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  • Apple Script: Convert Omni Page OCR
    data cellspacing 2 cellpadding 0 border 2 using center table class data cellspacing 2 cellpadding 0 width 70 border 2 searching in text 1 of text window 1 options search mode literal starting at top false wrap around false backwards false case sensitive false match words false extend selection false replace i using 1 searching in text 1 of text window 1 options search mode literal starting at top false wrap around false backwards false case sensitive false match words false extend selection false replace o using 0 searching in text 1 of text window 1 options search mode literal starting at top false wrap around false backwards false case sensitive false match words false extend selection false replace o using 0 searching in text 1 of text window 1 options search mode literal starting at top false wrap around false backwards false case sensitive false match words false extend selection false replace 0o using 00 searching in text 1 of text window 1 options search mode literal starting at top false wrap around false backwards false case sensitive false match words false extend selection false replace o0 using 00 searching in text 1 of text window 1 options search mode literal starting at top false wrap around false backwards false case sensitive false match words false extend selection false replace o0 using 00 searching in text 1 of text window 1 options search mode literal starting at top false wrap around false backwards false case sensitive false match words false extend selection false replace ioo using 100 searching in text 1 of text window 1 options search mode literal starting at top false wrap around false backwards false case sensitive false match words false extend selection false copy selection replace T0tal using Total searching in text 1 of text window 1 options search mode literal starting at top false wrap around false backwards false case sensitive false match words false extend selection false copy selection replace Pr0fit using Profit searching in text 1 of text window 1 options search mode literal starting at top false wrap around false backwards false case sensitive false match words false extend selection false replace ti0n using tion searching in text 1 of text window 1 options search mode literal starting at top false wrap around false backwards false case sensitive false match words false extend selection false replace g0vt using govt searching in text 1 of text window 1 options search mode literal starting at top false wrap around false backwards false case sensitive false match words false extend selection false replace Inc0me using Income searching in text 1 of text window 1 options search mode literal starting at top false wrap around false backwards false case sensitive false match words false extend selection false copy selection replace 0o using 00 searching in text 1 of text window 1 options search mode literal starting at top false wrap around false backwards false case sensitive false match words false extend selection false copy selection

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  • MIA Account creation
    mail working the second is to transfer files to our server Carefully follow the instructions in the above welcome message and if you have questions feel free to ask We are here to help In order to maintain and build your archive well be sure you ve read our Administrator s Guidelines http www marxists org admin volunteers archive admin htm These guidelines set out how to build a good and lasting directory structure provide some basic HTML tips and some helpful resources Also please follow all the information on the volunteers page it is there for your assistance http www marxists org admin volunteers You may also benefit from the hints and suggestions on various technical topics here http www marxists org admin janitor in particular we recommend that you read our guidelines on how to avoid spam http www marxists org admin janitor spam good htm You have likely already read our introduction http www marxists org admin intro and you have agreed to follow the MIA Bylaws and Charter http www marxists org admin legal bylaws htm It is also important you also familiarize yourself with our page on copyrights http www marxists org admin legal corights htm to ensure that we publish legal material Our steering committee page http www marxists org admin volunteers steering htm lists all the volunteers who are currently involved in our project We d be happy to post your biography if you d like to have it up If you are wondering where MIA came from and what has happened to us in the past have a read of our history http www marxists org admin intro history index htm another way to access this is to look at the http www marxists org mailman private mia list archive of our

