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  • LENR-CANR.org — A library of papers about cold fusion
    Papers and Books for the general reader This website provides scholars with papers and primary source material in easily accessible form General readers are provided with reviews of the subject and books that give the history of the controversy and a summary of the scientific knowledge Pictures and descriptions of experimental apparatus are also shown Here are some of the popular papers for the general reader Storms E A Student s Guide to Cold Fusion 2003 LENR CANR org Revised April 2012 Spanish edition Estudio de la Fusión en Frío Brazilian Portuguese edition Estudo Fusao a Frio Russian version Руководство для изучающих холодный синтез Nagel D J Scientific Overview of ICCF15 2009 Rothwell J Cold Fusion And The Future 2004 Chapter 1 of this book is a list of Frequently Asked Questions written by Rothwell and Mallove Also available in Brazilian Portuguese and Japanese People looking for a quick easy introduction to the field may enjoy our YouTube video A Brief Introduction to Cold Fusion You can read the script and learn more about it here Here are some important reviews of the field U S Defense Intelligence Agency report on cold fusion Technology Forecast Worldwide Research on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Increasing and Gaining Acceptance DIA 08 0911 003 13 November 2009 McKubre Simultaneous Series Operation of Light Heavy Water Cells Excess Power vs Current Density Click image for details McKubre M C H Cold Fusion LENR One Perspective on the State of the Science Proceedings 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science Part 1 2009 See Introduction Hagelstein P L et al New Physical Effects in Metal Deuterides in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science 2004 Marseille France This paper references 130 other papers Many are available in our library See the list in our

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  • Introduction
    fourth it must be exposed to a source of energy This energy can take the form of a sufficiently high temperature a significant high flux of hydrogen through the particle application of energetic electrons or charged particles or application of laser light of the proper frequency Until the importance of these factors is understood the effect will continue to be difficult to replicate Top Technical Introduction to LENR CANR by Edmund Storms At low energies the Coulomb barrier prevents nuclei from coming together and fusing to form a single nucleus To initiate a nuclear reaction several methods are used Nuclear reactions are normally initiated by pushing two atoms together with enough force to overcome the Coulomb barrier by brute force or by using neutrons which penetrate the nuclei without seeing a barrier Neutrons have no electrical charge so the Coulomb barrier does not stop them These forces are normally provided by a high temperature plasma or by accelerating ions to high energies In contrast LENR describes the mechanism and conditions that cause a variety of nuclear reactions to take place with a relatively low activation energy These unique conditions reduce the need for excessive energy The normal method forces the nuclei together while the new method encourages them to come together The challenge has been to understand the unique characteristics of the necessary solid structure such that this structure could be generated at will Because the proposed method is unique at odds with current nuclear theory and is still difficult to reproduce support for studies in many countries but not all has been very limited Nevertheless considerable information has accumulated over the last 13 years since Profs Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann showed the world the possibilities inherent in this phenomenon Much understanding is buried in conference proceedings and reports that are not available to a serious student This information will as time permits be made available on this site Students of the subject are also encouraged to use this site to interact with other people in the field and provide objective critiques of the work published here PHENOMENA DISCUSSED IN SOME OF THE PAPERS At least 10 ways have been demonstrated to produce anomalous heat and or anomalous elemental synthesis A few of these methods will be described here For course not all of the claims are worthy of belief nor are they accepted by many people Nevertheless the claims will be described without qualifications in order to provide the reader with the latest understanding The most studied method involves the use of an electrolytic cell containing a LiOD electrolyte and a palladium cathode Current passing through such a cell generates D ions at the cathode with a very high effective pressure These ions enter the palladium and if all conditions are correct join in a fusion reaction that produces He 4 Initially palladium wire and plate were used but these were found to form microcracks which allowed the required high concentration of deuterium to escape Later work shows that the actual nuclear reaction occurs on the surface within a very thin layer of deposited impurities Therefore control of this impurity layer is very important but rather difficult The use of palladium is also not important because gold and platinum appear to be better metals on which to deposit the impurity layer This method is found on rare occasions to generate tritium within the electrolyte and transmutation products on the cathode surface Different nuclear reactions are seen when light water H 2 O is used instead of D 2 O although the amount of anomalous energy is less when H 2 O is used These observations have been duplicated