in the context of application system design and management especially as it applies in the multi department enterprise In 1986 the paper became Appendix B of my book as it applied equally to multi organizational society Those three relativistic notions quoted above are of course still fundamental to MACK though no longer so novel by themselves 1985 Decided to cut IDIOM Synq as my long standing objective suddenly became more urgent as anti apartheid riots and securocrat reactions spread throughout the country Started my book Beyond Apartheid Its Appendix A consisted of the Scylla and Charybdis story in Homer s Odyssey for easy reference from throughout the book so the book s title and two appendices nicely indicate its wide ranging inspirations and motivations though it was basically a philosophical work This seems a good point to mention that in Cambridge I had also found myself on the committee of the Society for the Application of Research which at the time was a rather heretical notion in those ivory towers 1986 Completed and published the book myself conventional publishers having been somewhat confused by its unusual political stance at the same time rather innocently attempting to initiate action based on the theory that political change more effectively simplifies yet better respects complexity if it is brought about by Civil Society rather than by either political parties or revolutions and that Civil Society can be greatly fostered by IT and public access networks In its action aspects the book was more than somewhat premature especially as South Africa s Prestel protocol based Beltel national dial up service was still in trial mode I also still had to appreciate better that my thinking while it was then as now clearly largely right had really diverged badly from what people are used to So the book fell flat as the immediate political influence it had aimed to be Its core was consequently overlooked too Its main aim and very basis however is still 100 valid and is still worth studying in detail if you want to explore the now ever faster tightening partnership between philosophy governance markets and IT A lot of its thesis can rightly be called cliché but that partnership is I think largely unique then as now So in that respect the book was very accurately far seeing though in a general way For a smaller but quite specific confirmation I can t resist repeating this one Whereas the South African political situation was so extremely urgent large and complex that the wise did not dare predict I did make one and only one major time quantified prediction in that book p 47 We might expect to see the fastest growth towards a fuller democracy over a 3 to 8 year timeframe Naïve revolutionaries thought that far too long for the hard bitten realists it was far too short In the event the book having been completed and published in May 1986 May 1989 was the middle of FW de Klerk s January to September rise to the Presidency while the country s first fully democratic elections were held in April 1994 and Nelson Mandela was inaugurated as president in May So it is difficult to imagine a more precise confirmation of a medium term political prediction And it can t all have been luck The timeframe prediction was immediately followed by a summary of the mechanisms then foreseen The democratic pressure and the information storage and retrieval technology would probably develop in parallel with supply and demand alternately leading and following Fortunately the supply was growing independently of me and Beltel and it is now well known how the subsequent collapse of apartheid like the collapse of the Soviet empire which vastly facilitated our own little process was strongly enabled by various newer electronic media fax video satellite etc whose use was burgeoning at the time So I can squeeze a partial confirmation out of that one The above statement from the book was then immediately followed by the qualification The reorganization of government would probably lag somewhat behind And how very truly and extremely urgently that state still needs addressing in South Africa and globally 1987 Synergy Computing goes also into the Beltel business buying a VAX with the already operational Jutalex Beltel based legal information service on it offered by Juta one of South Africa s two major legal publishers We transfer the service to Synergy s own HP3000 based Beltel gateway system which had been brilliantly designed and implemented by our Stephen Davies in just one of his amazing design and programming exploits with us since 1980 We start developing an Entity Relationship based Semantic Net design for an intended public groupware system though the groupware term was not yet current as far as I know with soft or user extensible semantics The design is an amalgam of the original IDIOM plus descendants our in depth DBMS experiences our heavy use of e mail since 1985 thanks again to Stephen some Expert System smatterings I pick up on a three day hands on introduction and my longstanding quest for context April 1988 At South Africa s first national Electronic Information conference and exhibition which we also helped organize Stephen exhibits the Beltel accessible prototype application Supported by a specially commissioned multi projector slide show graphically and powerfully portraying why and how Beltel might promote the multi group and multi niched nature of Civil Society and contribute to constructive political progress I give a paper on the simplifying business of governance as it is already boosted by IT and might most desirably be further boosted by public access networks Paper and especially show are well acclaimed but their impact is later very much deflated by the failure of the national telecomm to make good their unofficial talk of following the French Minitel example by subsidizing the penetration of Beltel into everyday use The video of the show of which I have some copies in case you re interested is however incorporated into the telecomm s standard Beltel Information Provider course 1988 Stephen and I further elaborate the prototype for the ER based groupware plan Stephen comments This looks like hypertext That was the first time I d heard the word But Semantic Net hypertext based groupware is more ambitious even than the present html based Web cf the August 1998 CACM article Web Based Development of Complex Information Products in which the authors demand links as first class objects The Web with XML is only now generalizing the link concept The meaningless link is also the basis of my dismissal of html when I first encounter it in 1991 Based though it was on the clear IDIOM Total Image data structuring lessons I talk still vaguely perceived designs that even Stephen can t see in programmatic terms Normal commercial work occupies us After a while unfortunately though very understandably Stephen moves on to a company with a clearer immediate and full time outlet for his talents 1989 Synergy Computing though mainly through our Johannesburg operation becomes the local distributor for Systematica s VSF Virtual Software Factory meta CASE product with my enthusiastic support in view of the CASE like aspects of my 1976 IDIOM and its descendants and even my pursuit in the earlier Seventies of generic template or pattern based approaches We make one big sale But despite IBM s having bought a 30 interest Systematica later goes bust That is a good lesson on the typical fate of very high level software designs insufficiently rooted in clear and efficiently implementable structures 1989 to 1990 I move towards the full time pursuit funded mainly by me and family of the grand scheme already emerging out of the above mists Ride The Mainstream is its founding document in March 1990 The document has a mainly political face to it considering the exciting circumstances at the time and my own on going Civil Society activities but is basically philosophical arguing at length that the market potentially encompasses all social activity and without meaningful restriction especially when appropriately boosted by IT though that having been the document s purpose it does set what is for me the already clear complexity oriented IT direction I sell my share in Synergy Computing to my long time but long suffering partner Robert Gibson and start setting up a new operation completely dedicated to what becomes the Metaset MACK project The explicit application target at the time has the unwieldly description database enriched continuous conferencing Its own repository and self directed CASE like aspect are implicit given its IDIOM and PowerHouse background the latter having a data dictionary foundation and largely declarative approach and its semantic net based user extensibility With hindsight and seeing how existing Internet utilities are still so unintegrated as commented rhetorically in The Divine Programmer Syndrome section the target seems extraordinarily ambitious but it has the basic simplicity of the then already emerging MACK and in its user extensibility in the widest market one can also see how it is implicitly intended to be merely a seed or boot product like the present immediate target So the project is not nearly as bad an example of notorious specification creep as may appear from later developments 1991 to 1992 Through a lucky coincidence we kick off with a contract for a product which is also a useful milestone on the way to Metaset a metadata based multi indexing data retrieval system including full text field and document inversion with optional phonetic access fitting between the PowerHouse 4GL and the InterBase RDBMS as Metaset was also originally envisaged We call it Metakey Like Metaset the name is suggested by Guy Bullen Smith who has newly joined The experience brings further lessons the multi national customer also has us port Metakey from its Metaset roots on our VAX to their local HP3000 with MPE iX and their UK sited HP9000 with HP UX The portable version is subsequently developed and maintained on our own HP9000 Through the Cognos grapevine Thank you Nigel Campbell we have enquiries for the product from other countries but we had learnt some good lessons as to the demands such a sandwich product makes on training and support for both slices as well as the filling of the sandwich so we decide not to take it further and rather to concentrate on the full Metaset The Metakey experience especially in its Version 2 which most advantageously eliminates much internal use of InterBase greatly encourages us in the view that we would do better to integrate our own DBMS into the Metaset product PowerHouse had already been squeezed out by the Metaset design s tightening integration into a more coherent full function tool The integrated DBMS decision is firmly taken in mid 1993 the objective being DB fully supporting all real IT requirements such as viewability updatability navigability sharability efficiency tunability resilience extensibility transformability etc though not artificial demands such as SQL support There s another example of what seems a South African tradition of doing things our own eclectic but coherent and practical self contained way InterBase was even applying political sanctions or trying to There are however some more substantive reasons for dismissing SQL its subschema equivalent if I may call it that seeing its roots using Views as the context for a query is far too badly granularized and unintegrated hence effectively static while its transactional approach is also too simple minded hence bad for workflow It is a naïve realtime concept rather than relativistic realtime while even its later move towards TSQL Temporal SQL does not systematically make the break Since IDIOM days in 1976 I had been aiming for predicate locking though it was only in 1977 in the UCI library that I learnt that term from Michael Stonebraker s work And while HP s Image offered it later it did so in an unintegrated and hence too limited way In Metakey we were already using InterBase s lower level blr Binary Language Representation rather than Dynamic SQL

