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  • Eurocommunism
    to argue that the Party should orient to these movements and broaden their base outside of the organised working class and give less emphasis to defence of the Soviet Union Encyclopedia of Marxism on Eurocommunism In the words of its advocates Palmiro Togliatti Internet Archive 1893 1964 What Is Eurocommunism by Manuel Azcà rate and Altiero Spinelli How European are the Italian Eurocommunists by Altiero Spinelli Eurocommunism and the New

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/subject/eurocommunism/index.htm (2016-02-12)
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  • The Frankfurt School
    of those who had been involved with the Institut from the beginning and took over the role of Director on the death of Carl Grünberg Pollock was content to concern himself with administrative matters but he was also a life long friend and associate of Max Horkheimer who is probably the figure most identified as the leading representative of the Frankfurt School Max Horkheimer Archive later himself became Director of the Institut and it was Horkheimer who guided the Institut into its innovative exploration of cultural aspects of the development of capitalism See Horkheimer s opening address on becoming Director Karl August Wittfogel was a participant from the beginning but was a Party member and had a more orthodox scientific view of Marxism It is Wittfogel who established the classic Marxist analysis of Asiatic Despotism Richard Sorge worked at the Instiut but as it turned out was only there in his role as a Soviet spy David Ryazanov Archive was assigned to Germany to compile the writings of Marx and Engels and publish the Marx Engels Gesamtausgabe and worked closely with the Institut In 1931 32 a number of psychoanalysts from the Frankfurt Institute of Psychoanalysis and others who were acquainted with members of the Institut began to work systematically with the Institut These included Franz Borkenau Erich Fromm Wilhelm Reich Karl Landauer and Heinrich Meng In joining what was predominantly a Hegelian materialist current of Marxists these psychologists gave the development of Marxist theory an entirely new direction which has left its imprint on social theory ever since Erich Fromm Archive dealt with psychological aspects of social control delusion and conformity and became one of the founders of socialist humanism Wilhelm Reich developed his own doctrine of sexual liberalism as an antidote to political conformism and social psychosis Other young German Communist intellectuals who were associated with the Institut but after the Nazi takeover wound up in the United States were Kurt Lewin and Adolph Löwe They all went on to make significant contributions to social theory though only distantly related to their initial Communist inspirations Kurt Lewin for instance contributed to the emergence of group dynamics and social action theory as specialised disciplines Adolph Lowe made important contributions to the development of political economy Raymond Aron was a French journalist and sociologist Leo Lowenthal Archive was one of the early workers at the Institut whose principal interest was in the sociology of literature Later he was joined by the Hegelian philosopher Herbert Marcuse Archive who was probably the only member of the Institut who achieved wide influence among political activists in the 1960s When Hitler came to power the Institut was closed down and by various routes most of the participants in the Institut regrouped themselves in New York with a new Institute affiliated to Columbia University They continued to publish in German even though very few people would have been reading their work in that language However after the War the Institut returned to Frankfurt Perhaps two