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  • Marxists Internet Archive Statistics www.marxists.org - Summary by Month
    580007 68279 1511674 2261528164 2048387 17400233 19827090 25156004 Aug 2014 673252 523704 463863 54646 1185448 2180985426 1639384 13915917 15711129 20197561 Jul 2014 493693 387177 313641 47666 998280 1723502356 1429992 9409238 11615310 14810816 Jun 2014 94458 72567 54372 10054 252590 301129596 301632 1631162 2177037 2833764 May 2014 645507 480307 284972 69292 1505461 3701859121 2078786 8549176 14409238 19365217 Apr 2014 945138 720956 500185 77460 1614013 5114571009 2323813 15005578 21628683 28354165 Mar 2014 687596 516310 284160 80842 1771416 3384649451 2425282 8524828 15489320 20627901 Feb 2014 556233 416114 241560 62626 1375717 2719995949 1878782 7246822 12483430 16687010 Jan 2014 554484 414971 242348 61990 1353241 2719742675 1859710 7270462 12449130 16634539 2014 30745250843 22357925 123758249 171905895 224152964 2013 Dec 2013 579277 426741 254402 62899 1366578 2753155550 1886981 7632083 12802248 17378316 Nov 2013 694089 511224 278996 77569 1711491 3200862137 2327083 8369898 15336734 20822688 Oct 2013 588120 463406 256483 70976 1649661 2558144742 2129290 7694502 13902191 17643617 Sep 2013 540874 422010 232792 63121 1446328 2266782023 1893638 6983765 12660309 16226222 Aug 2013 478644 373365 227506 51281 1160766 2066580683 1538458 6825206 11200963 14359341 Jul 2013 525851 382287 249998 49081 1056066 1810918942 1472453 7499968 11468621 15775555 Jun 2013 454275 359626 209767 53560 1195784 1584252364 1606815 6293031 10788805 13628261 May 2013 535192 434381 231277 67354 1492869 2158579984 2020623 6938335 13031457 16055780 Apr 2013 562278 460003 246431 68528 1578824 1919635410 2055850 7392952 13800117 16868367 Mar 2013 585128 450201 244225 66671 1484854 2165816872 2000131 7326777 13506049 17553858 Feb 2013 444942 355136 194914 51541 1120131 1555010062 1546247 5847427 10654091 13348275 Jan 2013 440439 361247 192903 51393 1141073 1507674964 1541818 5787092 10837430 13213197 2013 25547413733 22019387 84591036 149989015 192873477 2012 Dec 2012 447771 369397 205645 51974 1071695 1556970217 1559249 6169370 11081938 13433133 Nov 2012 403325 332909 174258 48418 1027831 1357440566 1452544 5227752 9987288 12099763 Oct 2012 472686 385623 199875 55802 1228526 1477580175 1674088 5996274 11568694 14180583 Sep 2012 421909 334871 186249 46317 1024883 1614218906 1389511 5587474 10046130 12657275 Aug 2012 360910 281116 173147 36654 797404 1406995402 1099626 5194421 8433482 10827327 Jul 2012 288006 228873 148719 28936 617984 1070892657 868091 4461573 6866192 8640189 Jun 2012 286991 226286 139510 30304 677288 978216042 909133 4185307 6788605 8609737 May 2012 418709 342056 188430 48654 1036997 1282549964 1459620 5652915 10261684 12561281 Apr 2012 432146 348662 190238 49385 1058044 1358512406 1481577 5707161 10459863 12964390 Mar 2012 338807 280634 152659 39035 855619 993628300 1171079 4579777 8419041 10164235 Feb 2012 349885 280313 163565 38847 821358 1104339840 1165424 4906954 8409390 10496560 Jan 2012 458543 356556 210341 49769 995755 1397838774 1493087 6310237 10696695 13756295 2012 15599183249 15723029 63979215 113019002 140390768 2011 Dec 2011 453876 358659 217638 44888 946836 1625848412 1346657 6529143 10759772 13616299 Nov 2011 430510 335652 192407 44691 1008367 1317118139 1340755 5772230 10069573 12915324 Oct 2011 409793 337531 184185 42102 971464 1710165957 1263080 5525574 10125949 12293812 Sep 2011 333584 285779 149856 34857 810172 1283860256 1045713 4495697 8573392 10007545 Aug 2011 270442 231183 127634 25660 626920 1002876782 769820 3829043 6935515 8113282 Jul 2011 352021 293548 172045 32020 736136 1297481021 960613 5161353 8806467 10560630 Jun 2011 381796 314227 170688 38763 884811 1397462266 1162900 5120650 9426815 11453900 May 2011 466881

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  • this is only the last month or so I have reconfigured logrotate to hold auth log for 4 months I then invoked the perl script as www scripts find logins pl tmp auth log auth log is just a log generated by syslogd for all programs using the auth or authpriv facilities The entries are in syslog format but apart from that vary See the Perl script I wrote to

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  • Find and replace!
