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  • Marxism and Anarchism
    the countryside and workers were slaughtered Blanqui was elected President of the Paris Commune but remained in prison throughout The Paris Commune was the testing ground for revolutionary theory and in the light of its experiences Marx revised his theory of the State concluding that the working class had to smash the state machine rather than hoping to take it over or leaving it intact Paris Commune History Archive including The Paris Commune of 1871 by Henri Lissagaray and The Civil War in France by Karl Marx Syndicalism During the last decades of the 19th century the socialist movement progressed well while anarchism became marginalised and generally reduced to terrorism and sabotage However while tranforming itself into vast working class parties the socialist movement also became somewhat respectable The conflict between Rosa Luxemburg and Eduard Bernstein and between Lenin and Kautsky illustrate the divergence between reformist and revolutionary wings of socialism Doctrinaire socialists such as Henry Hyndman also criticised the mass socialist parties from the left At the same time a dynamic new movement grew in the working class particularly in the trade unions which merged features of Marxist theory with the best traditions of anarchism This current became known as Anarcho Syndicalism Participants in this movement included both anarchists and Marxists and others somewhere in between Anarcho Syndicalism Anarcho syndicalism was especially strong in the English speaking world where the trade union movement had its own traditions independently of the political parties and in Spain and Italy where anarchism had a long history among the peasantry before the advent of anarchist theory in the workers movement The founders of Anarcho Syndicalism in the English speaking world were socialists before they were anarchists and looked to Marx not Bakunin for their theory However their focus on the independent development of the trade unions and their suspicion of parliamentarians provided the stimulus for the development of the vibrant and anarchic Industrial Workers of the World Rudolf Rocker 1873 1958 In modern Anarchism we have the confluence of the two great currents which before and since the French Revolution have found such characteristic expression in the intellectual life of Europe Socialism and Liberalism Rudolf Rocker a German immigrant to the U S is generally regarded as the founder of syndicalism the doctrine which emphasises the role of the trade unions as vehicles of working class power and rejects the use of party political organisation His history of anarchism and anarcho syndicalism is an excellent resource for the anarchism of the early 20th century Anarchism and Anarcho Syndicalism Rudolf Rocker Industrial Workers of the World IWW The IWW was a powerful movement that engaged both socialists and anarchists in the early years of the 20th century especially in the English speaking world Among Marxists who fought against Anarchism and Syndicalism within the unions were Eugene Debs and Daniel DeLeon Daniel De Leon 1852 1914 Founder of the US Socialist Labor Party and advocated socialist industrial unionism Working Class still is a tumultuous mob No revolutionary class is ever ripe for success before it has itself well in hand It is one of the missions of the Trades Union to drill its class into the discipline that civilization demands De Leon Archive Biography of Daniel De Leon by Mike Lepore Eugene V Debs 1855 1926 American socialist co founder of the IWW and a leader of the left wing of the Socialist Party Solidarised with the Russian Revolution but did not join the Communist Party The workers are developing their industrial consciousness their economic and political power and when the revolution comes they will be prepared to take possession and assume control of every industry With the education they will have received in the Industrial Workers they will be drilled and disciplined trained and fitted for Industrial Mastery and Social Freedom Debs Archive Brief Biography Eugene V Debs Among the Marxists who fought against the syndicalist anti party disposition of the workers and in favour of the formation of a socialist party in the early 20th century was John Maclean Maclean argued for a single revolutionary socialist party and was made Soviet Consul in Scotland after the October Revolution After the Russian Revolution the Communist International recognised the I W W as the representative of the most militant sections of the working class in the English speaking world and made a decisive effort to enlist the I W W in its ranks Many of its leaders such as Eugene Debs Big Bill Haywood and Jock Garden joined the Communist International and were instrumental in founding the Communist Party in their own country There was another wave of IWW recruits to the Comintern during Stalin s Third Period in the late 1920s England When the Anarchist International held their Congress in London in 1881 the four English delegates who attended were not actually anarchists and listened in