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/subject/frankfurt-school/index.htm (2016-02-12)
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  • Marxist Humanism
    far more orthodox than the Marxist humanist movement which blossomed in the 1960s drawing intellectuals and writers out of the Communist Party Dunayevskaya and James were among the first on the Marxist Left to turn positively to the new social movements beginning to emerge See Raya Dunyevskaya s Philosophy and Revolution Like many other German Communist intellectuals Ernst Bloch fled to America when Hitler came to power but continued to publish in German for a German speaking audience He returned to East Germany in 1948 and developed a strand of humanist Marxism which eventually brought him into conflict with the Communist Party and he fled to the West in 1961 He retains a large audience in Germany especially the East to this day The Frankfurt School Herbert Marcuse was baby of the Frankfurt School when they were forced to flee Hitler s Germany and like most of the others Marcuse made his home in the U S Like the rest of the Frankfurt School Marcuse s works were obscure and inaccessible to the mass audience However his somewhat pessimistic analysis of modern capitalism and consumerism struck a chord with the young student radicals in France and the U S particularly and One Dimensional Man achieved a mass audience that Reason and Revolution never did Erich Fromm published the collection An International Symposium of Socialist Humanism in 1965 helping to bring a diverse group of writers together into a dialogue Although Fromm had fled Germany he continued to work on the problems of social psychology which so deeply moved those who had witnessed the rise of Hitler Fromm was one of the first to attempt to make an amalgam of Marx and Freud The Praxis Group Yugoslavia The Praxis Group was a group of Marxist philosophers and sociologists with humanist orientation that published the journal Praxis from 1964 to 1974 The Praxis Group was the first organised public oppositional group to emerge in Eastern Europe in the relatively more liberal conditions under Josip Broz Tito to bring forward a Marxist alternative to state socialism and Stalinist dogma and orthodoxy Predrag Vranicki was a Professor of Philosophy at Zagreb University most famous for his study of the ideas of the Marxist theoreticians entitled History of Marxism Mihailo Markovi was Head of the Department of Philosophy and sociology at the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts Markovi s special interest was Logic and like Adam Schaff in Poland he called into question the simplistic Stalinist notions of contradiction which were the cornerstone of Marxist orthodoxy and bureaucratic double speak Gajo Petrovi was Professor of Philosophy at Zagreb University one of the main theorists in the Praxis Group and long time editor of the journal Praxis See also Karel Kosík s Man and Philosophy 1965 The Polish Left As a member of the Central Committee of the Polish Workers Party and a Professor Philosophy at the founding of the People s Republic Adam Schaff was the chief instrument for the imposition of Soviet orthodoxy

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/subject/humanism/index.htm (2016-02-12)
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  • International Socialist Tradition Subject Archive
    and 90s to every part of the world Although fraught by differences from time to time over orientation to the workers movement or to the student or other social movements they have proved to be one of the most stable Marxist political organisations since the 1950s The following writers were leading members of the International Socialists in Britain whose works are archived in the MIA or the ETOL Tony Cliff 1917 2000 was born in Palestine to Zionist parents in 1917 and became a Trotskyist during the 1930s and played a leading role in the attempting to unite Arab and Jewish workers At the end of World War II he moved to Britain In 1950 after developing his theory of bureaucratic state capitalism he was expelled from the Fourth International but continued to consider himself a Trotskyist though open to other Marxist ideas Tony Cliff remained a foremost ideological leader of the International Socialists till his death in 2000 Duncan Hallas 1925 2002 was born into a working class family in Manchester and joined the Trotskyist Workers International League during World War II Conscripted in 1943 Hallas participated in a mutiny in Egypt after the end of the War Back in Britain he supported Tony Cliff s ideas and was a founder member of the Socialist Review Group but drifted away during the 1950s In 1968 he rejoined the International Socialists and from that time he was a leading member of the organisation a great populariser of Marxism and an inspired speaker until ill health forced him out of active politics in 1995 Jim Higgins 1930 2002 was born into a working class family in Harrow and joined the Young Communist League at 14 He broke with the CP in 1956 following Khrushchev s secret speech and the Soviet invasion of Hungary later joining the Socialist Review Group In the 1960s he was elected to the Post Office Union s National Executive but resigned to become National Secretary of the IS in the early 1970s Quarrelling with other IS leaders in the mid 1970s he resigned to build a new life as a journalist Michael Kidron 1930 2003 was a leading theoretician of the Socialist Review Group and the IS from the mid 1950s until the mid 1970s when he dropped out of active politics Kidron developed the theory of the Permanent Arms Economy as an explanation of the long post war boom he also made a critique of the interpretation of Lenin s concept of Imperialism Paul Foot 1937 2004 was a major investigative journalist who joined the International Socialists as a young man in the early 1960s During the 1970s he served as editor of Socialist Worker for a period but he also had a regular column in Private Eye a satirical magazine that also did serious investigative journalism later he had a weekly column in The Mirror a mass circulation tabloid daily and during the last decade of his life for The Guardian a liberal daily He