    places for example or to change the way you did a part of your html This very easy to do thanks to a script Trevor made When logged into MIA cd into your directory and run a command similar to the following find name htm print xargs www scripts sars rb b a href mailto lenin marxists org a href admin volunteers steering htm If you are a PC user

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  • MIA: Janitor: Locate invalid characters in HTML
    octal dump od to locate characters that are not allowed in HTML files charset sh Here is how one could search all HTML files for invalid characters cd tmp cut f1 d htm www public html html lst xargs i

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  • Communist Manifesto (Chapter 4)
    the party that insists on an agrarian revolution as the prime condition for national emancipation that party which fomented the insurrection of Cracow in 1846 In Germany they fight with the bourgeoisie whenever it acts in a revolutionary way against the absolute monarchy the feudal squirearchy and the petty bourgeoisie But they never cease for a single instant to instill into the working class the clearest possible recognition of the hostile antagonism between bourgeoisie and proletariat in order that the German workers may straightway use as so many weapons against the bourgeoisie the social and political conditions that the bourgeoisie must necessarily introduce along with its supremacy and in order that after the fall of the reactionary classes in Germany the fight against the bourgeoisie itself may immediately begin The Communists turn their attention chiefly to Germany because that country is on the eve of a bourgeois revolution that is bound to be carried out under more advanced conditions of European civilisation and with a much more developed proletariat than that of England was in the seventeenth and France in the eighteenth century and because the bourgeois revolution in Germany will be but the prelude to an immediately following proletarian revolution In short the Communists everywhere support every revolutionary movement against the existing social and political order of things In all these movements they bring to the front as the leading question in each the property question no matter what its degree of development at the time Finally they labour everywhere for the union and agreement of the democratic parties of all countries The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution

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  • Glossary of People: Ma
    Socialist was minister of the interior from 1914 17 when he was charged with negligence and exiled for five years to Spain In 1924 he was reelected to the Chamber of Deputies Manchette Jean Patrick 1942 1995 Author of eleven novels and spiritual father of the French néo polar a school of hard boiled writing inspired by American writers like Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler Manchette was a militant in the group La Voie Communiste during the war in Algeria writing for their journal and later drew close to the Situationists His experience in both milieus strongly informs his novels L Affaire N Gustro for example was inspired by the disappearance of the Moroccan leftist Mehdi Ben Barka Nada tells of an anarchist group s kidnapping of the American ambassador to France Le Petit Bleu de la Côte Ouest is about a mid level manager who is pursued by a group of killers and who abandons his middle class life and he wrote two novels featuring the investigator Eugene Tarpon a former gendarme who resigned from the force after killing a demonstrator His final novel Fatale about a female hired killer appeared in 1981 and having stopped writing fiction he wrote scripts for television and film He also regularly wrote criticism of detective fiction in which he laid out his theory behind the politics of the detective novel saying that the great period of the American roman noir is located in the final period of triumphant counter revolution He died of cancer in Paris on June 3 1995 Jean Patrick Manchette Archive Mandekar Anant Mahadeo Party pseudonym Ajit Drawn into politics while a high school student during the Quit India movement Arrested 1943 released and arrested again March 1944 jailed 1944 45 Joined Bolshevik Mazdoor Party Arrested Bombay 1945 Joined Bolshevik Leninist Party of India 1946 Strike leader New Kaiser i Hind Mills Bombay 1947 Contested 1948 Bombay Municipal Corporation elections as Bolshevik Leninist Party of India candidate Ghorupdeo Ward Entered SP with BLPI 1948 Delegate to SP Convention 1950 Left SP and joined Revolutionary Communist Party of India in early fifties Active in Ooni Mazdoor Union woolen workers Bombay in the sixties Compiled by Charles Wesley Ervin Mandel Ernest 1923 1995 Ernest Mandel joined the Belgian affiliate of the Fourth International FI founded by Trotsky in 1938 when he was seventeen and has been a member of the Central Committee of this organization since 1941 He was active in the anti Nazi resistance and was arrested and sent to a German prison camp in 1944 The Second World Congress of the FI held after the war elected him to a leadership position which he has since maintained During the 1950s and 1960s when the Trotskyists operated within the Belgian Socialist Party Mandel worked in the Economic Studies Commission of the Belgian Trade Union Federation writing a report on economic concentration He was expelled from the Socialist Party for opposing its coalition with the Christian Socialists and its acceptance of antistrike legislation Mandel has been barred at various times from entering the United States France Switzerland and Germany where he nonetheless earned a doctorate in political economy at the Free University of Berlin In 1978 he delivered the Alfred Marshall Lectures at Cambridge University In addition to his prolific activity as an editor and writer for the Trotskyist and other leftist press Mandel has published several volumes of political essays By and large he has remained faithful to classic Trotskyist politics calling in Europe at least for a united front of the FI with the Socialist and Communist parties in the formation of a bourgeois workers government with an eye to its eventual replacement once the revolutionary insufficiency of the latter parties is seen by the masses by a