hundreds of times in dozens of laboratories as described in several of the review articles available on this website Application of deuterium gas to finely divided palladium and perhaps other metals has been found to generate anomalous energy along with helium 4 Both palladium black as well as palladium deposited as nanocrystals on carbon have shown similar anomalous behavior In both cases the material must be suitably purified Palladium deposited on carbon can and must be heated to above 200 260 C for the effect to be seen When deuterium is caused to diffuse through a palladium membrane on which is deposited a thin layer of various compounds isotopes that were not previously present are generated with isotopic ratios unlike those occurring naturally A plasma discharge under H 2 O or D 2 O between various materials generates many elements that were not previously present When the electrodes are carbon and the plasma is formed in H 2 O the main anomalous element is iron This experiment is relatively easy to duplicate Several complex oxides including several superconductors can dissolve D 2 when heated When a potential is applied across a sheet of such material the D ions are caused to move and anomalous heat is generated If deuterium ions having a modest energy are caused to bombard various metals tritium as well as other elements not previously present are generated These ions can be generated in a pulsed plasma or as a beam When water either light or heavy is subjected to intense acoustic waves collapse of the generated bubbles on the surrounding solid walls can generate nuclear reactions This process is different from the fusion reaction claimed to occur within a bubble just before it disappears within the liquid because neutrons are not produced in the former case but are produced in the latter case This method has been applied to various metals in heavy water using an acoustic transducer and in light water using a rotating vane which generates similar acoustic waves HOW TO EXPLAIN THE CLAIMS A major problem in deciding which model might be correct is the absence of any direct information about the nature of the nuclear active environment At this time two important features seem to be important the size of the nanodomain in which the reactions occur and the presence of a deuterium flux through this domain The domain can apparently be made of any material in which hydrogen or deuterium can dissolve Until the nature of the nuclear active state NAS is known no theory will properly explain the effect and replication of the claims will remain difficult When fusion is initiated using conventional methods significant tritium and neutrons are produced In addition when other elements are generated they tend to be radioactive This is in direct contrast to the experience using low energy methods These products are almost completely absent and instead helium 4 is produced When radiation is detected it has a very low energy This contrasting behavior as well as the amount of anomalous energy has made the claims hard to explain using conventional models This difficulty has been amplified by a failure of many skeptics to recognize the contrasting effect of the environment a plasma being used in the older studies and a solid lattice of periodic atoms being present as the new environment Over 500 models and their variations have been proposed some of which are very novel and some are variations on conventional ideas Most models attempt to explain the nuclear reaction once the required environment has been created without addressing what that unique environment might be like These models involve conversion of a proton deuteron to a neutron dineutron creation of an electron structure that is able to neutralize the barrier conversion of deuterium to a wave which interacts without charge and the presence of otherwise overlooked neutrons and or novel particles Many of the models will have to be abandoned or seriously modified once the nature of the nuclear active environment is understood Top It Started in 1989 by Peter Hagelstein Many of us recall the controversy surrounding the announcement of claims of observations of fusion reactions in a test tube that were made in 1989 At the time these claims were greeted with considerable skepticism on the part of the physics community and the scientific community in general The principal claim of Pons and Fleischmann The principal claim of Pons and Fleischmann in 1989 was that power was produced in palladium cathodes that were loaded electrochemically in a heavy water electrolyte The evidence in support of this was a measured increase in the temperature in the electrochemical cell There was no obvious evidence for nuclear reaction products commensurate with the claimed heat production Fleischmann speculated that perhaps two deuterons were somehow fusing to He 4 through some kind of new mechanism Rejection by the physics community This claim was not accepted by the physics community on theoretical grounds for several reasons First there was no mechanism known by which two deuterons might approach one another close enough to fuse since the Coulomb barrier prevents them from approaching at room temperature Second if they did approach close enough to fuse one would expect the conventional dd fusion reaction products to be observed since these happen very fast Essentially once two deuterons get close enough to touch reactions occur with near unity probability and the reaction products p t and n He 3 leave immediately at high relative velocity consistent with the reaction energy released To account for Fleischmann s claim the proposed new reaction would seemingly somehow have to make He 4 quietly and cleanly without any of the conventional reaction products