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/writers/ist/index.htm (2016-02-12)
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  • Left-Wing Communism Subject Archive
    Amadeo Bordiga 1889 1970 Works Biography A leader of the Italian Communist Party expelled for Trotskyism but later parting company with Trotsky As is shown by Bordiga s 1920 Workers Councils and his 1951 Proletarian Dictatorship and Class Party Bordiga agrees with the Bolsheviks on the main point of difference with the Council Communists like Pannekoek and Mattick The proletarian state can only be animated by a single party he says Sylvia Pankhurst 1882 1960 Works Biography A famous leader of the Suffragettes Pankhurst and her sister Adela in Australia joined the Comintern as ultra lefts In a country with a long tradition of democratic rights and parliamentary activity Pankhurst opposed the Communist Party participating in elections All those who are in possession of private property shall be called upon to surrender it and to work on equal terms with the rest of the population while no official revolutionary action can be expected from the general body of Trade Unions Draft Program for CPGB written by Sylvia Pankhurst Second Congress of Comintern August 1920 The focus of debate between the Bolsheviks and the Left Communists came to a head in the debate over the Twenty One Conditions for Admission to the Communist International Conditions of Entry to the Comintern Conditions of Entry to the Comintern continued Conditions of Entry to the Comintern continued Conditions of Entry to the Comintern continued The Workers Opposition was a Left Communist current within the Bolshevik Party which promoted the independence of the trade unions from the Party and the Soviet Government See Archives of Alexandra Kollontai and Alexander Shliapnikov Issues The following issues have been at the centre of the struggle of Left Communism The Role of the Party in the Revolution In Pannekoek s Party and Class he characterises a party as an organization that aims to lead and control the working class his General Remarks on the Question of Organization look to the future for new forms of organisation suitable for the emancipation of the working class Paul Mattick s The Masses and the Vanguard concludes The militants who call themselves the Vanguard have today the same weakness that characterizes the masses at present They still believe that the unions or the one or the other party must direct the class struggle though with revolutionary methods But if it be true that decisive struggles are nearing it is not enough to state that the labour leaders are traitors It is necessary especially for today to formulate a plan for the formation of the class front and the forms of its organizations To this end the control of parties and unions must be unconditionally fought This is the crucial point in the struggle for power and his Council Communism proposes Councils a k a soviets as a way forward his 1967 Workers Control expresses the idea from another standpoint Bordiga also wrote on these themes See The System of Communist Representation Is this the Time to form Soviets Towards the Establishment of Workers

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/subject/left-wing/index.htm (2016-02-12)
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  • The Praxis Group
    continuous criticism by the party ideologues which included serious attacks by the Zagreb party organization and the Croatian Parliament in May and June 1966 The program of Praxis was defined in French in the first issue of the International edition of Praxis A quoi bon Praxis Why praxis Predrag Vranicki On the problem of Practice and Danko Grli Practice and Dogma worked out this program in English in the same Issue Praxis 1965 1 p 41 48 and p 49 58 From 1964 to 1974 the Praxis Group organized the Korčula Summer School attended by a lot of well known Western Marxist theoreticians Ultimately in the spring of 1975 the printing and distribution of the journal was made impossible From 1981 a journal named Praxis International was published abroad in attempt to revive the Praxis journal and publication continued until 1991 The main writers who were part of the Praxis Group include Danko Grli Mihailo Markovi see Markovi Archive Rudi Supek see Supek Archive Milan Kangrga Gajo Petrovi see Petrovi Archive Predrag Vranicki Praxis Issue No 1 1965 Why Praxis Editorial by Gajo Petrovi On the problem of Practice by Pedrag Vranicki Practice and Dogma by Danko Grli Review Philosophy

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/subject/praxis/index.htm (2016-02-12)
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  • Socialist Party of Great Britain
    pioneered the view in Britain that Russia was neither a workers state nor socialist but state capitalist It advocates no minimum programme of reforms to be achieved within capitalism but only socialism It endorses trade union action on sound lines Encyclopedia of Marxism on S P G B Writers of the S P G B Jack Fitzgerald 1872 1929 Founding member of the SPGB A bricklayer Fitzgerald joined the SDF

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/subject/spgb/index.htm (2016-02-12)
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  • Stalinism
    one country taken separately The results of the five year plan have shown that it is quite possible to build a socialist society in one country for the economic foundations of such a society have already been laid in the

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/subject/stalinism/index.htm (2016-02-12)
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