government of transition to socialism by the FI alone The socialism to be established is conceived of as a matter of a nationalized economy with workers control operating to the technologically feasible extent In this the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia has shown the way although the Stalinist bureaucratic distortions of the socialism established by Lenin and Trotsky may require a political revolution to establish a workers government answering to the socialist economy already in place Outside of Trotskyist circles Mandel s main impact has been as an economic writer He is the author of books on the economic competition between Europe and America and on capitalism s recent difficulties his little Introduction to Marxist Economics is said to have sold several hundred thousand copies His main contributions have been the two volume Marxist Economic Theory 1962 and the massive Late Capitalism 1975 The former aims to show that it is possible on the basis of the scientific data of contemporary science to reconstitute the whole economic system of Karl Marx It thus consists on the one hand of the compilation of an enormous mass of data and descriptive material bearing on the nature and history of capitalism and on the other of an attempt to integrate parts of bourgeois economics along with elements of the many conflicting Marxist schools into one comprehensive theory The book includes a consideration of the Soviet economy as exemplifying the transition to socialism marred though it is by Stalinist distortions Late Capitalism more particularly strives to explain the contemporary history of capitalism by its immanent laws of motion Late capitalism is seen as characterized by the dominance of the multinational firm and by the involvement of the state in the national and international economy Despite these modifications however capitalism remains under the sway of the crisis tendency diagnosed by Marx As in the earlier book Mandel s explanation of this tendency involves the combination of a number of seemingly incompatible theories in a multifaceted approach although at base Mandel follows Roman Rosdolsky in holding to a form of underconsumption theory A novelty is Mandel s attempt to integrate his eclectic conception into a version of the Kondratiev long wave theory of fifty year cycles of upturns and downturns this is used finally to explain both the long period of prosperity capitalism enjoyed after the last world was and its recent economic misfortunes From Biographical Dictionary of the American Left Manilov A character in Gogol s Dead Souls who had a very fertile imagination and loved to talk a prattling self complacent dreamer Mann Tom 1856 1941 Secretary of the British ILP and leader of the famous dockers tanner strike in Britain which ended in victory after receiving a huge donation from Australian unionists Mann came to Melbourne in 1903 and conducted a series of lectures on social problems He acted as a stimulus for the formation of the Victorian Socialist Party Under his mentorship the VSP grew to 2 000 members by 1907 when it initiated the OBU project While advocating revolutionary socialism it still remained inside the ALP Mann was invited to Broken Hill and won the craft unionists to the policy of industrial unionism Mann later became disillusioned with the policy of pushing labor to the left On his return to Britain took a pacifist position on the war became a founding member of the British Communist Party in 1920 Leader of Red International of Labour Unions See Tom Mann Archive Manouchian Missak 1906 1944 French Resistance leader Born in 1906 to Armenian parents in Turkey he left there as a youth after his father was killed in a massacre and his mother died through disease In France he quickly became involved in Armenian literary circles editing two literary magazines He joined the French Communist Party PCF in 1934 and was also a member of the Armenian branch of its immigrant section the Main d oeuvre immigrée Upon France s defeat in World War II he remained in the MOI where he was in charge of the Armenians clandestine and resistance activities In 1943 he was transferred to the multi national umbrella organization of foreign resistance fighters the FTP MOI and was put in charge of the Parisian section After carrying out numerous actions Manouchian and the bulk of his comrades were captured in November 1943 and executed on February 21 1944 Their trial was the subject of a large scale Nazi and collaborationist propaganda campaign painting the resistance as a tool of foreigners The most famous feature of this campaign was l Affiche Rouge the Red Poster which was distributed throughout France and which described them as the army of crime The group achieved immortality as The Manouchian Group and in 1955 Louis Aragon wrote a poem about them whose final stanza was They were twenty three when the rifles blossomed Twenty three who gave their hearts before their time Twenty three foreigners but still our brothers Twenty three who loved life to death Twenty three who cried out France as they fell See Melinée Manouchian Manouchian and Philippe Ganier Raymond L Affiche Rouge Mao Tse Tung 1893 1976 The son of a peasant farmer Mao Tse tung was born in the village of Shao Shan Hunan province in China At age 27 Mao attended the First Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in Shanghai in July 1921 Two years later he was elected to the Central Committee of the party at the Third Congress From 1931 to 1934 Mao helped established the Chinese Soviet Republic in SE China and was elected as the chairman Starting in October 1934 The Long March began a retreat from the SE to NW China In 1937 Japan opened a full war of aggression against China which gave the Chinese Communist Party cause to unite with the nationalist forces of the Kuomintang After defeating the Japanese in an ensuing civil war the Communists defeated the Kuomintang and established the People s Republic of China in October 1949 Mao served as Chairman of the Chinese People s Republic until after the failure of the Great Leap Forward in 1959 Still chariman of the Communist Party in May 1966 Mao initiated the Cultural Revolution with a directive denouncing people like Khrushchev nestling beside us In August 1966 Mao wrote a big poster entitled Bombard the Headquarters Served as Party chairman