showing up and would somehow have to arrange for this to happen a billion times faster than the conventional reaction pathway Most physicists bet against the existence of such a magical new effect Third the normal pathway by which two deuterons fuse to make He 4 normally occurs with the emission of a gamma ray near 24 MeV There was no evidence for the presence of any such high energy gamma emission from the sample hence no reason to believe that any helium had been made Finally if one rejects the possibility that any new mechanisms might be operative then the claim that power was being produced by fusion must be supported by the detection of a commensurate amount of fusion reaction products Pons and Fleischmann found no significant reaction products which given the rejection of new mechanisms implied an absence of fusion reactions An alternate explanation is proposed The physicists decided in 1989 that the most likely reason that Pons and Fleischmann observed a temperature increase was that they had made an error of some sort in their measurements When many groups tried to observe the effect and failed this led most of the physics community to conclude that there was nothing to it whatsoever other than some bad experiments The claim of Jones A second very different claim was made at the same time in 1989 by Steve Jones This work also involved electrochemistry in heavy water and the observation of reaction products corresponding to the conventional dd fusion reactions The initial publication showed a spectrum of neutron emission that Jones had detected from a titanium deuteride cathode loaded electrochemically The response of the physics community was skeptical as the signal to noise ratio was not particularly impressive Given the polarization of the physics community in opposition to the claims of Pons and Fleischmann which were announced essentially simultaneously the physicists were not of a mood to accept much of any claims that fusion could happen in an electrochemical experiment at all Jones went to great lengths to assure fellow scientists that his effect was completely unrelated to the claims of Pons and Fleischmann and was much more reasonable Also rejected Physicists had reason to be skeptical Theoretical considerations indicated that the screening effects that Jones was relying on were not expected to be as strong as needed to account for the fusion rates claimed As this experiment could not seem to be replicated by others at the time it was easy for the physics community to reject this claim as well Cold fusion weighed and rejected with prejudice Cold fusion as the two different claims were termed was dismissed with prejudice in 1989 The initial claims were made near the end of March in Utah and the public refutation of the claims was made at the beginning of May It only took about 40 days for the physics community to consider the new claims test them experimentally and then announce loudly to the world that they had been carefully weighed and rejected Following this rejection physicists have treated cold fusion rather badly For example Professor John Huizenga of Rochester University was selected to be co chair of the DOE ERAB committee that met to review cold fusion and issue a report Shortly afterward he wrote a book entitled Cold Fusion The Scientific Fiasco of the Century in which he discusses the claims the experiments and the extreme skepticism with which the new claims were greeted Robert Park discusses the subject in his book entitled Voodoo Science You can find many places where physicists and other scientists happily place the cold fusion claims together with claims of UFOs and psychic phenomena Top A Science Tutorial By Talbot Chubb First it is important to recognize that there are four distinct types of energy production 1 chemical energy that powers our cars and most of our civilization 2 nuclear fission energy as used to generate about 15 or our electricity 3 hot fusion nuclear energy which powers the sun and most stars 4 cold fusion nuclear energy which appears as unexplained heat in a few experimenter s laboratory studies and which most scientists believe is impossible The three types of nuclear energy produce 10 million times as much heat per pound of fuel than occurs with chemical energy How do these types of energy differ To understand this question you need to know some chemistry and physics Lesson 1 Nature has provided us with two types of stable charged particles the proton and the electron The proton is heavy normally tiny and has a positive charge The electron is light normally large and fuzzy and has a negative charge The positive charge and the negative charge attract each other just like the north pole of a magnet attracts the south pole of a magnet When you bring two magnets together with the north pole of one facing the south pole of the other they pull together bang When they bang into each other they release a little bit of energy in the form of heat but it is too small an amount to easily measure To pull the magnets apart you have to do work which is another way of saying you have to use up energy It s almost like pulling a rock back up a hill Rolling the rock down a hill actually creates a little heat and pulling the rock back up the hill takes energy In the same way the positive charge of the proton pulls on the negative charge of the electron and they stick together releasing energy in the process The result is a hydrogen atom designated H A hydrogen atom is nothing but a fuzzy electron hugging a compact proton The proton is the nucleus of the hydrogen atom If you knock the electron off the hydrogen atom you get a positive ion H which is nothing more than the original proton An ion is the name applied to an atom or molecule that has lost