silence Until the 1960s anarchism in the forms known on the Contintent never took on in England the English anarchists were either anarcho syndicalists or better described as ultra left or anti parliamentarian socialists The Social Democratic Federation split between pro and anti parliamentary groupings and Joseph Lane was an archetype of the English anti parliamentary socialist agitator and people like William Morris Frantz Kitz and Sam Mainwaring were sympathetic to his position Later on people like Sylvia Pankhurst and Kate Sharpley supported the Russian Revolution but rejected participation in Parliament See also the Communist Left Subject Archive Unfortunately we do not currently have material on the Spanish and Italian anarchist movements of this period These movements were more directly connected with Bakunin s supporters from the 1860s and James Guillaume was also an active player in laying the theoretical foundations of anarcho syndicalism and introducing the experiences and traditions of Bakunin s work to a new generation of anarchists The Anarchist History Archive external link says of the Italian anarchist movement In 1906 the Confederazione Generale di Lavoro CGL was formed to centralize and control the local

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  • Utopian Socialism Archive
    Geneva to His Contemporaries 1803 proposes that the most eminent mathematicians and scientists be given responsibility for government Charles Fourier s vision of Utopia is based on the absolute suppression of individualism in favour of an all pervasive collectivism Fourier was probably responsible for more Utopian projects aimed at implementing his ideas than any other writer See the Charles Fourier Archive The French Revolution There is a strong sense in which The French Revolution was a Utopian experiment The Decree establishing the Republican Calendar beginning like Pol Pot from Year Zero and dividing the day into 10 hours 1000 minutes 100 000 seconds etc gives a flavour of this utopianism Jean Jacques Rousseau s Discourse on the Origin of Inequality Among Men and The Social Contract 1762 provided the principles of Reason on which the constitution could be founded The Terror which was the outcome of such a utopian project has been taken by many thinkers Hegel for example in The Phenomenology of Spirit as a warning against all forms of utopianism Similar observations have been made about the Russian Revolution but it would be more true to say that Utopianism is an element of every progressive social change and every revolution G A Ellis New Britain 1820 and Étienne Cabet s Voyage en Icarie 1840 expressed the vision of the experimental secular communities in the United States Utopia as Satire Likewise imaginary republics were used for the purpose of making a political point in a back handed way Jonathan Swift wrote Gulliver s Travels 1726 satirising the incompetence hypocrisy and greed of the ruling elite of his day Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton 1803 1873 a member of the ruling elite in Victorian England and a high ranking colonial official wrote The Coming Race 1871 as a satirical parody on the American utopian movement Samuel Butler 1835 1902 wrote the futuristic Erewhon 1872 in response satirising the injustices of Victorian England by describing a society in which all the laws moral prejuduces and conceptions of science are turned into their opposite Full text of Edward Bulwer s The Coming Race 1871 Full text of Samuel Butler s Erewhon 1872 Socialist Utopias News from Nowhere tells of a society which has in some sense reverted to an agricultural and handicraft one The special interest of Morris s story is that he lays out a scenario for the class struggle in which the working class breaks from State Socialism and the social democratic conception of a minimum program of gradual reforms and a maxiumum program consigned to an indefinite future News from Nowhere offers a solution for attaining genuine workers democracy Full text of News from Nowhere William Morris 1890 Edward Bellamy tells of a Rip van Winkle who wakes in the year 2000 to discover that Socialism has been establised Bellamy s description of socialist society is probably the most developed expression of the social democratic vision of social progress By means of the futuristic device Bellamy does not present an

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  • Early American Marxism
    understand the political ideology and actions of others in the past Whether one accepts the economic doctrine of the labor theory of value the existence of distinct classes and the primacy of class struggle as the vehicle of social change and the analytical framework of historical materialism as valid guides to action in the world today or whether one views these principles of Marxism to be quaint relics of a

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/history/usa/eam/index.html (2016-02-12)
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  • Marxism and Anti-Imperialism in Africa