until his death in 1976 Marat Jean Paul 1743 1793 A leader of the left wing of the French Revolution Born in Switzerland he studied medicine in England and wrote scientific and medical works in French and English but failed to gain official recognition for his work His Philosophical Essay on Man 1773 was attacked by Voltaire for its materialism When the Revolution began 1789 he launched the radical journal L Ami du peuple Outlawed for his views he twice fled to England in 1790 and the summer of 1791 but continued to publish L Ami du peuple in secret Marat s inflammatory journalism helped inspire the August 10 1792 uprising and the September massacres of political prisoners In August 1792 he was elected to the Convention where he led the attack against the Girondists On July 13 1793 he was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday a royalist sympathiser See Jean Paul Marat The People s Friend a comprehensive biography of Marat by E Belfort Bax 1900 which concludes Marat though not a Socialist was a precursor of Socialism The ideals of Marat s life Justice and Social Equality clothed as they were by him in eighteenth century Rousseauite garb have not perished because that garb is outworn but will assuredly realise themselves sooner or later under the forms of that true economic freedom through collective ownership in the material bases of social life which is the primary aim of the international Socialist party of modern times See the Jean Paul Marat Archive Marcuse Herbert 1898 1979 German born U S political philosopher whose combination of Marxism and Freudian psychology was popular for a time among student radicals in the late 1960s Having become a member of the Social Democratic Party while a student at the University of Freiburg Marcuse joined the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research in 1932 and became its most widely read spokesperson He fled to Geneva in 1933 when Hitler came to power then went to the United States in 1934 where he taught at Columbia University and became a US citizen in 1940 His Reason Revolution written in 1941 made an important contribution to the understanding of Hegel and his influence on Marx An intelligence analyst for the U S Army during World War II he headed the Central European Section of the Office of Intelligence Research after the war He returned to teaching in 1951 at Columbia and Harvard Brandeis University 1954 65 and the University of California at San Diego 1965 76 where after retirement he was honorary emeritus professor of philosophy until his death A Hegelian Freudian Marxist Marcuse highlighted the cultural forms of repression and the role of technology and the expansion of the production of consumer goods in the maintenance of the stability of capitalism Marcuse observed that Post War prosperity had managed to keep the masses intellectually and spiritually captive and his later works are permeated with pessimism Although a open critic of the established order Marcuse did not applaud the 1968 demonstrations by students many of whom were his readers believing the demonstrations to be misguided I still consider the American University an oasis of free speech and real critical thinking in the society he said Any student movement should try to protect this citadel but try to radicalise the departments inside the university Among his major writings are Reason and Revolution 1941 Eros and Civilisation 1955 One Dimensional Man 1964 and Studies in Critical Philosophy 1972 See Herbert Marcuse Archive Marcy Mary 1877 1922 The United States Socialist Party platform of 1916 called for the tactics of mass action and general strike as a means to prevent the impending war A strong advocate of this approach Mary Marcy then a member of the SP s left wing and editor of the International Socialist Review authored of a series of articles in that journal explaining how if workers united and shut down the mines factories and transportation it would be workers not the ruling class that would have control of the military and of economic power This is a position Marcy and the ISR would fearlessly maintain throughout the war years Marcy also stressed that it is relatively easy for the ruling class to suppress such a revolt by getting rid of the leaders But when mass action is independent of leaders It is nearly impossible to stop a rank and file revolutionary movement In her preface to The Life of Eugene Debs she wrote Men do not wage the great class struggle in the study nor in the editorial rooms The workers are the fighters and the thinkers of the revolutionary movements Marcy and others in the left wing of the SP supported reforms such as shorter hours and higher wages but only in order to educate workers in the class struggle It is not hard to understand how Mary Marcy came to be an outspoken influential and respected revolutionary writer Born in 1877 in Belleville Illinois Mary Tobias was orphaned as a child She went to work as a teenager and a few years later taught herself stenography skills while raising her two younger siblings She learned the consequences of being a political radical early when she was fired for wearing a William Jennings Bryan button to work in 1896 something forbidden by her employer a maker of American flags An impressed Clarence Darrow learning of her dismissal secured her a job at the University of Chicago where she got the perk of taking tuition free classes She studied there among other things psychology under John Dewey In 1901 soon after she married Leslie Marcy they moved to Kansas City where she took work in a packing firm Two years later they joined the SP Apparently never holding a party office her role was to educate and motivate workers as well as criticize the SP s reformist right wing through her writings In 1904 Mary Marcy s first series of essays were run in the International Socialist Review The ISR was published by the Marcy s good friend Charles Kerr from 1900 to 1918 when government repression caused it to fold It was the only socialist paper to support the left wing of the SP as well as the IWW a position reflected in Marcy s work One of the early pieces published was Marcy s was the serialized Marcy classic proletarian fictional work Out of the Dump This was a strong attack on the scientific charity movement again drawn on Marcy s own work experience with