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  • lipan apache tribe of texas -- Proclamation on January 22, 2001 from the City of McAllen: South Texas Indian Dancer's Day
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    Original URL path: http://www.lipanapache.org/Proclamations/senate2003.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Is Live Oak Treaty of 1835 Still Binding?
    The Tehuacana Creek Treaty was executed in 1844 between the Republic of Texas and several Indian tribes including the Lipan See Tehuacana Creek Treaty supra note 5 It consists of twenty two articles and contains provisions that are similar to those in the Live Oak Treaty but also contains new provisions relating to different issues See id For example the Indian tribes agree to make no treaty with any nation at war with the people of Texas See id art III at 115 The Indian tribes also agree not to trade with any other people than the people of Texas so long as they can procure the goods they need from the established trading houses Id art VI at 115 The Republic agrees to supply the Indians with powder lead guns spears and other arms for the hunting of game when peace is fully established See id art VIII at 116 The Republic also agrees that the President may send blacksmiths mechanics and schoolmasters among the Indians for their benefit and instruction See id art XV at 116 Other provisions of this treaty mirror provisions of the Live Oak Treaty See id art I at 115 parties agree and declare that they will forever live in peace and always meet as friends and brothers art VII at 116 Texas to establish trading houses for convenience and benefit of Indians We find no provision in the Tehuacana Creek Treaty that clearly abrogates any of the provisions in the Live Oak Treaty Accordingly we think a court would construe the provisions of the subsequent Tehuacana Creek Treaty to be in harmony with the Live Oak Treaty C Council Springs Treaty San Saba Treaty The Council Springs Treaty of 1846 is the first treaty between the Lipan and the United States See Council Springs Treaty supra note 7 see also 9 Stat 844 U S Senate ratification The Indian tribes that are parties to the treaty initially acknowledge themselves to be under the protection of the United States and of no other power state or sovereignty whatever Council Springs Treaty supra note 7 art I at 44 We believe this provision is sufficient in itself to abrogate the entire Live Oak Treaty because it is wholly inconsistent with the provisions of the prior Live Oak Treaty See Whitney 124 U S at 194 Iwanowa 67 F Supp 2d at 459 Pursuant to Article I the signatory Indian tribes place themselves under the sole jurisdiction and protection of the United States to the exclusion of any other power state or sovereignty Council Springs Treaty supra note 7 art I at 44 We do not think this language can be harmonized with the letter and spirit of the prior Live Oak Treaty See United States v Payne 264 U S 446 448 1924 stating while the Act being later must control in case of conflict it should be harmonized with the letter and spirit of the treaty so far as that can reasonably be done The perpetual peace friendship and protection guaranteed by the Republic of Texas in the Live Oak Treaty involves protection from another power state or sovereignty that is expressly relinquished in the Council Springs Treaty Moreover the remaining terms of the Council Springs Treaty include similar terms as the Live Oak Treaty We believe that taken as a whole the Council Springs Treaty reveals an intent to establish the relationship between the federal government and the tribes concerning these matters to the exclusion of any prior agreement concerning the same matters including any agreement with the Republic of Texas The Council Springs Treaty gives the United States the sole and exclusive right of regulating trade and intercourse with the Indian Tribes and to establish trading houses Council Springs Treaty supra note 7 arts II IX at 44 47 compare id with Live Oak Treaty supra note 4 art 3 at 30 establishing trading houses The Council Springs Treaty provides for the return of prisoners held by the various Indian Tribes See Council Springs Treaty supra note 7 art IV at 45 compare id with Live Oak Treaty supra note 4 art 4th at 30 31 return of Cattle Horses Mules or other property and art 6th at 31 32 parties shall be secure when passing through territory of other party It also provides for the punishment of those of the various tribes and the United States who commit murder or robbery pursuant to the laws of the State or Territory see Council Springs Treaty supra note 7 art VII at 46 and prohibits the stealing of horses See id art VIII at 46 47 compare id arts VII VIII at 46 47 with Live Oak Treaty supra note 4 art 5 at 31 parties committing violence against the other to be punished under laws of Texas Finally the parties pledge perpetual peace See Council Springs Treaty supra note 7 art X at 48 compare id with Live Oak Treaty supra note 4 art 1st at 30 pledging peace friendship and protection and art 2nd at 30 pledging to be perpetual friends of the Republic We also believe the circumstances support our conclusion that the Council Springs Treaty evinces an intent on the part of the parties to it that the various Indian tribes relinquish the benefits of the prior relationship with the Republic of Texas in order to avail themselves of the benefits of a relationship with the United States See Wichita Affiliated Bands v United States 89 Ct Cl 378 421 1939 stating that the 1846 treaty appears to have been entered into for the purpose of having the Indians acknowledge themselves to be under the protection of the United States and no other power state or sovereignty The Republic of Texas became the State of Texas in December 1845 see 29 Pub Res 1 29th Cong 9 Stat 108 1845 only months before the 1846 Council Springs Treaty See Cook v United States 288 U S 102 112 1933