    1926 1995 Biography Archive of Works Walter Rodney 1942 1980 Biography Archive of Works African National Congress Documents South African Communist Party Documents COSATU Documents See Also George Padmore 1902 1959 Biography Archive of Works including The Voice of Coloured Labour Speeches to the World Trade Union Conference 1945 Colonial and Coloured Unity History of the Pan African Congress 1947 C L R James 1901 1989 Archive of Works Biography

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/subject/africa/index.htm (2016-02-12)
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  • History of Communism and Workers Struggle in the Middle East
    by Vladimir Borisovich Lutsky 1969 Egypt Moral Economy and Labor Protest from Labor and the State in Egypt Workers Unions and Economic Restructuring by Marsha Pripstein Posusney 1997 The Sudan from Communism and Nationalism in the Middle East by Walter Z Laqueur 1956 Manifesto to the Peoples of the East from Kommunisticheskii Internatsional no 15 Petrograd December 20 1920 by the First Congress of the Representatives of the Peoples of

    Original URL path: https://www.marxists.org/subject/arab-world/index.htm (2016-02-12)
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  • Marxism and Anti-Imperialism in Bangladesh
    educator and activist best known for her work in furtherance of women s rights and gender equality full biography Shamsur Rahman 1929 2006 Acclaimed poet and journalist Siraj Sikder 1944 1975 Bengali intellectual and revolutionary He helped found the Proletarian Party of East Bengal Purba Banglar Sarbahara Party PBSP and took part in guerrilla warfare before being killed in police custody Other writings concerning Bangladesh Ernest Germain The Beginning of

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  • Britain Subject Archive
    Briton who exerted considerable influence on the French Revolution was Thomas Paine 1737 1809 an Englishman who never received any attention in England but visited American and brought the ideas of the American Revolution and its Declaration of Human Rights back to France John Stuart Mill 1806 1873 son of the political economist James Mill and a contemporary of Karl Marx was along with prison reformer Jeremy Bentham a founder of Utilitarianism economic science expressed in the language of ethics to this day the dominant theory of Ethics in the English speaking world J S Mill was also a precursor of modern economic science and one of the theorists of the modern British system of government Britain does not have a Constitution With the growing influence of natural science England also had its positivists such as Herbert Spencer 1820 1903 Oriented as it is to facts this outlook of the British bourgeoisie is ill fitted for revolutionary idealism Nevertheless it exerted a powerful influence on European thought the French Revolution valued the materialism of British Empiricism and adapted it for their own struggle against Theism giving it a more revolutionary flavour in the process Marx and Engels on British Empiricism British bourgeois morality Trotsky The Philosophy of British capitalism Trotsky See Philosophy Subject Archive Political Economy The principal contribution of the British bourgeoisie to socialist theory is political economy The founder of English political economy was Sir William Petty but its foremost exponent was the Scotsman Adam Smith Smith was a close friend of David Hume His first major work was the Theory of Moral Sentiments which he completed in 1759 17 years later in 1776 he published The Wealth of Nations and moral philosophy the consideration of what people should do had been transformed into a branch of science concerned with immutable laws determing what people must do For the next two hundred years Britain would be the home of Political Economy Hegel studied the writings of James Steuart 1712 1790 and saw in British political economy an understanding of how the World Spirit acted behind the backs of people manifesting itself in the course of History Thomas Malthus 1766 1834 who developed a reactionary theory of population was also influential in the development of Darwin s theory of the Evolution of species David Ricardo 1772 1823 was considered by Marx to be the most important of the political economists The very fact that Ricardo s theory was riddled with contradictions Marx regarded as its strength James Mill 1773 1836 also a social reformer and Utilitarian may be best known to Marxists because of the very important early work of Marx Comments on James Mill John Stuart Mill was the first to make a positivist critique of political economy but he was not able to make the transition to modern economic science based on marginal utility William Stanley Jevons was the English representative of the new Marginal Revolution which initiated modern economic science while Alfred Marshall 1842 1924 continued the approach of political economy even after the Marginal Revolution had led European thinkers to take a new direction in which value was regarded as a metaphysical entity focused on price and utility though Marshall sought to avoid using the term value his work remained true to the traditions of Political Economy