Associated Charities Marcy dedicated herself to writing for workers in everyday language She broke down economics into understandable parts with a series on Marxist economics in the ISR which later became the booklet Shop Talks On Economics which was translated into many languages She wrote stories for children in order to introduce them to historical materialism She also reported on the major strikes of the day technology in industry farm and agricultural issues elections international policy verse for a deck of Socialist playing cards poetry and a satirical play on free love Marcy s focus in the last few years at the ISR was primarily analysis on the crisis surrounding the war Marcy s writings on the women s question are controversial Clearly she put class struggle as primary but neither did she think women were in any way intellectually inferior to men encouraging them to join unions and the Socialist Party Unfortunately a fuller explanation of Marcy s thoughts and writings may never be known since she left no personal papers and much of what she had in personal records was taken during a Department of Justice raid on her home in 1919 By this time the ISR had ceased publication and she had left the SP to join the IWW Marcy continued writing articles and letters to her correspondents around the world and worked in support of her comrades that were in prison or enduring government harassment When Big Bill Haywood jumped bail and left for Russia in 1921 the Marcy s lost their home which was put up for collateral Worn down disillusioned and her health in decline she committed suicide in 1922 Maréchal Sylvain 1750 1803 After studying law Sylvain Maréchal very early turned to literature Heavily influenced by Rousseau and the atheist priest Jean Meslier his ideology was a mix of utopian mainly agrarian socialism and materialism In 1780 he published his Alamanach des Honnetes Gens which replaced the saints on the Catholic calendar with scholars and writers a book that earned him three months in prison In 1790 he became editor of Revolutions de Paris but remained aloof from the struggle between the Girondins and the Jacobins After the ninth of Thermidor and the fall of Robespierre he was one of Babeuf s Equals and was the author of the Manifesto of the Equals Thanks to the anonymous nature of his work with Babeuf he escaped the repression that fell on the failed conspiracy The most militant of atheists in 1799 he published a Dictionary of Ancient and Modern Atheists See Sylvain Maréchal Archive Markievicz Countess 1868 1927 Important figure in the Irish trade union movement who identified with the politics of James Connolly She was raised in a conservative environment in Ireland moved to Paris as a young adult and there married Count Markievicz She studied painting and acting and in 1808 became involved in the Irish freedom struggle including campaigning for workers in Dublin during the 1913 strike Though she was involved in emancipatory projects for women she did not consistently support feminist positions Markievicz was sentenced to death for her role in the 1916 Easter Revolt but received amnesty and later ran and won a seat in the House of Commons as a Sinn Fein candidate and first woman ever elected in 1918 After the murder of James Connolly Markievicz gradually moved toward the right as the Minister of Labour harshly criticizing Bolshevism Markovi Mihailo 1927 2010 Serbian Marxist philosopher He has participated in the war of liberation 1941 1945 before starting his studies at the University of Belgrade He took his PhD in philosophy first at the University of Belgrade and then in London at University College where he studied under A J Ayer and wrote his thesis on The Concept of Logic Markovi was one of the first and fiercest critics of the Stalinist philosophical theses in Yugoslavia His Revision of the Philosophical Bases of Marxism in the USSR published in 1952 was the first major attack on the Stalinist philosophy in Yugoslavia In the 1960 ties Markovi became a prominent member of the Praxis group Due to his critical observations together with seven other professors from the Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade Markovi was suspended in 1975 and finally lost his job in 1981 In 1986 Markovi was co author of the notorious Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts a document that has formulated the central tenets of Serbian nationalism From this year Markovi was increasingly abandoning Marxism for nationalism Among his books are Revision of the Philosophical Bases of Marxism in the USSR 1952 Formalism in Contemporary Logic 1957 The Dialectical Theory of Meaning 1961 Humanism and Dialectics 1967 and From Affluence to Praxis 1974 See Mihailo Markovi Archive and the Praxis Group Archive Marshall Alfred 1842 1924 One of the chief founders of the school of English neoclassical economists and first principal of University College Bristol 1877 81 Educated at Merchant Taylors School and at St John s College Cambridge Marshall was a fellow and lecturer in political economy at Balliol College Oxford from 1883 to 1885 and professor of political economy at the University of Cambridge from 1885 to 1908 He thereafter devoted himself to his writings From 1891 to 1894 he was a member of the Royal Commission on Labour Marshall s magnum opus Principles of Economics 1890 was his most important contribution to economic literature It was distinguished by the introduction of a number of new concepts such as elasticity of demand consumer s surplus quasi rent and the representative firm all of which played a major role in the subsequent development of economics His Industry and Trade 1919 was a study of industrial organisation Money Credit and Commerce was published in 1923 Writing at a time when the economic world was deeply divided on the theory of value Marshall succeeded largely by introducing the element of time as a factor in analysis in reconciling the classical cost of production principle with the marginal utility principle formulated by William Jevons and the Austrian school Marshall is often considered to have been in the line of descent of the great English economists Adam Smith David Ricardo and J S Mill Martinov Alexander 1865 1935 Right wing Menshevik before 1917 and for a few years after the revolution an opponent of the Soviet government Strong advocate