    Original URL path: http://www.lipanapache.org/Treaties/LiveOakTreaty_Abbott.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Council Springs Treaty May 15, 1846
    out ARTICLE 6 The said tribes and their associate bands pledge themselves to give notice to the agent of the United States residing near them of any designs which they may know or suspect to be formed in any neighboring tribe or by any person whatever against the peace and interests of the United States ARTICLE 7 It is agreed that if any Indians shall commit a murder or robbery on any citizen of the United States the tribe or nation to which the offender belongs shall deliver up the person or persons so complained of on complaint being made to their chief to the nearest post of the United States to the end that he or they may be tried and if found guilty punished according to the law of the State or Territory where such offence may have been committed In like manner if any subject or citizen of the United States shall commit murder or robbery on any Indian or Indians of the said tribes or nations upon complaint thereof to the agent residing near them he or they shall be arrested tried and punished according to the law of the State or Territory where such offence may have been committed ARTICLE 8 The practice of stealing horses has prevailed very much to the great disquiet of the citizens of the United States and if persisted in cannot fail to involve both the United States and the Indians in endless strife It is therefore agreed that it shall be put an entire stop to on both sides Nevertheless should bad men in defiance of this agreement continue to make depredations of that nature the person convicted thereof shall be punished with the utmost severity according to the laws of the State or Territory where the offence may have been committed and all horses so stolen either by the Indians from the citizens of the United States or by the citizens of the United States from any of the said tribes or nations into whose possession soever they may have passed upon due proof of rightful ownership shall be restored and the chiefs of said tribes or nations shall give all necessary aid and protection to citizens of the United States in reclaiming and recovering such stolen horses and the civil magistrates of the United States respectively shall give all necessary aid and protection to Indians in claiming and recovering such stolen horses ARTICLE 9 For the protection of said Indians and for the purpose of carrying out the stipulations of this treaty more effectually the President shall at his discretion locate upon their borders trading houses agencies and posts In consideration of the friendly disposition of said tribes evidenced by the stipulations in the present treaty the commissioners of the United States in behalf of the said States agree to give to the said tribes or nations goods as presents at this time and agree to give presents in goods to them to the amount of Page

    Original URL path: http://www.lipanapache.org/Treaties/CouncilSprings_1846.html (2016-02-09)
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  • The Lipan Apache Tribe: B. Sunday Eiselt
    mixed blood communities on the fringes of colonial rule More than other nomadic tribes the Jicarilla played an enormous role in holding together the social fabric of New Mexican villages after the fall of the Spanish Empire This comprehensive study by Sunday Eiselt begins with the great Athapaskan migration out of Canada during prehis toric times and ends with the forced settlement of the Jicarilla on the Dulce reservation in the 1880s Eiselt combines archaeological and ethno historical data in an examination of Jicarilla strategies for self preservation She reveals the ideological and political imperatives of â  belongingâ that shaped their interactions with local communities and the state and that enabled them to avoid reservation life well into the 1880s Throughout their long history Jicarilla identity remained intact distinctive and discernable even as life on the reservation disrupted the intimate connections that once existed with their Hispanic and Pueblo neighbors Editorial Review â Sunday Eiselt has produced THE definitive work on Jicarilla Apache history and archaeology She uses a strong theoretical approach to enclavement and combines history archaeology and ethnohistory to not only describe past Jicarilla movements and cultural development throughout the Southwest but to explain how and why