or gained one or more electrons hence is no longer electrically neutral Lesson 2 Nature has provided us with more than one type of atom We have oxygen atoms nitrogen atoms iron atoms helium atoms etc How do these atoms differ The answer is that they all have different types of nuclei plural of nucleus from the Latin And these different nuclei all have different numbers of protons inside them which means they all have different plus charges The nucleus of the helium atom has 2 protons inside it hence has plus 2 charge and requires 2 electrons to neutralize its charge When 2 electrons stick to it it becomes a helium atom The oxygen nucleus has 8 protons and has charge 8 When 8 electrons stick to it it becomes an oxygen atom The nitrogen atom has 7 electrons and the iron atoms something like 26 But all the atoms are built more or less the same way with a compact positively charged nucleus embedded in a cloud of fuzzy electrons The difference in size between the compact nucleus and the fuzzy electrons is enormous The sun has a diameter only about 100 times that of the earth The electron cloud on an atom has a diameter which is about 100 000 times that of the nucleus Cube these numbers to get the difference in volumes Lesson 3 We now are in a position to understand what chemical energy is The atoms all electrically neutral can actually join with each other and release more energy This is another way of saying that they can join into more stable configurations The electrons in an atom try to configure themselves so as to get as close as possible to their nucleus but their fuzzy nature requires that they take up a certain volume of space However if they join together with the electrons of another atom they can usually find a tighter configuration that leaves them closer to their beloved nuclei For example 2 hydrogen atoms can join together into a more compact configuration if each hydrogen atom contributes its electron to a 2 electron cloud which the separate protons share In this manner they form a grouping of the 2 electrons in a single cloud together with the 2 isolated protons spaced apart from each other but still within the electron cloud The result is a heat producing chemical reaction H H H2 The means goes to or becomes The H2 configuration is the hydrogen molecule and when you buy a tank of hydrogen gas H2 molecules is what you get Furthermore the 2 electrons of the H2

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  • Books
    and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2 Description Low energy nuclear reaction research is unlike thermonuclear fusion research Many publications report on various LENR methods by which nuclear reactions are produced and demonstrated at room temperature The experimental methods to demonstrate these phenomena range from the use of gunpowder and laser techniques to the attempt to electrochemically induce nuclear fusion and fission and create significant excess heat within the palladium or nickel metal lattice exposed to a deuterium or hydrogen containing solution 288 pages ISBN13 9780841224544 Mizuno T Nuclear Transmutation The Reality of Cold Fusion 1998 Infinite Energy Press From Amazon com Nuclear Transmutation The Reality of Cold Fusion Direct from Infinite Energy magazine here Read selected pages in our library Rothwell J Cold Fusion And The Future 2004 LENR CANR org The full text of this book is here Editions in Brazilian Portuguese and Japanese are also available as well as a version with high resolution images The reality of cold fusion is growing and has spawned a series of books that describe the phenomena in ways a general reader can appreciate This is the latest entry It shows how this controversial energy source might change our future The book describes how many nightmare problems that seem beyond any present solution such as global warming invasive species and providing clean drinking water and sanitation to billions of poor people may be remedied with cold fusion combined with other technologies The future might be better than you think This book includes a layman s introduction to the field and a glossary of technical terms that often appear in cold fusion papers A really marvelous job The breadth is wonderful Setting cold fusion in the broader context is very important David J Nagle Professor of Engineering and Applied Science The George Washington University I thought your book on cold fusion and the future to be a remarkable document I read it straight through on receipt John O M Bockris Professor of Chemistry Texas A M University 1978 1997 Distinguished Professor 1980 1997 Thanks Can you recommend a reliable Mind De boggler Arthur C Clarke Japanese edition Here is the Japanese edition 未来を築く常温核融合 ジェト ロスウェル 日本語訳を読みたい方は ここをクリック して下さい 192ページありますのでダウンロードするのに少々時間がかかります この本には著作権はありません 自由にコピーして下さい ジョージ ワシントン大学ディビッド ネイゴル教授 元テキサスA M大学ジョン ボクリス教授 並びに作家アーサー C クラークがこの本を推薦しています Brazilian Portuguese edition Here is the edition in Brazilian Portuguese O livro A Fusão a o Frio e o Futuro traduzido ao português brasileiro por Sergio Bacchi Uma visão das aplicações possíveis da fusão a frio do hidrogênio pesado Um livro com muita imaginação e humanidade Storms E The Science Of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction 2007 World Scientific Publishing Company From Amazon com The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions The book description and order form are here http www worldscibooks com physics 6425 html Read selected pages in our library John Rudesill interviewed Storms and the two of them discussed the book here Prof George Miles U Illinois reviewed the book here From the back cover One of the most important

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  • Links to other websites
