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  • Lipan Apache Tribe Museum and Cultural Center: Dwindling Resources/Economic Cycle
    Comanche enemies so the Lipans were forced to create a shadow economy in order to obtain the guns and ammunition that were crucial to tribal survival The Lipans established trade alliances with many Indian tribes of east and southeast Texas and traded stolen horses and cattle for guns which were provided to these tribes by French traders along the Red River After Spain took control of southern Louisiana and began to provide east Texas tribes with Spanish weapons the Lipans continued their covert horses for guns trade with east Texas tribes in order to acquire Spanish weapons with which to defend themselves By 1800 the Lipans particularly the bands which inhabited south Texas had transitioned to a cash economy Many of the old Indian allied tribes with which the Lipans had conducted their shadow trade had been decimated by disease or brought into Spanish missions The Lipans however who had long been well known for their abilities to break wild horses began to conduct a cash trade in horses with south Texas Hispanic settlers As wars and revolutions convulsed the Rio Grande region throughout the 1800 s the Lipans also formed strong covert trade relations with many Mexican citizens Once

    Original URL path: http://www.lipanapache.org/Museum/museum_resources.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Lipan Apache Tribe of Texas: The Lipan Apaches and the Spanish
    launched a night attack on the San Antonio presidio setting the buildings on fire Suddenly the Lipan chief told his warriors to retreat He had received news that his daughter was being held hostage at Mission San Antonio de Valero now known as the Alamo and he feared she would be killed if the Lipans pressed on with their attack The Béxar presidio was saved from destruction because of a Lipan father s love for his daughter In 1749 the Lipans and Nah tah hays celebrated a grand peace with the Spanish at San Antonio The entire population came out to meet the Apaches and the leaders feasted under an arbor specially built for the occasion in what is known today as Plaza de Armas or Military Plaza Both sides exchanged captives and the chief s daughter was reunited with her father At the conclusion of the feast the Apaches dug a large hole in the center of the plaza and placed a horse six arrows a lance and a war club in the hole Then the Apaches and the people of San Antonio took handfuls of dirt and covered the hole signifying that henceforth both sides would put an end to warfare and would live together and move forward as brothers The Lipans kept their word and never again attacked San Antonio They never believed that the Spanish were their enemies just their adversaries and they often requested Spanish protection against their true enemies the Comanches The Spanish established four missions specifically for the Lipan Apaches but all four missions failed either because the Lipans revolted or because the missions were attacked by the Comanches and their allies 1 Mission San Lorenzo near Zaragosa Coahuila December 21 1754 to October 4 1755 The Lipans revolted and burned the buildings

    Original URL path: http://www.lipanapache.org/Museum/museum_thespanish.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Lipan Apache Tribe of Texas: The Lipan Apaches and an Independent Mexico
    the Lipans backed the patriots They fought against the Royalists at the Battle of Salado Creek near San Antonio in 1812 and again at the Battle of Medina in 1813 When Mexico finally severed itself from Spain and became an Empire under Agustín Iturbide in 1821 Lipan chiefs Cuelgas de Castro and Yolcna Pocarropa signed a treaty at Laredo with the newly independent government of Mexico and traveled to Mexico

    Original URL path: http://www.lipanapache.org/Museum/museum_mexico.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Lipan Apache Tribe Museum and Cultural Center: The Lipan Apaches and the Republic of Texas
    of the Republic and the crucial role played by the Lipan Apaches in the defense of Texas Many settlers who came to Texas after 1836 commented on the friendliness of the Lipans Settlers in Castroville credited them with saving the settlement from starvation during its early years by providing venison However there was a growing sentiment in Texas that all Indians should be kept away from the settlements and must