    Original URL path: http://www.lipanapache.org/Literature/BSEiselt.html (2016-02-09)
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  • The Lipan Apache Tribe: Sherry Robinson
    Daniel Romero Jr with five directors Daniel Castro Romero Jr Bernard F Barcena Jr Robert Soto David Ortiz and Tomas Taberes Ramirez see link Exhibit Court Case Cause 2007CI10117 At the time of the split between the Band which became the Tribe and the current Band Barcena was the chairman of the Lipan Apache Band of Texas in Texas and Romero was the chairman of the splinter group the Lipan Apache Band of Texas in California About I Fought A Good Fight A History of the Lipan Apaches This history of the Lipan Apaches from archeological evidence to the present tells the story of some of the least known least understood people in the Southwest These plains buffalo hunters and traders were one of the first groups to acquire horses and with this advantage they expanded from the Panhandle southeast across Texas and into Coahuila Around 1700 the Comanches began forcing Eastern Apaches from their haunts but they didnâ t yield easily and from then on were the Comanchesâ stubborn enemies For a small group the Lipans had an outsized impact through three centuries They were as clever fearless and resourceful as the better known Chiricahua Apaches With a knack for making friends and forging alliances they survived against all odds and were still free long after their worst enemies were corralled on reservations The author uses oral history and ethnology along with conventional sources to track the Lipans from their earliest interactions with Spaniards and kindred Apache groups through later alliances with other tribes and French traders to their love hate relationships with Mexicans Texas colonists Texas rangers and the U S Army In detail we hear of the Eastern Apache confederacy of allied but autonomous groups that joined for war defense and trade Among their confederates Lipans drew

    Original URL path: http://www.lipanapache.org/Literature/SRobinson.html (2016-02-09)
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  • The Lipan Apache Tribe: Morris E. Opler's Myths & Legends of Lipan Apaches
    closer to Jicarilla in respect to form terms and behavior patterns than to kinship usages of any other Southern Athabaskan speaking tribe Dr Harry Hoijer s scholarly analysis of the relationships of Southern Athabaskan languages demonstrates that Jicarilla and Lipan together constitute a sub group of the eastern linguistic group quite apart from Mescalero which is classified in the other or western group The conclusion seems inescapable that the affiliation of the Lipan and Mescalero is a recent and secondary one and that more ancient and fundamental connections must be sought to the north It is of interest and importance to consider whether the myths and tales yield materials which offer further insight concerning the place of the Lipan in Southwestern cultures The results of such an inquiry have proved so gratifying that it is doubtful whether the value of mythology for purposes of ethnological analysis has ever been better vindicated A glance at the table of contents of this volume is enough to reveal one of the major differences in myth and conception which divides the Lipan from the Mescalero the Lipan have a myth of emergence This gives a definite cast to Lipan mythology which Mescalero mythology does not share for a number of other Lipan stories take their inspiration from events which transpired in the underworld before the emergence Section I C The myths of all Southern Athabaskan tribes with the possible exception of the Kiowa Apache include a story of a culture hero who slew the foes of the race The Navaho Western Apache and Jicarilla name the chief protagonist Killer of Enemies and have him attended by a subordinate a younger brother relative or friend who is ordinarily known as Child of the Water By a curious twist the Mescalero and Chiricahua have reversed the positions of these two for them Child of the Water becomes the intrepid hero and monster slayer and Killer of Enemies his weaker companion The Lipan lean towards the northern and western usage Killer of Enemies is their culture hero They use the term Child of Water seldom and then only as a synonym for Killer of Enemies In the Lipan tales a younger brother of the culture hero called Wise One appears and to him are attributed the characteristics usually associated with the less important of the divine pair One of the monsters with whom the culture hero has difficulty is known as Big Owl by the Jicarilla and Western Apache The Mescalero and Chiricahua think of him as a giant He appears as Big Owl in Lipan mythology again indicating the orientation we have remarked The Lipan names for important concepts or supernaturals of the myths show marked departures from Mescalero usage The Mescalero call masked dancers and the supernaturals they impersonate gahe The Lipan know them as hashchi hactci and therefore agree in this respect with the Jicarilla who refer to comparable supernaturals as hashchin hactcin and with the Navaho who use the cognate term haashch èèh