of the two stage theory that fully capitalistic government needed to run its course in Russia before Socialism was possible He joined the Communist Party in 1923 and became an opponent of the Left Opposition He was a chief architect of the Stalinist theories used to justify subordinating the workers to the progressive bourgeoisie including the concept of the bloc of four classes Martov Tsederbaum Yuli Osipovich 1873 1923 The ideological leader of Menshevism he began his political career in 1895 working with Lenin in the St Petersburg League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class Collaborated in founding Iskra but broke with Lenin in 1903 on the question of Russian Socialist Democractic Labour Party rules A Centrist during WWI At the time of the October Revolution he held a left position in the Menshevik ranks remaining in the Second Congress of the Soviets after the Right SRs and Mensheviks had departed He was nonetheless an irreconcilable opponent of the Soviet government He choose to emigrate to Berlin and founded Sotsialistichesky Vestnik the central publication of the Mensheviks in emigration Marx Family Marx Caroline 1824 1847 Karl Marx s sister Marx Edgar Musch 1847 1855 Karl and Jenny Marx s son who died of tuberculosis Marx Eduard 1824 1837 Karl Marx s brother Marx Eleanor Tussy 1855 1898 Karl Marx s youngest daughter Tussy was a precocious youngster who showed an early interest in politics including writing to major political figures around the world as a child Eleanor and her two sisters grew up with their father s story telling and immersed in literature Tussy began a life long love of books and theater She would later translate several works of literature as well as become a stage actress Once engaged to Prosper Lissagary she met Edward Aveling in 1883 and they would live together in common law for the reminder of her life They became members of the Democratic Federation led by Henry Hyndman in the early 1880s Tussy wrote in the draft of the program that the needed change in society will be a revolution The two classes at present existing will be replaced by a single class consisting of the whole of the healthy and sane members of the community possessing all the means of production and distribution in common The Democratic Federation later renamed the Social Democratic Federation broke up in 1884 over personality problems and the issue of internationalism The Avelings and William Morris formed the Socialist League which published a monthly paper called Commonweal In this vehicle Tussy wrote several articles and reviews on women s and other issues as well as a pamphlet entitled The Woman Question In 1886 Tussy toured in the U S along with Wilhelm Liebknecht fundraising for the German Social Democratic Party and in support of the Haymarket affair Along with continuing work translating literature and acting she became very involved in organizing writing record keeping and speaking for militant trade union such as the Gasworkers and the Dockers Union and their struggles In 1889 she was a delegate in Paris for the founding of the Second International Later in her life Tussy became very involved in organizing the part of her father s papers left to her after the death of Engels as well as continuing her own work During a period of depression in 1889 she commit suicide at the age of 43 For some of her translations and editing work see the Eleanor Marx Internet Archive Marx Franziska 1851 1852 Karl and Jenny Marx s daughter died in infancy Marx Heinrich 1777 1838 Lawyer in Trier Karl Marx s father Marx Heinrich Guido Foxchen 1849 1850 Karl and Jenny Marx s son died in infancy Marx Henriette 1787 1863 Karl Marx s mother Marx Henriette 1820 1856 Karl Marx s sister Marx Hermann 1819 1842 Karl Marx s brother Marx Laura 1845 l9ll see also Lafargue Laura Karl and Jenny Marx s daughter who married Paul Lafargue Marx Louise 1821 1893 Karl Marx s sister wife of Johann Carel Juta Marx Sophie 181 1883 Karl Marx s sister wife of Wilhelm Robert Schmalhausen Marx Jenny von Westphalen 1814 1881 Karl Marx s wife See also the letters of Jenny von Westphalen Marx Jenny Jennychen 1844 1883 Also Longuet Jenny Karl and Jenny Marx s eldest daughter married to Charles Longuet In 1870 she took action in the Irish struggles by publishing in a French paper revelations of the treatment of the Irish political prisoners by the English bourgeoisie by this means she forced the Gladstone government to conduct an investigation into the question She wrote under the name of J Williams See also the Jenny Longuet section in the Women and Marxism page Marx Karl 1818 1883 And now as to myself no credit is due to me for discovering the existence of classes in modern society or the struggle between them Long before me bourgeois historians had described the historical development of this class struggle and bourgeois economists the economic anatomy of classes What I did that was new was to prove 1 that the existence of classes is only bound up with the particular historical phases in the development of production See Historical Materialism 2 that the class struggle necessarily leads to the dictatorship of the proletariat 3 that this dictatorship itself only constitutes the transition to the abolition of all classes and to a classless society Karl Marx Letter to Weydemeyer March 5 1852 Karl Marx was born on May 5 1818 in the city of Trier in Rheinish Prussia His family was Jewish but converted to Protestanism in 1824 The family was petty bourgeois his father was a lawyer After graduating from a Gymnasium High School in Trier Marx entered the university first at Bonn and later in Berlin where he read law majoring in history and philosophy He concluded his university course in 1841 submitting a doctoral thesis on the philosophy of Epicurus At the time Marx was a Hegelian idealist in his views In Berlin he belonged to the circle of Left Hegelians with Bruno Bauer and others who sought to draw atheistic and revolutionary conclusions from Hegel s philosophy Ludwig Feuerbach began to criticize theology particularly after 1836 and he began his turn to materialism which in 1841 gained ascendancy in his philosophy The Essence of Christianity After graduating from university Marx moved to Bonn hoping to become a professor However the reactionary policy of the government made Marx abandon the