John Neville Keynes 1842 1924 was one of the last English political economists of the classical school His son John Maynard Keynes 1842 1924 devised the macro economic ideas which dominated post World War Two capitalist development including the Bretton Woods institutions Keynes believed that government intervention in the economy could prevent crises like the Wall Street Crash and the Great Depression His theories were finally eclipsed when the centre of political economy moved to the U S A in the 1980s with the emergence of Milton Friedman s Monetarism Karl Marx lived in London from 1850 till his death in 1883 and most of his time there particularly the first 15 years was spent studying political economy Marx saw in this theory a window into the ideology of bourgeois rule By critique of political economy Marx hoped to outline the practical direction for the overthrow of bourgeois society whose structure was mirrored in the theories of the Political Economists See Marx on Political Economy Classics of British Political Economy Political Arithmetick by Sir William Petty 1690 Consequences of Lowering of Interest by John Locke 1691 Theory of Moral Sentiments by Adam Smith 1759 Inquiry into the Principles of Political Economy by James Steuart 1767 The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith 1776 An Essay on the Principle of Population by Thomas Malthus 1798 Grounds for Restricting Import of Corn by Thomas Malthus 1815 Principles of Political Economy and Taxation by David Ricardo 1817 Elements of Political Economy by James Mill 1844 Utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill 1863 General Theory of Political Economy by William Stanley Jevons 1866 Principles of Economics by Alfred Marshall 1890 General theory of Employment Interest Money J Maynard Keynes 1936 Natural Science Throughout the 17th 18th and 19th centuries Britain was also the home of the most advanced natural science except for mathematics which after Isaac Newton was mostly developed on the Continent and with the rise of the natural and social sciences in Germany in the 19th century One of the scientists who was most influential for the development of Marxism was Charles Darwin 1809 82 whose theory of Evolution provided a natural scientific basis for key ideas such as the determination of development by conradictions in the mode of production and reproduction the origin of the human species in Nature and dialectical development incorporating both continuity and discontinuity of leaps See Marx and Engels on Natural Science In 1931 a number of leading Bolsheviks and Soviet scientists visited London for the International Congress of the History of Science and Technology and partly as a result of this intervention a number of leading British scientists became advocates for Marxism J D Bernal 1901 1971 for example Other British scientists such as J B S Haldane 1892 1964 have been forthright advocates for philosophical materialism and socialism and more or less sympathetic to Marxism J B S Haldane Archive J D Bernal Archive Utopian Socialism Britain has also contributed to the development of socialist ideas through its Uptian Socialists Thomas More who coined the word Utopia literally nowheresville sketched his idea of how the world could be 450 years ago Robert Owen 1771 1851 set about putting Utopian ideas into practice by building a model township called New Lanark based on his own mills In the 20th century H G Wells extended the Utopian idea through the new medium of Science Fiction A New View of Society Robert Owen 1816 The Development of Utopian Socialism Engels Forward to Thomas More s Utopia 1893 The Utopists 1886 William Morris The Women s Movement As the first country to break down the rigidity of traditional society British also threw up exponents of the first wave of feminism Mary Wollstonecraft 1759 1997 and Harriet Taylor 1856 1915 being the most famous The English revolutionary socialist and Suffragette Sylvia Pankhurst 1882 1960 was the leader of the left wing in the second wave of women s liberation It was certainly no accident that Sylvia Pankhurst the most radical leader of the women s movement in England was also a socialist and supporter of the Russian Revolution Elsewhere the other leaders of the second wave of feminist agitation were also communists women such as Clara Zetkin in Germany Rosa Luxemburg in Germany Poland and Alexandre Kollontai in Russia were leaders of the Marxist wing of the socialist movement in their own countries Workers and women were united in this period in the fight to extend basic democratic rights Women Marxism Subject Archive Mary Wollstonecraft Archive On Wages Marriage and the Church Connolly and DeLeon 1904 Sylvia Pankhurst Archive The Trade Unions The basic unit of organisation of the bourgeoisie the company and the basic unit of the working class in Britain the union both grew out of the same source the late medieval company formed by tradespeople in the towns to protect their interests offer mutual aid to members when in trouble pursue charitable ventures and so on Some of these went on to become powerful capitalist companies