    Original URL path: http://jeffsutherland.org/oopsla98/SpottBioComp.html (2016-04-27)
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  • Business Object Stereotypes
    example a sales office seeks to maximize sales quantities and prices the distribution unit to optimize service levels within inventory constraints the production unit to improve efficiency and quality and the procurement agent to reduce costs and lead times The static purpose of such a unit is defined by its policies which detail the work it can do the conditions under which it is done and the courses of action

    Original URL path: http://jeffsutherland.org/oopsla98/marshall/tsld002.htm (2016-04-27)
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  • Organization Development
    authority and control in a federation Instead of exercising authority by command and control these communities coordinate their roles and communicate their needs to achieve mutual goals The definition of a supply chain as a network of autonomous or semi autonomous business entities collectively responsible for procurement manufacturing and distribution activities associated with one or more families of related products captures this essence Not only are value networks typically between

    Original URL path: http://jeffsutherland.org/oopsla98/marshall/tsld003.htm (2016-04-27)
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  • Need for Interoperability
    BAAN SSA P SOFT BOMA BOMA RASCAL CARD BANK FEDEX BANK CORPORATE INDIVIDUAL Previous slide Next slide Back to first slide View graphic version Notes Systems from different suppliers need

    Original URL path: http://jeffsutherland.org/oopsla98/marshall/tsld004.htm (2016-04-27)
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  • Communication & Coordination
    units Management within a unit typically requires continuous scheduling execution and evaluation of processes allocation and re allocation of resources and ongoing refinement of its purpose Management between units is by periodic coordination of mutual purpose and communication of shared events The primary need within a unit is for integration typically by sharing information in a database while that between units is for interaction typically by exchanging messages over networks

    Original URL path: http://jeffsutherland.org/oopsla98/marshall/tsld005.htm (2016-04-27)
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  • Coordination by Contract
    contract is instantiated as a set of obligations between its parties which are either fulfilled cancelled or violated A good contract defines the rights and obligations in every possible case including violation Just as a a contract has clauses that specify the courses of action in all situations a contract diagram represents it through its deontic states and the conditions which relate them This is a specialization of a state

    Original URL path: http://jeffsutherland.org/oopsla98/marshall/tsld006.htm (2016-04-27)
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