    Original URL path: http://www.lipanapache.org/Museum/museum_texas.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Lipan Apache Tribe of Texas: US Treaties, Forts & Cavalry Attacks
    Pecos River However a smallpox epidemic at San Antonio in 1850 and the beginning of a severe five year long drought forced many Lipans to either attempt to deal with the Texans and U S Government or to permanently flee the state Those that signed treaties with the U S found the terms harsh The Spring Creek Treaty 1850 ended the Lipan exemption and legally barred the tribe from living near the settlements The San Saba Treaty 1851 legalized Indian removal from Texas and placement on reservations Once These terms were unacceptable to many Lipans Some bands fled to south Texas below the Nueces River other bands fled to Mexico Only Chiefs Chiquito Manuel and John Castro retained contact with the Texas government and its Indian Agency because their people were starving and they needed supplies However these chiefs and their people were forced to live near frontier forts When no provisions were provided they were forced to beg for food False accusations of depredations were made against them troops launched unprovoked attacks against them Manuel and his people fled to Mexico in 1853 followed by John Castro s ranchería in 1854 and most of Chiquito s ranchería in 1855

    Original URL path: http://www.lipanapache.org/Museum/museum_treaties.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Lipan Apache Tribe of Texas: The War of Extermination against the Lipan Apaches
    attacks by the U S military against the Lipans in Mexico The 1873 El Remolino attack was followed by numerous illegal cross border raids in 1876 and 1877 Between April 1876 and October 1877 Lt John L Bullis of Ft Clark and Col William Shafter of Ft Duncan led nine incursions into Mexico in order to seek out and destroy the Lipan Apaches In only three cases were the incursions the result of hot pursuits of Lipan raiders who crossed from Texas into Mexico In six cases the Bullis and Shafter incursions were organized military expeditions which not only violated Mexican sovereignty but were a direct abrogation of the terms of the San Saba Treaty which the United States had signed with the Lipan Apaches in 1851 Bullis Shafter and their troops crossed the Rio Grande and attacked Lipan rancherías which were located over 125 miles deep into Coahuila These illegal cross border attacks were followed by a second Mackenzie incursion in 1877 Illegal U S cross border attacks on the Lipans became so common that General William T Sherman was forced to privately reprimand the commander of federal troops in Texas Not only were the Lipans chased back and forth across the border but there were active criminal warrants against them in Texas and bounties for their scalps in Mexico The U S troops worked in conjunction with the Mexican Army in their war of extermination against the Lipan Apaches General Gerónimo Treviño and 1 500 Mexican soldiers launched a massive campaign in 1878 1879 against the Lipans in Coahuila Treviño s campaign was followed by those of Generals Naranjo and Blás Flores in 1880 1881 The Mexican Army believed that it had run all the Lipans out of Mexico into the United States where they were placed on

    Original URL path: http://www.lipanapache.org/Museum/museum_war.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Lipan Apache Tribe Museum and Cultural Center: Assimilation
    and formed the core of the modern Lipan Apaches of New Mexico After 1858 there remained only about 120 Lipan Apaches in Texas One small group of less than 10 persons had intermarried with the Tonkawas and joined that tribe on a Texas reservation By 1860 this group was transferred to Fort Belknap In 1867 they were sent to Fort Griffin and in 1884 they were placed at the Oakland Agency in Oklahoma A second D ranchería which had remained in Texas after 1855 by allying themselves with the Kiowa Apaches was taken into military custody by 1865 and remanded to Fort Sill Oklahoma The Lipan Tonkawas and the Lipan Kiowa Apaches formed the core of the modern Lipan Apaches of Oklahoma The bulk of the Lipan tribe fled to Mexico after 1855 Some remained there in the Santa Rosa Mountains and are still living there today Other Lipan groups filtered back into south Texas by the 1880 s But the Texas government s policy of Indian removal had forced Texas Indians either onto reservations or into assimilation The Lipan Apaches who came back to Texas were forced to hide in plain sight because of the threat of forcible placement

    Original URL path: http://www.lipanapache.org/Museum/museum_assimilation.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Lipan Apache Tribe of Texas: Warriors and Veterans
    the Battle of San Jacinto Lipan Apaches served as Indian scouts for the U S Army in the 1870 s and 1880 s They fought in World War I World War II Korea Vietnam Desert Storm and many proudly serve their country today They are true patriots and heroes Let us honor and remember the Lipan scouts of Texas Apache Lipan served 1878 1879 at Forts Griffin Clark Apache Tardaste

    Original URL path: http://www.lipanapache.org/Museum/museum_veterans.html (2016-02-09)
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