some became self defence organisations of skilled employees defending their interests both against the competition of unskilled outsiders and their employers Thus in Britain trade unions emerged spontaneously independently of any political party Working class political parties only emerged much later see below as unions sought to extend their effectiveness by intervening in the debates in Parliament and later embracing the revolutionary struggle for socialism The Luddites and the Combination Laws History Archive Marx and Engels On Primitive Accumulation On the Factories and the Condition of the Workers The unions were subject to brutal repression particularly in the early 19th century until eventually establishing the basic right to organise with the repeal of the Combination Laws in 1824 Repression continued however and in 1834 the Tolpuddle Martyrs were transported to Australia under old laws triggering the Chartist Movement See Marx and Engels on The Chartists See The Chartist Movement History Archive The Chartist Movement was the first independent political movement of the working class in Britain developing at the same time as the early communist movement in the Streets of Paris The Chartists saw that even freedom to form trade unions was not enough workers had to fight for political power The 17 century revolution and Chartism Trotsky 1925 One of the most famous struggles of the English trade unions was fight against the Corn Laws in which the unions made common cause with the Industrialists against the Tory establishment and Landowners Engels on the Labour Aristocracy New Unionism The Working Class in the 19th Century Trotsky The Industrial Revolution in Britain and Political Movements in England William Morris 1886 On the occasion of a sensational trial 1895 My Years of Exile 1915 Eduard Bernstein The New Mass Unions In the late 19th century a movement grew up known as New Unionism in which mass unions of unskilled workers emerged for the first time and it was a strike by young women which launched the struggle for New Unionism The Bryant May Matchgirls strike of 1888 The Dockers Tanner of 1889 led by Tom Mann 1856 1941 Ben Tillett 1860 1943 and John Burns 1858 1943 and The Gasworkers strike of 1890 led by Will Thorne 1857 1946 and Eleanor Marx 1855 1898 which won the 8 hour day for gas workers Engels on the New Unionism The Intellectuals the Workers Kautsky 1901 Trade Unions and Bolshevism Trotsky These mass unions were militant open democratic and egalitarian and were committed to the struggle for socialism in a way that the earlier unions of craftspeople which emerged out of the medieval period never were In the General Strike of 1926 the Miners brought British capitalism to its knees This was the greatest movement of the British workers and only stopped short of seizing political power because its leaders lost their nerve Right up recent times the British trade unions continued to challenge the power of Government bringing down Ted Heath s Tory government in 1973 and destroying the Callaghan Labour Government in 1979 See the General Strike History Archive The situation in Britain 1925 1926 and In Retrospect Trotsky By Duncan Hallas The Communist Party and the General Strike 1976 The First Shop Stewards Movement 1973 The White Collar Workers 1974 The CP the SWP and the rank and file movement 1977 Some Prospects 1977 A Clearer View 1979 The making of a working class historian E P Thompson A Soldier s Story 1995 Britain went into decline as a world power after the First World War and gradually lost its Empire while England once the workshop of the world became a financial centre surrounded by rusting industry By Michael Kidron The Decline of British Capitalism 1957 After the end of Empire 1960 The Limits of Reform 1960 Socialism in Britain In Britain it was the unions which built the political parties not the other way around Just as it was the Trades Council leaders of the 1850s and 1860s who promoted the formation of the International Workingmen s Association it was the leaders of the new mass unions who were the foundation of the Socialist Democratic parties in Britain the Labour Party and later the Communist Party and Trotskyist parties of the post World War Two period See the Working class Internationalism History Archive The International Workingmen s Association The first efforts to create international workers organisations the League of the Just and the Communist League were organised in London As Stekloff outlines in his History of the First International the First International of which Karl Marx came to be the leader was preceded by earlier attempts by Chartists such as Ernest Jones and Julian Harney who came together with European political refugess such as Wilhelm Weitling and Karl Schapper in the Fraternal Democrats in London See The First International History Archive In its early days the International was made up of mainly exiled German communists and English Trades Council delegates with some French Proudhonists and others and as it grew English trade unions signed up their entire membership to the International During the decade