    mica cft html DoE Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review This has no direct connection to cold fusion and it does not mention the subject but it is a superb source of information about energy in the U S See http www eia gov totalenergy data annual index cfm Edmund Storms Taking the Chill out of Cold Fusion http home netcom com storms2 index html Electrodynamics Laboratory Proton 21 http www proton21 com ua index en html ENEA Centro Ricerche di Frascati Fusione Fredda Italian http www frascati enea it nhe ENEA Italian National Agency for New Technologies Energy and the Environment Cold Fusion research department site In English http www frascati enea it nhe indEnerex eng htm The ICCF13 abstracts are available here http www iscmns org iccf13 ICCF13 Abstracts pdf ICCF15 The 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science Rome Italy October 5 9 2009 The website is here http iccf15 frascati enea it Infinite Energy Magazine www infinite energy com INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati http www lnf infn it Some papers about cold fusion are available from the Scientific Information section main screen bottom left Preprints Search Enter author Celani International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science http www iscmns org index htm Japan CF Research Society English web page http jcfrs org indexe html Ludwik Kowalski s Cold Fusion items page http csam montclair edu kowalski cf index html Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project http www quantumheat org New Energy Times http www newenergytimes com Science gov has links to many cold fusion papers here Weird Research Anomalous Physics Cold Fusion Links http www amasci com weird wcf html Nickel Hydrogen Cold Fusion Here is a list of web pages with information on the nickel hydrogen reaction This list was compiled by Dr M Srinivasan

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  • News
    the first half of the run and at about 1400 C in the second half The measured energy balance between input and output heat yielded a COP factor of about 3 2 and 3 6 for the 1260ºC and 1400ºC runs respectively The total net energy obtained during the 32 days run was about 1 5 MWh This amount of energy is far more than can be obtained from any known chemical sources in the small reactor volume A sample of the fuel was carefully examined with respect to its isotopic composition before the run and after the run using several standard methods XPS EDS SIMS ICP MS and ICP AES The isotope composition in Lithium and Nickel was found to agree with the natural composition before the run while after the run it was found to have changed substantially Nuclear reactions are therefore indicated to be present in the run process which however is hard to reconcile with the fact that no radioactivity was detected outside the reactor during the run In summary the performance of the E Cat reactor is remarkable We have a device giving heat energy compatible with nuclear transformations but it operates at low energy and gives neither nuclear radioactive waste nor emits radiation From basic general knowledge in nuclear physics this should not be possible Nevertheless we have to relate to the fact that the experimental results from our test show heat production beyond chemical burning and that the E Cat fuel undergoes nuclear transformations It is certainly most unsatisfying that these results so far have no convincing theoretical explanation but the experimental results cannot be dismissed or ignored just because of lack of theoretical understanding Magnus Olofsson the CEO of Elforsk wrote about this paper in NyTeknik He said Google translation Elforsk has in recent years followed the development of what has come to be called nuclear reactions at low energy LENR Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Elforsk include published a compilation of knowledge about LENR Elforsk has also co funded the current measurements and earlier measurements While the earlier measurements showed an unexplained excess energy Elforsk takes now the initiative to build a comprehensive Swedish research initiative More knowledge is needed to understand and explain Let us engage more researchers in searching this phenomenon and then explain how it works Here is the official statement about this paper at Elforsk s website in Swedish and English Mats Lewan reports on Rossi and Defkalion May 15 2014 Reporter Mats Lewan of the Ny Teknik magazine has published a book about the cold fusion researcher Andrea Rossi The book is titled An Impossible Invention It is available in English Swedish and Italian You can read the first chapter or order the book here Nobel Laureate Brian Josephson published a comment at Nature com describing the book The highlight of the week was the publication of Mats Lewan s book An Impossible Invention subtitled The true story of the energy source that could change the world

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  • LENR-CANR.org Total Downloads
    Students Do Cold Fusion Special Collections 2004 DoE Review BARC Studies In Cold Fusion Books and Proceedings Books Entire Journal Issues Conference Proceedings ICCF individual papers ICCF 9 Proceedings ICCF 10 Proceedings U S Navy Cold Fusion Research Video Introduction LIBRARY Summary Detail Summary without border Details without border Most recent without border Publications without border JCMNS index without border Most recent Publications J Condensed Matter Nucl Sci index Direct access to Library folder Library Guide LENR CANR org Total Downloads It is difficult to measure exactly how many papers have been downloaded As of February 1 2016 we estimate that 3 596 000 papers have been downloaded and people have visited 3 902 000 times This is not counting downloads and visits made by robot readers from sites such as Google and Yahoo and it does not count partial downloads or failed attempts to download Many of our readers are students and professors on the academic schedule Readership usually dips during spring holiday final exams and summer vacation in U S and European universities The spreadsheet for the graphs shown below is here The totals shown here are weekly totals binned by month For example the data for September