idea of an academic career after Ludwig Feuerbach had been deprived of his chair in 1832 and who was not allowed to return to the university in 1836 and in 1841 the government had forbade the young Professor Bruno Bauer to lecture at Bonn At the begining on 1842 some radical bourgeois in the Rhineland Cologne who were in touch with the Left Hegelians founded a paper in opposition to the Prussian government called the Rheinische Zeitung Marx and Bruno Bauer were invited to be the chief contributors and in October 1842 Marx became editor in chief and moved from Bonn to Cologne The newspaper s revolutionary democratic trend became more and more pronounced under Marx s editorship and the government first imposed double and triple censorship on the paper and then on January 1 1843 suppressed it Marx was forced to resign the editorship before that date but his resignation did not save the paper which suspended publication in March 1843 Of the major articles Marx contributed to Rheinische Zeitung Engels notes an article on the condition of peasant winegrowers in the Moselle Valley Marx s journalistic activities convinced him that he was insufficiently acquainted with political economy and he zealously set out to study it See Marx s articles for the Rheinische Zeitung In 1843 Marx married at Kreuznach a childhood friend he had become engaged to while still a student His wife came from a bourgeois family of the Prussian nobility her elder brother being Prussia s Minister of the Interior during an extremely reactionary period 1850 58 In the autumn of 1843 Marx went to Paris in order to publish a radical journal abroad together with Arnold Ruge 1802 1880 Only one issue of this journal Deutsch Französische Jahrbücher appeared Publication was discontinued owing to the difficulty of secretly distributing it in Germany and to disagreement with Ruge Marx s articles in this journal showed that he was already a revolutionary who advocated merciless criticism of everything existing and in particular the criticism by weapon and appealed to the masses and to the proletariat Also in 1843 Feuerbach wrote his famous Principles of the Philosophy of the Future One must have experienced for oneself the liberating effect of these books Engels subsequently wrote We i e the Left Hegelians all became at once Feuerbachians In September 1844 Frederick Engels came to Paris for a few days and from that time on became Marx s closest friend Shortly after meeting Marx and Engels worked together to produce the first mature work of Marxism The German Ideology In this work largely produced in response to Feuerbach s materialism Marx and Engels set down the foundations of Marxism with the materialistic conception of history and broke from Left Hegelian idealism with a critique against Bruno Bauer and Max Stirner The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways Marx wrote in an outline for the begining of the book the point is to change it In the mid to late 1840s both Marx and Engels took a most active part in the then seething life of the revolutionary groups in Paris of particular importance at the time was Proudhon s doctrine which Marx broke into pieces in his Poverty of Philosophy 1847 At the insistent request of the Prussian government Marx was banished from Paris in 1845 considered by both governments a dangerous revolutionary Marx then moved to Brussels In the spring of 1847 Marx and Engels joined a secret propaganda society called the Communist League Marx and Engels took a prominent part in the League s Second Congress London November 1847 at whose request they drew up the Communist Manifesto which appeared in February 1848 With outstanding clarity this work outlines a new world conception based on materialism This document analysises the realm of social life the theory of the class struggle the tasks of the Communists and the revolutionary role of the proletariat the creators of a new communist society On the outbreak of the Revolution of February 1848 Marx was banished from Belgium He returned to Paris whence after the March Revolution he went to Cologne Germany where Neue Rheinische Zeitung was published from June 1 1848 to May 19 1849 with Marx as editor in chief The victorious counter revolution first instigated court proceedings against Marx he was acquitted on February 9 1849 and then banished him from Germany May 16 1849 First Marx went to Paris where he was again banished after the demonstration of June 13 1849 and then went to London where he lived until his death Marx s life as a political exile was an extremely difficult one as the correspondence between Marx and Engels clearly reveals Poverty weighed heavily on Marx and his family had it not been for Engels constant and selfless financial aid Marx would not only have been unable to complete Capital but would have inevitably have been crushed by hunger and malnutrition The revival of the democratic movements in the late fifties and in the sixties thrusted Marx back into political work In 1864 September 28 the International Working Men s Association the First International was founded in London Marx was the heart and soul of this organization and author of its first address and of a host of resolutions declaration and manifestos In uniting the labor movement of various forms of non proletarian socialism Mazzini Proudhon Bakunin liberal trade unionism in Britain Lassallean deviations to the right etc and in combating the theories of all these sects and schools Marx here hammered out uniform tactics for the proletarian struggle of the working in the various countries See Marx s writings for the First International Following the downfall of the Paris Commune 1871 of which Marx gave a clear cut materialistic analysis of these events in The Civil War In France 1871 and the Bakunin cleavage in the International See Marx s conflict with Bakunin the organization could no longer exist in Europe After the Hague Congress of the International 1872 the General Council of the International had played its historical part and now made way for a period of a far greater development of the labor movement in all countries in the world a period in which the movement grew in scope and mass socialist working class parties in individual national states were formed Marx s health became undermined by

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