of its activity the International planted unionism in the nascent workers movement right across Europe Social Democracy in Britain The English trade unionists always constituted the most conservative section of the revolutionary workers movement even though it is in Britain that Socialism penetrated most deeply into the working class The First International declined after the crushing of the Paris Commune in 1871 and when the Second International was launched in 1880 it was convened in Europe It s British affiliates were always far smaller than for example the German Social Democratic Party which numbered its members by the million Letters on Socialism in England Marx Engels 1881 1894 See the Social Democracy History Archive William Morris Archive 1834 1896 Henry Hyndman Archive 1842 1921 Dora Montefiore Archive 1851 1933 Eleanor Marx Archive 1855 1898 Ernest Belfort Bax Archive 1854 1925 Theo Rothstein Archive 1871 1953 See also the journals pubished by Social Democracy in Britain Justice Commonweal The Social Democrat Anarcho syndicalism and Antiparliamentary Socialism The Anarchist International never recruited a section in England but the Social Democratic Federation was split between Marxists who suported the persepctives of the German Social Democrats to build a mass parliamentary party and antiparliamentarians who favoured achieving socialism while bypassing parliament These ultra left socialist agitators predecessors of the IWW included Joseph Lane Frantz Kitz and Sam Manwairing William Morris it is said wavered between the two wings Later on the IWW found a small following in Britain and some of the Suffragettes such as Sylvia Pankhurst were anti parliamentarian socialists Kate Sharpley was an early English anarchist See section on the Socialist Party of Great Britain a party founded by members of the S D F expelled on charges of impossibilism which continues to advocate a purist vision of socialism from its foiunding in 1904 one hundred years later Reformism Through bitter struggle the English workers were the first working class to gain basic democratic rights and the right to organise On top of this the British ruling class was deriving the majority of its wealth by exploitation of the colonies so it could afford to offer concessions and co opt the aristoracy of labour the skilled workers and union leaders who were leading the English working class Consequently the English working class not so much the Irish Scottish and Welsh workers has always been inclined more towards reformism than revolutionary socialism See Reformism in the glossary Mr Baldwin and gradualness Trotsky 1925 Peculiarities of English Labour Leaders Trotsky 1925 The Fabian theory of socialism Trotsky 1925 George Bernard Shaw Archive 1856 1950 Bertrant Russell Biography 1872 1970 Dialogue with Bertrand Russell Henry Brailsford and Leon Trotsky By Tony Cliff The Economic Roots of Reformism 1957 Incomes Policy legislation and the Shop Stewards 1966 The bureaucracy Today 1971 After Pentonville the battle is won but the war goes on 1972 1972 A great year for the workers 1973 The balance of class forces in recent years 1979 Patterns of the Mass Strike 1985 The Class struggle in the 90s 1992 Labour s crisis and the revolutionary alternative 1996 The Independent Labour Party The Labour Party On 27th February 1900 following the lead of their Australian cousins 129 representatives of the Trade Union Congress the Independent Labour Party the Social Democratic Federation and the Fabian Society met at Memorial Hall Farringdon Street London Keir Hardie moved a motion to establish a distinct Labour group in Parliament who shall have their own whips and agree upon their policy which must embrace a readiness to cooperate with any party which for the time being may be engaged in promoting legislation in the direct interests of labour The Conference established a Labour Representation Committee including seven trade unionists 2 delegates of the Independent Labour Party 2 from the Social Democratic Federation and 1 from the Fabian Society After the 1906 General Election which saw 29 Labour representatives in Parliament the LRC became known as the Labour Party In 1923 Ramsay MacDonald who had been a member of the Independent Labour Party and Secretary of the Labour Representation Committee became Prime Minister of a minority Labour Government Although MacDonald had been in a minority within the Labour Party in opposing the First World War MacDonald s name has gone down in history as that of a labour traitor he opposed the 1926 General Strike and in 1931 while Prime Minister he was expelled by the Labour Party but kept on as leader of a National Government controlled by the Tories Over the years the capacity of the trade unions to control the behaviour

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  • Chinese Communism
    Review Music Image Gallery Google Site Search Select Archive to Search Mao Zedong Lin Biao Zhou Enlai Peng Zhen Liu Shaoqi Zhu De Hua Guofeng Deng Xiaoping With the Exact Phrase With at least one of words Jump to Selected

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