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  • News Archive
    November 2006 September 2006 May 2006 April 2006 January 2006 December 2005 October 2005 September 2005 August 2005 July 2005 March 2005 December 2004 August 2004 May 2004 April 2004 Recent Posts Edmund Storms announces new results with palladium YouTube video Brief Introduction to Cold Fusion Current Science Special Section Low Energy Nuclear Reactions ICCF19 was held in April 2015 Levi et al publish a second extended report on Rossi reactor Mats Lewan reports on Rossi and Defkalion LENR CANR database improvements underway ICCF18 Conference Download Mizuno s ICCF18 paper here John O M Bockris dead Levi et al publish a definitive test of the Rossi high temperature reactor Graham Hubler appointed director of Nuclear Renaissance Institute Scientific American censors discussion of cold fusion including statements by its own editors Cold fusion in mass media articles Cold fusion featured at NIWeek 2012 Martin Fleischmann dead at 85 ICCF 17 International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium Billionaire donates 5 5 million for cold fusion research at the University of Missouri New edition of A Student s Guide to Cold Fusion 10th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals CERN Colloquium videos Overview of Theoretical and Experimental Progress in LENR Edmund Storms on The Space Show McKubre lecture at SRI s Cafe Scientifique Silicon Valley on YouTube Rossi device again demonstrated in self sustaining mode Large reactor demonstrated Rossi eCat device demonstrated in self sustaining mode Defkalion Green Technologies s a press conference Plans to begin commercial cold fusion reactor production this year Rossi 18 hour demonstration Rossi 6 hour demonstration convinces Swedish experts ICCF 16 Focardi and Rossi demonstration ICCF 14 Proceedings uploaded Cold Fusion Laboratory Opens AIP Abruptly Cancels Publication Cold Fusion Now website Suspects Arrested in Mallove Murder ICCF 3 and ICCF 5 Proceedings uploaded Arata replication by

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  • A Look at Experiments
    the calorimeter shown above The three phases of glow discharge Excess heat is only observed in the third hottest phase Click to enlarge Other photos of glow discharge experiments Click to enlarge Unused cathodes Power supplies Anode and cathode assembly Anode cathode in cell White object is magnetic stirrer Cell installed in blue Styrofoam shell Top of cell Cell undergoing glow discharge plasma visible in peephole Eroded cathode after a run 1200 dpi scan of Ohmori s unused cathode The surface is roughened with quartz glass Top Photos of Accidents Cold fusion experiments can be dangerous Here are the remains of a glow discharge cell that exploded in Mizuno s laboratory in January 2005 Mizuno initially thought this caused by recombination but that is ruled out because the event produced roughly 441 times more energy than the total input energy For details and more illustrations of this accident see Mizuno T and Y Toriyabe Anomalous energy generation during conventional electrolysis in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science 2005 Yokohama Japan Photo courtesy T Mizuno In September 2004 J P Biberian Université d Aix Marseille II reported that a cell with a palladium tube cathode exploded The cell had no more than 120 ml of gas which does not seem like enough to cause a chemical explosion of this magnitude Photo courtesy J P Biberian See Biberian J P Unexplained Explosion During an Electrolysis Experiment in an Open Cell Mass Flow Calorimeter J Condensed Matter Nucl Sci 2009 2 There have been at least four anomalous cold fusion cell explosions See chapter 12 of the e book Cold Fusion and the Future and Zhang X et al On the Explosion in a Deuterium Palladium Electrolytic System in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion Frontiers of Cold Fusion 1992 Nagoya Japan Universal Academy Press Inc Tokyo Japan Top Photo from P Clauzon A glow discharge experimental setup A glow discharge experimental setup similar to the ones described by Ohmori and Mizuno above Courtesy P Clauzon See Fauvarque J P Clauzon and G Lalleve Abnormal excess heat observed during Mizuno type experiments 2005 Laboratoire d Electrochimie Industrielle Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers Paris Top Autoradiographs from M Srinivasan A Polaroid autoradiograph from M Srinivasan Neutron Physics Division ret Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Bombay India The image shows x rays from tritium generated in a Ti disk with a plasma focus device using deuterium gas loading The Polaroid paper is 12 cm 9 cm The disk diameter is 6 7 cm This image is 200 dpi Click on this image for a larger positive 300 dpi copy The same electrode was repeatedly autoradiographed over a one year period revealing the same pattern Tritium was detected with three methods autoradiography with X ray film for Ti cathodes characteristic X ray measurement of titanium excited by the tritium ß and liquid scintillation method for tritium ß counting The plasma focus device used in this experiment generates low levels of plasma fusion hot

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