    Original URL path: http://www.lipanapache.org/History/history_opler.html (2016-02-09)
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  • The Lipan Apache Tribe: History-Timeline
    escalate on anyone who ventures out of villa 1731 On Sept 18th over 500 Lipan warriors ambush and attack 20 Spanish troops Just when Spaniards think the end is near Lipans break off attack 1745 On the night of June 30th over 300 Lipans attack the Bà xar presidio setting fire to many buildings when soldiers fire guns Lipans break off and run down side streets seeking to attack from another direction the Apache attackers are run off by a large body of mission Indians 1749 The Lipan Apaches and Spanish at San Antonio celebrate a grand peace Apache hostages are released and a large pit dug in Military Plaza A live horse war club arrows and lance are placed in the pit and covered with dirt to signify the end of a state of warfare 1750 Smallpox breaks out in Lipan camps along Guadalupe River Lipans are convinced that epidemic was caused by mission clothing worn by newly released hostages Lipans move their camps to upper Nueces River Lipans establish stolen horses for guns trade with east Texas tribes 1751 A large group of Lipan traditionalists who wish no contact with Spanish other than raiding and led by Bigotes Whiskers or Mustached One break away and cross the Rio Grande into Coahuila This break away group calls itself Kunà tsa Big Water People and camps along Rio Escondido and Rio San Rodrigo Coahuila 1753 On Feb 1st villa of San Fernando de Austria is founded on Rio Escondido Coahuila first settlers come from families of San Juan Bautista 1754 First mission dedicated to converting the Lipan is founded at the site of the old mission of San Ildefonso Rio Escondido Coahuila on Dec 21st Mission San Lorenzo lasts one year during night of Oct 4 1755 Lipans revolt burn mission and ride away 1757 Second Lipan mission established on San Saba River of Texas near Menard Mission San Sabà is burned down in 1758 during an attack by Comanches and Wichitas 1761 Third Lipan mission is founded on upper Nueces near Camp Wood Texas San Lorenzo de la Santa Cruz A second small mission is founded several miles south near Montell Texas Nuestra Seà ora de la Candelarà a both missions abandoned by Lipans within 4 years 1763 In March Lipans attack villa of San Fernando de Austria Coahuila entering town by a ruse 7 settlers killed 40 horses stolen 1780 Terrible smallpox epidemic ravages Lipan camps in Texas and then spreads to camps in Coahuila so many Lipans die that priests a la Bahà a fear the numerous corpses will cause other disease Lipan shamans seeking an herbal cure for small pox adapt the use of peyote from Carrizo Indians 1760 1800 Lipan Apaches raid intensely in south Texas Coahuila and Nuevo Leon A series of military campaigns fail to â tameâ them until 1800 1814 Lipan Apaches fight along side rebels fighting for Mexican independence at Battle of Medina 1827 Villa of San Fernando de Austria changes

    Original URL path: http://www.lipanapache.org/History/timeline.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Chevato Chapter 4 Page 46
    Home Page Community Page First Page Previous Page Next Page Last Page Home Page Community Page First Page Previous Page Next Page Last Page

    Original URL path: http://www.lipanapache.org/Literature/ChevatoChapter40002.html (2016-02-09)
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